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Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη

Josephus
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THE JEWISH WAR
War, Volume 1
War, Volume 2
War, Volume 3
War, Volume 4
War, Volume 5
War, Volume 6
War, Volume 7

THE ANTIQUITIES
Ant. Jud., Bk 1
Ant. Jud., Bk 2
Ant. Jud., Bk 3
Ant. Jud., Bk 4
Ant. Jud., Bk 5
Ant. Jud., Bk 6
Ant. Jud., Bk 7
Ant. Jud., Bk 8
Ant. Jud., Bk 9
Ant. Jud., Bk 10
Ant. Jud., Bk 11
Ant. Jud., Bk 12
Ant. Jud., Bk 13
Ant. Jud., Bk 14
Ant. Jud., Bk 15
Ant. Jud., Bk 16
Ant. Jud., Bk 17
Ant. Jud., Bk 18
Ant. Jud., Bk 19
Ant. Jud., Bk 20

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Autobiog.


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Daily Word 2018

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The War ... Book 6

(Greek and English text)

(Up to the fall of Jerusalem, 69-70 CE)


01. Desperation in the city; Romans attack the Antonia tower

02. Josephus calls for surrender. Legions surround the Temple

03. A Jewish burns ploy many Romans. Worse famine in the city

04. Burning the Temple Gates. Titus fails to save the Sanctuary

05. The Temple in flames. Signs preceding its destruction

06. Roman ensigns in the Temple. Titus' speech to the Jews

07. Many rebels killed. Destruction in the upper city

08. Titus gains possession of the whole city

09. Reprisals in the city. The captives;the fallen; survivors

10. Second Desolation of Jerusalem. A summary of its tragedy

Chapter 01. [001-092]
Desperation in the city. Romans attack the Antonia tower. Titus' Speech, on Military Glory

[1] Τὰ μὲν οὖν τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων πάθη προύκοπτεν καθ' ἡμέραν ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον τῶν τε στασιαστῶν μᾶλλον παροξυνομένων ἐν ταῖς συμφοραῖς καὶ τοῦ λιμοῦ μετὰ τὸν δῆμον ἤδη κἀκείνους νεμομένου. [2] Τό γε μὴν πλῆθος τῶν σεσωρευμένων ἀνὰ τὴν πόλιν πτωμάτων ὄψει τε φρικῶδες ἦν καὶ λοιμώδη προσέβαλλεν ὀσμὴν πρός τε τὰς ἐκδρομὰς ἐμπόδιον τοῖς μαχομένοις: ὥσπερ γὰρ διὰ παρατάξεως φόνῳ μυρίῳ γεγυμνασμένης χωροῦντας ἔδει τὰ σώματα πατεῖν. [3] Οἱ δ' ἐπιβαίνοντες οὔτ' ἔφριττον οὔτ' ἠλέουν οὔτε κλῃδόνα κακὴν σφῶν αὐτῶν ὑπελάμβανον τὴν εἰς τοὺς κατοιχομένους ὕβριν, [4] πεφυρμένοι δ' ὁμοφύλῳ φόνῳ τὰς δεξιὰς ἐπὶ τὸν πρὸς τοὺς ἀλλοφύλους πόλεμον ἐξέθεον, ὀνειδίζοντες, ἔμοιγε δοκεῖν, τὸ θεῖον εἰς βραδυτῆτα τῆς ἐπ' αὐτῶν κολάσεως: οὐ γὰρ ἐλπίδι νίκης ὁ πόλεμος, ἤδη δὲ ἀπογνώσει σωτηρίας ἐθρασύνετο. [5] Ῥωμαῖοι δὲ καίτοι πολλὰ περὶ τὴν τῆς ὕλης συγκομιδὴν ταλαιπωρούμενοι τὰ χώματα διήγειραν μιᾷ καὶ εἴκοσιν ἡμέραις, κείραντες, ὡς προείρηται, τὴν περὶ τὸ ἄστυ χώραν ἐπ' ἐνενήκοντα σταδίους ἐν κύκλῳ πᾶσαν. [6] Ἦν δ' ἐλεεινὴ καὶ τῆς γῆς ἡ θέα: τὰ γὰρ πάλαι δένδρεσι καὶ παραδείσοις κεκοσμημένα τότε πανταχόθεν ἠρήμωτο καὶ περικέκοπτο τὴν ὕλην, [7] οὐδείς τε τὴν πάλαι Ἰουδαίαν καὶ τὰ περικαλλῆ προάστεια τῆς πόλεως ἑωρακὼς ἀλλόφυλος, ἔπειτα τὴν τότε βλέπων ἐρημίαν οὐκ ὠλοφύρατο καὶ κατεστέναξεν τὴν μεταβολὴν παρ' ὅσον γένοιτο: [8] πάντα γὰρ ἐλυμήνατο τὰ σημεῖα τοῦ κάλλους ὁ πόλεμος, καὶ οὐκ ἄν τις ἐξαπίνης ἐπιστὰς τῶν προεγνωκότων ἐγνώρισε τὸν τόπον, ἀλλὰ παρὼν ἐζήτει τὴν πόλιν.

1.

001 The crisis in Jerusalem grew worse every day and the rebels, already feeling the famine just as much as the people, were further angered by their reverses. 002 The piles of carcasses were horrible to see and produced a dreadful stench, and were an impediment to the fighters going out of the city against the enemy, as after so many murders those going out to battle had to tread upon the corpses on their way out. 003 But as they marched over them they did not pity those dead or reckon that this insult to them would bring bad luck to themselves, 004 since already their hands were red with the blood of their fellow Jews. Going out to war the foreigners in that way even mocked the Deity, who was slow to punish them, for now their war had no hope of victory and, savagely, they gloried in having no hope of survival. 005 The Romans, despite great difficulty in gathering the materials, raised their earthworks in twenty one days, after cutting down all trees in the area around the city and for ninety furlongs round about, as I have said. 006 The countryside was a sad sight, for what had formerly been adorned with trees and gardens became a complete desolation, with every tree cut down. 007 Any stranger who had seen Judea before, and the city's beautiful suburbs and now saw it as a desert, must lament and mourn at such a great change. 008 For the war erased all signs of beauty, and if one who had previously known it now came he would not recognise the place and even if within the city, he would ask where it was.

= = =

[9] Ῥωμαίοις δὲ καὶ Ἰουδαίοις τὸ τέλος τῶν χωμάτων ἴσην ἐνεποίει δέους ἀρχήν: [10] οἱ μὲν γάρ, εἰ μὴ καὶ ταῦτα καύσειαν, ἁλώσεσθαι τὴν πόλιν προσεδόκων, Ῥωμαῖοι δ' οὐκ [ἂν] ἔθ' αἱρήσειν κἀκείνων διαφθαρέντων. [11] ὕλης τε γὰρ ἦν ἀπορία, καὶ τῶν μὲν πόνων ἤδη τὸ σῶμα, τῶν δὲ ἐπαλλήλων πταισμάτων αἱ ψυχαὶ τοῖς στρατιώταις ἐλείποντο. [12] Τάς γε μὴν κατὰ τὴν πόλιν συμφορὰς Ῥωμαίοις πλέον εἶναι συνέβαινε πρὸς ἀθυμίας ἢ τοῖς ἐν αὐτῇ: παρὰ γὰρ τὰ τηλικαῦτα πάθη τοῖς μαχομένοις οὐδὲν ἐχρῶντο μαλακωτέροις, [13] ἀλλ' ἐθραύοντο πάντοτε τὰς ἐλπίδας, τῶν μὲν χωμάτων ταῖς ἐπιβουλαῖς, τῶν δ' ὀργάνων στερρότητι τοῦ τείχους, τῆς δὲ κατὰ χεῖρα μάχης ταῖς τῶν συμπλεκομένων τόλμαις πλεονεκτούμενοι, τὸ δὲ μέγιστον, στάσεώς τε καὶ λιμοῦ καὶ πολέμου καὶ τοσούτων κακῶν εὑρίσκοντες ἐπάνω τὸ παράστημα τῆς ψυχῆς Ἰουδαίους ἔχοντας. [14] Ὑπελάμβανόν τε τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἀμάχους μὲν τὰς ὁρμάς, ἀνάλωτον δὲ τὴν ἐπὶ συμφοραῖς εὐθυμίαν εἶναι: τί γὰρ ἂν μὴ ὑποστῆναι δεξιᾷ τύχῃ χρωμένους τοὺς ὑπὸ κακῶν πρὸς ἀλκὴν τρεπομένους; οἱ μὲν οὖν ἐρρωμενεστέρας διὰ ταῦτα τῶν χωμάτων ἐποιοῦντο τὰς φυλακάς.

2.

009 When the earthworks were complete they caused fear both to the Romans and to the Jews, 010 the latter expecting the city to be taken unless they could burn them down, and the Romans fearing their own destruction if that should happen. 011 For there was a great scarcity of materials and their physical strength was failing from the toil and their spirits from so many setbacks. 012 The desolation around the city affected the Romans more than the citizens themselves, for they found the Jewish fighters not at all softened by their hardships, 013 and their own hopes of success dwindling and their earthworks being thwarted by the ruses of the enemy, their machines by the firmness of their wall, and their hand-to-hand fighting by the audacity of their attack; and especially, at seeing the the Jews coping with the rebellion, their famine and the war itself. 014 They began to think that the latters' violence was invincible and that their zeal could not be crushed by their setbacks. What could they not bear if they won a victory, seeing how even their troubles gave them extra courage? Thoughts such as these made the Romans keep an even closer guard on their earthworks.

= = =

15] Οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν Ἰωάννην κατὰ τὴν Ἀντωνίαν ἅμα καὶ πρὸς τὸ μέλλον, εἰ καταρριφθείη τὸ τεῖχος, ἠσφαλίζοντο καὶ πρὶν ἐπιστῆναι τοὺς κριοὺς ἐπέθεντο τοῖς ἔργοις. [16] Οὐ μὴν ἐκράτησάν γε τῆς ἐπιχειρήσεως, ἀλλὰ προελθόντες μετὰ λαμπάδων πρὶν ἐγγίσαι τοῖς χώμασι ψυχρότεροι τῆς ἐλπίδος ὑπέστρεψαν. [17] Πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ οὐδ' ὁμονοεῖν ἡ σκέψις αὐτῶν ἐῴκει κατὰ μέρος ἐκπηδώντων κἀκ διαλειμμάτων καὶ μεμελλημένως μετὰ δέους καθόλου τε εἰπεῖν οὐκ Ἰουδαικῶς: τὰ γὰρ ἴδια τοῦ ἔθνους ὑστέρητο ἅμα ἡ τόλμα καὶ ὁρμὴ καὶ δρόμος ὁμοῦ πάντων καὶ τὸ μηδὲ πταίοντας ἀναστρέφειν. [18] ἀτονώτεροι δ' ἑαυτῶν προελθόντες καὶ τοὺς Ῥωμαίους εὗρον ἐρρωμενέστερον τοῦ συνήθους παρατεταγμένους: [19] τοῖς μέν γε σώμασι καὶ ταῖς πανοπλίαις οὕτως ἐφράξαντο τὰ χώματα πάντοθεν ὡς τῷ πυρὶ μηδαμόθεν καταλιπεῖν παράδυσιν, τὴν δὲ ψυχὴν ἐτόνωσαν ἕκαστος μὴ μετακινηθῆναι τῆς τάξεως πρὸ θανάτου. [20] Πρὸς γὰρ τῷ πάσας αὐτῶν ὑποκόπτεσθαι τὰς ἐλπίδας, εἰ κἀκεῖνα καταφλεγείη τὰ ἔργα, δεινὴ τοὺς στρατιώτας εἶχεν αἰδώς, εἰ πάντα κρατήσειαν πανουργία μὲν ἀρετῆς, ἀπόνοια δ' ὅπλων, πλῆθος δ' ἐμπειρίας, Ἰουδαῖοι δὲ Ῥωμαίων. [21] Ἅμα δὲ τἀφετήρια συνήργει τῶν προπηδώντων ἐφικνούμενα, καὶ πεσών τις τῷ μεθ' αὑτὸν ἐμπόδιον ἦν, ὅ τε κίνδυνος τοῦ πρόσω χωρεῖν ἐποίει μαλακωτέρους. [22] Τῶν δ' ἐνδοτέρω βέλους ὑποδραμόντων οἱ μὲν πρὶν εἰς χεῖρας ἐλθεῖν τὴν εὐταξίαν καὶ τὸ πύκνωμα τῶν πολεμίων καταπλαγέντες, οἱ δὲ νυττόμενοι τοῖς ξυστοῖς ἐπαλινδρόμουν: καὶ τέλος ἀλλήλους κακίζοντες εἰς δειλίαν ἀνεχώρουν ἄπρακτοι. Νουμηνίᾳ Πανέμου μηνὸς ἡ ἐπιχείρησις ἦν. [23] ἀναχωρησάντων δὲ τῶν Ἰουδαίων προσῆγον οἱ Ῥωμαῖοι τὰς ἑλεπόλεις, βαλλόμενοι πέτραις τε ἀπὸ τῆς Ἀντωνίας καὶ πυρὶ καὶ σιδήρῳ καὶ παντὶ τῷ χορηγουμένῳ Ἰουδαίοις ὑπὸ τῆς ἀνάγκης βέλει: [24] καίπερ γὰρ πολὺ τῷ τείχει πεποιθότες καὶ τῶν ὀργάνων καταφρονοῦντες ὅμως ἐκώλυον τοὺς Ῥωμαίους προσάγειν. [25] Οἱ δὲ τὴν σπουδὴν τῶν Ἰουδαίων τοῦ μὴ πληγῆναι τὴν Ἀντωνίαν ὑπολαμβάνοντες γίνεσθαι δι' ἀσθένειαν τοῦ τείχους καὶ σαθροὺς ἐλπίσαντες εἶναι τοὺς θεμελίους ἀντεφιλονείκουν. [26] Οὐ μὴν ὑπήκουε τὸ τυπτόμενον, ἀλλ' οἱ μὲν συνεχῶς βαλλόμενοι καὶ πρὸς μηδένα τῶν καθύπερθεν κινδύνων ἐνδιδόντες ἐνεργοὺς παρεῖχον τὰς ἑλεπόλεις: [27] ὡς δ' ἦσαν ἐλάττους καὶ περιεθραύοντο ταῖς πέτραις, ἕτεροι τοὺς θυρεοὺς ὀροφώσαντες ὑπὲρ τῶν σωμάτων χερσὶ καὶ μοχλοῖς ὑπώρυττον τοὺς θεμελίους, καὶ τέσσαράς γε λίθους προσκαρτερήσαντες ἐξέσεισαν. [28] ἀνέπαυσε δὲ νὺξ ἑκατέρους, κἀν ταύτῃ τὸ τεῖχος ὑπὸ τῶν κριῶν σεσαλευμένον, καὶ καθ' ὃ τοῖς προτέροις ἐπιβουλεύων χώμασιν ὁ Ἰωάννης ὑπώρυξεν ἐνδούσης τῆς διώρυχος, ἐξαπίνης κατερείπεται.

3.

015 John's party within the Antonia took precautions in case the wall were breached, so they set to work before bringing the battering rams to bear. 016 Still they did not achieve their aim, for having gone out with their torches, they returned discouraged without getting near the earthworks. 017 This was above all because they did not act together, but went out in separately in little groups, and slowly and nervously, not in the real Jewish way. They lacked the special mark to our nation, audacity and vigour in rushing all together, and persevering even if at first they don't succeed. 018 Now they went out despondently and found the Romans ready and braver than usual, 019 guarding their earthworks with their bodies and armour so fully meshed that they left no room for the fire to get among them, each ready to die rather than desert his post. 020 Besides their fear of failure if the earthworks were burned, the soldiers would be disgraced if their courage overcome by guile, their armour by fervour, their skill by numbers, and Romans by Jews. 021 To the Romans advantage, their siege-machines could reach those coming out of the city and each one who fell impeded the one after him and the danger of advancing softened them up. 022 Even those who got through the missiles were scared by the good order and closeness of the enemies' ranks before they got near enough to fight while others were jabbed by the spears and turned back. In the end, blaming each other for cowardice, they retreated without achieving anything. This attack was upon the new moon of the month Panemus. 023 When the Jews retreated, the Romans brought up their machines, though being pelted with stones from the Antonia tower and attacked by fire and sword and missiles of all sorts, which the Jews were forced to use. 024 Although depending greatly on their wall and scorning the Roman machines, they still tried to stop the Romans from advancing them. 025 They, on the contrary, struggled to bring them up, reckoning that the Jews were keen to avoid them making any impression on the Antonia tower, with its weakened wall and rotten foundations. 026 When it did not yield on being struck, the Romans continued to brave the wounds of the enemy missiles, not yielding to the dangers from above, until finally they brought their rams to bear. 027 For underneath and showered with stones, and holding their shields over their bodies, some of them with their hands and crowbars dug under its foundations and with great effort dislodged four of its stones. 028 Night put an end to the struggle on both sides, but the wall had been so shaken by the battering rams where John had earlier undermined their earthworks by guile, that during it the ground gave way and the wall suddenly collapsed.

= = =

[29] Τούτου συμβάντος παραδόξως ἑκατέροις διετέθη τὰ φρονήματα: [30] Ἰουδαίους μὲν γάρ, οὓς ἀθυμεῖν εἰκὸς ἦν, τῷ μὴ παρ' ἐλπίδα γενέσθαι τὸ πτῶμα καὶ προησφαλίσθαι πρὸς αὐτὸ θαρρεῖν ὡς μενούσης συνέβαινε τῆς Ἀντωνίας: [31] Ῥωμαίων δέ γε τὴν παρ' ἐλπίδα χαρὰν ἐπὶ τῷ καταρριφθέντι ταχέως ἔσβεσεν ὄψις ἑτέρου τείχους, ὅπερ ἔνδοθεν οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰωάννην ἀντῳκοδομήκεσαν. [32] Εὐμαρεστέρα γε μὴν τῆς πρότερον ἡ προσβολὴ κατεφαίνετο: τό τε γὰρ ἀναβῆναι διὰ τῶν καταρριφθέντων ῥᾷον ἐδόκει, καὶ τὸ τεῖχος ἀσθενέστερόν τε πολλῷ τῆς Ἀντωνίας καὶ ταχέως τῷ πρόσκαιρον εἶναι λύειν ὑπελάμβανον. Οὐ μὴν ἐτόλμα τις ἀναβῆναι: προῦπτος γὰρ τοῖς ἀρξαμένοις ἦν ἀπώλεια.

4.

029 This surprise affected the minds of the two sides differently. 030 One would expect the Jews to be discouraged, since they did not expect this fall of their wall and had not provided for it, but they still took courage that the Antonia was still standing. 031 Also, the Romans' unexpected joy at the collapse soon dampened when they saw the other wall that John's group had built inside it. 032 But this seemed easier to attack than the former, and easier to reach through the broken-down parts of the former wall. This wall also appeared to be much weaker than the Antonia tower and as it had been erected so hastily they thought they could soon destroy it. Still no one dared to go up to it, because the first to do so would surely be killed.

= = =

[33] Νομίζων δὲ ὁ Τίτος ἐγείρεσθαι μάλιστα τὰς τῶν πολεμούντων προθυμίας ἐλπίδι καὶ λόγῳ, τάς τε προτροπὰς καὶ τὰς ὑποσχέσεις πολλάκις μὲν λήθην ἐνεργάζεσθαι τῶν κινδύνων, ἔστι δ' ὅτε καὶ θανάτου καταφρόνησιν, συναγαγὼν ἐπὶ ταὐτὸ τοὺς ἀλκίμους ἐπειρᾶτο τῶν ἀνδρῶν, [34] "ὦ συστρατιῶται, λέγων, τὸ μὲν παρακελεύειν ἐπὶ τὰ μὴ φέροντα κίνδυνον αὐτόθεν τοῖς παρακελευομένοις ἀκλεές, ἀμέλει δὲ καὶ τῷ παρακελεύοντι φέρει κατάγνωσιν ἀνανδρίας. [35] Δεῖ δέ, οἶμαι, προτροπῆς εἰς μόνα τὰ σφαλερὰ τῶν πραγμάτων, ὡς ἐκεῖνά γε καθ' αὑτοὺς πράττειν ἄξιον. [36] ὥστ' ἔγωγε τὸ μὲν ὑπάρχειν χαλεπὴν τὴν ἐπὶ τὸ τεῖχος ἄνοδον αὐτὸς ὑμῖν προτίθημι: τὸ δ' ὅτι μάλιστα προσήκει μάχεσθαι τοῖς δυσκόλοις τοὺς ἀρετῆς ἐφιεμένους καὶ ὅτι καλὸν ἐν εὐκλείᾳ τελευτὴ καὶ ὡς οὐκ ἄκαρπον ἔσται τοῖς καταρξαμένοις τὸ γενναῖον, διέξειμι. [37] Πρῶτον μὲν οὖν ὑμῶν γενέσθω προτροπὴ τό τινας ἴσως ἀποτρέπον, ἡ Ἰουδαίων μακροθυμία καὶ τὸ καρτερικὸν ἐν οἷς κακοπαθοῦσιν: [38] Αἰσχρὸν γὰρ Ῥωμαίους τε ὄντας καὶ στρατιώτας ἐμούς, καὶ διδακτὸν μὲν ἐν εἰρήνῃ τὸ πολεμεῖν, ἔθιμον δὲ ἐν πολέμῳ τὸ κρατεῖν ἔχοντας, ἡττᾶσθαι κατὰ χεῖρα Ἰουδαίων ἢ κατὰ ψυχήν, καὶ ταῦτα πρὸς τῷ τέλει τῆς νίκης καὶ συνεργουμένους ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ. [39] Τὰ γὰρ ἡμέτερα πταίσματα τῆς Ἰουδαίων ἐστὶν ἀπονοίας, τὰ δ' ἐκείνων πάθη ταῖς τε ὑμετέραις ἀρεταῖς καὶ ταῖς τοῦ θεοῦ συνεργίαις αὔξεται: [40] στάσις γὰρ καὶ λιμὸς καὶ πολιορκία καὶ δίχα μηχανημάτων πίπτοντα τείχη τί ἂν ἀλλ' ἢ θεοῦ μὲν εἴη μῆνις ἐκείνοις, βοήθεια δὲ ἡμετέρα; [41] Τὸ τοίνυν μὴ μόνον ἐλαττοῦσθαι χειρόνων, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν θείαν συμμαχίαν προδιδόναι πρὸς ἡμῶν οὐκ ἂν εἴη. [42] Πῶς δ' οὐκ αἰσχρὸν Ἰουδαίους μέν, οἷς οὐ πολλὴν αἰσχύνην φέρει τὸ λείπεσθαι μαθοῦσι δουλεύειν, ὑπὲρ τοῦ μηκέτι τοῦτο πάσχειν θανάτου καταφρονεῖν καὶ πολλάκις εἰς μέσους ἡμᾶς ἐκτρέχειν, οὐκ ἐλπίδι τοῦ κρατήσειν ἀλλὰ διὰ ψιλὴν ἐπίδειξιν ἀνδρείας: [43] ὑμᾶς δὲ τοὺς γῆς ὀλίγου δεῖν ἁπάσης καὶ θαλάσσης κρατοῦντας, οἷς καὶ τὸ μὴ νικᾶν ὄνειδος, μηδ' ἅπαξ εἰς τοὺς πολεμίους παραβάλλεσθαι, [44] περιμένειν δὲ τὸν λιμὸν κατ' αὐτῶν καὶ τὴν τύχην ἀργοὺς καθεζομένους μετὰ τοιούτων ὅπλων, καὶ ταῦτα δι' ὀλίγου τοῦ παραβόλου τὸ πᾶν κατορθῶσαι δυναμένους; [45] ἀναβάντες γοῦν ἐπὶ τὴν Ἀντωνίαν ἔχομεν τὴν πόλιν: καὶ γὰρ ἂν γίνηταί τις ἔτι πρὸς τοὺς ἔνδον, ὅπερ οὐκ οἶμαι, μάχη, τό γε κατὰ κορυφὴν εἶναι καὶ ταῖς ἀναπνοαῖς ἐπικαθῆσθαι τῶν πολεμίων ταχέως τὴν ὁλοσχερῆ νίκην ἐγγυᾶται. [46] Καὶ ἔγωγε τὸ μὲν ὑμνεῖν ἄρτι τὴν ἐν πολέμῳ τελευτὴν καὶ τὴν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀρειμανίοις πεσοῦσιν ἀθανασίαν παραλιπὼν ἐπαρασαίμην ἂν τοῖς ἄλλως ἔχουσι τὸν κατ' εἰρήνην ἐκ νόσου θάνατον, οἷς μετὰ τοῦ σώματος καὶ ἡ ψυχὴ τάφῳ κατακρίνεται. [47] Τίς γὰρ οὐκ οἶδε τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἀνδρῶν ὅτι τὰς μὲν ἐν παρατάξει ψυχὰς σιδήρῳ τῶν σαρκῶν ἀπολυθείσας τὸ καθαρώτατον στοιχεῖον αἰθὴρ ξενοδοχῶν ἄστροις ἐγκαθιδρύει, δαίμονες δ' ἀγαθοὶ καὶ ἥρωες εὐμενεῖς ἰδίοις ἐγγόνοις ἐμφανίζονται, τὰς δὲ ἐν νοσοῦσι τοῖς σώμασι συντακείσας, [48] κἂν τὰ μάλιστα κηλίδων ἢ μιασμάτων ὦσι καθαραί, νὺξ ὑπόγειος ἀφανίζει καὶ λήθη βαθεῖα δέχεται, λαμβανούσας ἅμα τοῦ τε βίου καὶ τῶν σωμάτων ἔτι δὲ τῆς μνήμης περιγραφήν; [49] Εἰ δὲ κέκλωσται μὲν ἀνθρώποις ἀναγκαία τελευτή, κουφότερον δὲ εἰς αὐτὴν νόσου πάσης σίδηρος ὑπηρέτης, πῶς οὐκ ἀγεννὲς μὴ διδόναι ταῖς χρείαις ὃ τῷ χρεὼν ἀποδώσομεν; [50] Καὶ ταῦτα μὲν ὡς οὐ δυναμένων σωθῆναι τῶν ἐπιχειρησόντων διεξῆλθον: ἔνεστι δὲ σώζεσθαι τοῖς ἀνδριζομένοις κἀκ τῶν σφαλερωτάτων. [51] Πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ τὸ καταρριφθὲν εὐεπίβατον, ἔπειτα πᾶν τὸ οἰκοδομηθὲν εὐδιάλυτον, ὑμεῖς τε πλείους θαρσήσαντες ἐπὶ τὴν πρᾶξιν ἀλλήλοις προτροπὴ καὶ βοήθεια γίνεσθε, καὶ τοῖς πολεμίοις τὸ ὑμέτερον παράστημα ταχέως κλάσει τὰ φρονήματα. [52] Καὶ τάχα ἂν ὑμῖν ἀναίμακτον τὸ κατόρθωμα γένοιτο μόνον καταρξαμένοις: ἀναβαίνοντας μὲν γὰρ κωλύειν πειράσονται κατὰ τὸ εἰκός, λαθόντας δὲ καὶ βιασαμένους ἅπαξ οὐκ ἂν ὑποσταῖεν ἔτι, κἂν ὀλίγοι φθάσητε. [53] Τὸν δὲ καταρξάμενον αἰσχυνοίμην ἂν εἰ μὴ ποιήσαιμι ζηλωτὸν ἐν ταῖς ἐπικαρπίαις, καὶ ὁ μὲν ζῶν ἄρξει τῶν νῦν ὁμοίων, μακαριστὰ δ' ἀκολουθήσει καὶ τοῖς πεσοῦσι τὰ ἀριστεῖα."

5.

033 Titus, knowing that the ardour of combattants is stirred by hopes and words and that urging and promises often make men to forgetful of risks, to the point of sometimes despising death itself, gathered his bravest men and tried to stir them by these ways. 034 "Fellow soldiers," he said, "to urge men to do something not dangerous, is no honour to those who are urged, nor to him who makes the exhortation. 035 So I think such urging should only to be used when things are dangerous and yet need free volunteers. 036 I grant you how difficult it will be to scale this wall, but let me stress that men who desire to be famous for their bravery must take on hard struggles, that it is noble to die with glory, and that the nobility of those who lead the way will not go unrewarded. 037 Let my first motive for you what some would probably think a disincentive, namely the constancy and patience of these Jews in their adversity. 038 How shameful it would be for Romans and my soldiers, who in peacetime have been trained for war and are used to victory in battle, to be outdone by Jews, either in action or in mind, especially when victory is near and God himself works with us. 039 Our losses were due to the madness of the Jews, while they have suffered from your bravery and from God being on our side. 040 Their factions, famine and siege, and their walls falling without our machines, what can they be but proofs of the wrath of God towards them and his help to us? 041 Therefore you must not either lose to your inferiors or betray your divine helper. which is gave you. 042 Surely it would be unworthy if, while the Jews despise death - though it would be little shame to them to be defeated, since they have long learned to be slaves to others, but still they make raids on us, not from any hope of victory but merely to show their courage - 043 you, the masters of land or sea -- for whom not to win is a disgrace -- should never once assault our enemies, 044 but sit here waiting for the famine and fortune do your work, even though you are so well armed and with some small risk, could settle everything! 045 Once we scale this tower of Antonia, we have the city, for if there is any further need to fight those inside, which is unlikely since from that summit we can fall on them before they can draw breath, we are close to a quick and total victory. 046 For the moment I refrain from lauding the immortality of warriors killed in the frenzy of battle, but let me pity on the other hand those whose death comes by sickness in time of peace, since their souls are condemned to the tomb, along with their bodies. 047 For what good man does not know that souls set free from the flesh by the sword in battle are received by the purest heaven and placed among the stars, to shine as good spirits and gallant heroes for their posterity? 048 On the other hand, souls that linger in sick bodies, no matter how pure they be of this world's stains or defilements, are quenched by subterranean night and pass to deepest oblivion, which takes away their bodily life and all memory of them. 049 But if of necessity all men must die, and the sword is a better instrument for it than any disease, is it not ignoble if we refuse to surrender for the public good what we must surrender to fate? 050 I have been assuming that the men who first try to scale this wall must be killed in the attempt. But men of true courage have a chance of surviving even the greatest perils. 051 First, the ruined part of the wall can easily be scaled, and then the new-built wall will be easy to break down, for if many of you venture upon the task and mutually support and help each other, your bravery will soon break the spirit of the enemy. 052 This exploit may even be accomplished without bloodshed. For although they will probably try to stop you getting up, they won't be able to hold you back any longer once even a few of you have secretly forced your way in. 053 The man who first mounts the wall, well, I would blush if I did not make him envied by others, for his awards! If he survives, he shall be the leader of others who are now his equals, but if he dies, the greatest tributes will follow him to the grave."

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[54] Τοιαῦτα τοῦ Τίτου διεξιόντος τὸ μὲν ἄλλο πλῆθος ἔδεισε τοῦ κινδύνου τὸ μέγεθος, τῶν δ' ἐν ταῖς σπείραις στρατευομένων Σαβῖνος τοὔνομα, γένος ἀπὸ Συρίας, ἀνὴρ καὶ κατὰ χεῖρα καὶ κατὰ ψυχὴν ἄριστος ἐφάνη. [55] Καίτοι προιδὼν ἄν τις αὐτὸν ἀπό γε τῆς σωματικῆς ἕξεως οὐδ' εἰκαῖον εἶναι στρατιώτην ἔδοξε: μέλας μὲν γὰρ ἦν τὴν χροίαν, ἰσχνός, τὴν σάρκα πεπιλημένος, ἀλλ' ἐνῴκει τις ἡρωικὴ ψυχὴ λεπτῷ σώματι καὶ πολὺ τῆς ἰδίας ἀλκῆς στενοτέρῳ. [56] Πρῶτος γοῦν ἀναστάς "ἐπιδίδωμί σοι, Καῖσαρ, ἔφη, προθύμως ἐμαυτόν. [57] Πρῶτος ἀναβαίνω τὸ τεῖχος. Καὶ εὔχομαι μέν μου τῇ τε ἰσχύι καὶ τῇ γνώμῃ τὴν σὴν ἀκολουθῆσαι τύχην, εἰ δὲ νεμεσηθείην τῆς ἐπιβολῆς, ἴσθι μή με πταίσαντα παρ' ἐλπίδας, ἀλλ' ὑπὲρ σοῦ [58] κρίσει τὸν θάνατον ᾑρημένον." ταῦτα εἰπὼν καὶ τῇ μὲν ἀριστερᾷ χειρὶ τὸν θυρεὸν ὑπὲρ τῆς κεφαλῆς ἀνατείνας, τῇ δεξιᾷ δὲ τὸ ξίφος σπασάμενος ἐχώρει πρὸς τὸ τεῖχος περὶ ὥραν μάλιστα τῆς ἡμέρας ἕκτην. [59] Εἵποντο δ' αὐτῷ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἕνδεκα μόνοι ζηλωταὶ τῆς ἀνδρείας γενόμενοι: προῆγε δὲ πολὺ πάντων ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁρμῇ τινι δαιμονίῳ χρώμενος. [60] Οἱ φρουροὶ δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦ τείχους κατηκόντιζόν τε αὐτοὺς καὶ βέλεσι πάντοθεν ἀπείροις ἔβαλλον καὶ πέτρας ἐξαισίους κατεκύλιον, [61] Αἳ ἐκ τῶν μὲν ἕνδεκα παρέσυραν ἐνίους, ὁ δὲ Σαβῖνος ἀπαντῶν τοῖς ἀφιεμένοις καὶ καταχωννύμενος ὑπὸ τῶν βελῶν οὐ πρότερον ἐπέσχε τὴν ὁρμὴν ἢ γενέσθαι τε ἐπ' ἄκρῳ καὶ τρέψασθαι τοὺς πολεμίους: [62] καταπλαγέντες γὰρ αὐτοῦ τήν τε δύναμιν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ τὸ παράστημα τῆς ψυχῆς, ἅμα δὲ καὶ πλείους ἀναβεβηκέναι δόξαντες ἐτράπησαν. [63] Ἔνθα δὴ καταμέμψαιτ' ἄν τις ὡς φθονερὰν ἐπὶ ταῖς ἀρεταῖς τὴν τύχην καὶ κωλύουσαν ἀεὶ τὰ παράδοξα τῶν κατορθωμάτων. [64] Ὁ γοῦν ἀνὴρ οὗτος ὅτ' ἐκράτησε τῆς ἐπιβολῆς, ἐσφάλη καὶ πταίσας πρός τινι πέτρᾳ πρηνὴς ἐπ' αὐτὴν μετὰ μεγίστου ψόφου κατέπεσεν: ἐπιστραφέντες δὲ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ κατιδόντες μόνον τε αὐτὸν καὶ πεπτωκότα, πάντοθεν ἔβαλλον. [65] Ὁ δ' ἐς γόνυ διαναστὰς καὶ προκαλυψάμενος τὸν θυρεὸν τὸ μὲν πρῶτον ἠμύνετο καὶ πολλοὺς τῶν πλησιασάντων ἔτρωσεν: [66] Αὖθις δ' ὑπὸ πλήθους τραυμάτων παρῆκε τὴν δεξιὰν καὶ τέλος πρὶν ἀποδοῦναι τὴν ψυχὴν κατεχώσθη τοῖς βέλεσιν, ἀνὴρ ἄξιος μὲν ἀμείνονι χρῆσθαι δι' ἀνδρείαν καὶ τύχῃ, πεσὼν δὲ τῆς ἐπιβολῆς ἀναλόγως. [67] Τῶν δὲ ἄλλων τρεῖς μὲν τοὺς ἤδη πρὸς τοῖς ἄκροις ὄντας συντρίψαντες ἀπέκτειναν τοῖς λίθοις, οἱ δὲ ὀκτὼ τραυματίαι κατασυρέντες ἀνεκομίσθησαν εἰς τὸ στρατόπεδον. Ταῦτα μὲν οὖν τρίτῃ μηνὸς Πανέμου ἐπράχθη.

6.

054 After Titus had explained all this, many felt alarm at the level of danger, but one soldier among the cohorts, Sabinus, a Syrian by birth, showed uncommon fortitude, both in action and in mind. 055 To look at him beforehand and judge from his physical appearance, one would think him unfit for soldiering, for his colour was black, his flesh was lean and shrunken, but this small frame was much too narrow for the force of the heroic soul living within it. 056 He was the first to stand up and say, "I give myself to you, Caesar, willingly! 057 I will be first to scale the wall and I pray that my strength and resolve may bring you good fortune. But if some nemesis brings me down, know that my fate was not unexpected, and that I freely choose death for your sake." 058 With these words, he put his shield over his head with his left hand and drew his sword with his right, and up he went to the wall, about the sixth hour of the day. 059 Only eleven others followed him, resolved to imitate his bravery, but he was the main man and went ahead of them all, driven by a divine fury. 060 The sentries shot at them from the wall, throwing countless missiles from every side, and rolled large stones upon them, which killed some of the eleven. 061 Sabinus himself faced up to the shower of missiles and did not let up on the force of his attack until he reached the top of the wall and scattered the enemy. 062 The Jews were put to flight, astonished at his great strength and bravery and imagining that a larger number of them had gotten up the wall. 063 Here one cannot help complaining of how fortune envies virtue and blocks the completion of glorious deeds. 064 For when this man had just gained his purpose, he stumbled on a large stone and fell down headlong with a loud crash. When the Jews turned back and saw him to be alone and fallen they attacked him from every side. 065 Getting up on one knee he covered himself with his shield and at first managed to defend himself and wounded many who approached him. 066 Soon however, his arm collapsed under the number of his wounds and finally, buried under a hail of missiles, he gave up the ghost. His bravery deserved a better fate, but he fell in the achievement of his goal. 067 The three others who reached the top were dashed to pieces with stones; the remaining eight were pulled down, wounded, and carried back to the camp. These things happened on the third day of the month Panemus.

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[68] Μετὰ δ' ἡμέρας δύο τῶν προκοιτούντων τινὲς ἐπὶ τοῖς χώμασι φυλάκων εἴκοσι συνελθόντες προσποιοῦνται μὲν τὸν τοῦ πέμπτου τάγματος σημαιαφόρον καὶ δύο τινὰς τῶν ἐν ταῖς ἴλαις ἱππέων καὶ σαλπικτὴν ἕνα, κατὰ δὲ ὥραν τῆς νυκτὸς ἐνάτην προσβαίνουσι μὲν ἡσυχῆ διὰ τῶν ἐρειπίων ἐπὶ τὴν Ἀντωνίαν, ἀποσφάξαντες δὲ τοὺς πρώτους τῶν φρουρῶν κοιμωμένους κρατοῦσι τοῦ τείχους καὶ τῷ σαλπικτῇ σημαίνειν ἐκέλευσαν. [69] Πρὸς ὃ τῶν μὲν ἄλλων φυλάκων ἐξανάστασις αἰφνίδιος ἦν καὶ φυγὴ πρίν τινα τὸ πλῆθος ἐπιδεῖν τῶν ἐπιβεβηκότων: ὅ τε γὰρ φόβος καὶ ἡ σάλπιγξ φαντασίαν αὐτοῖς τοῦ πλῆθος ἀναβεβηκέναι πολεμίων παρεῖχε. [70] Καῖσαρ δὲ τοῦ σημείου κατακούσας ἐξοπλίζει τήν τε δύναμιν διὰ τάχους καὶ μετὰ τῶν ἡγεμόνων πρῶτος ἀναβαίνει τοὺς ἐπιλέκτους ἔχων. [71] Καταπεφευγότων δὲ Ἰουδαίων εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ αὐτοὶ διὰ τῆς διώρυγος εἰσέπιπτον, ἣν ὁ Ἰωάννης ἐπὶ τὰ χώματα τῶν Ῥωμαίων ὑπώρυξε. [72] Καὶ διαστάντες ἀπ' ἀμφοτέρων οἱ στασιασταὶ τῶν ταγμάτων, τοῦ τε Ἰωάννου καὶ τοῦ Σίμωνος, εἶργον αὐτοὺς οὐδεμίαν οὔτε ἰσχύος οὔτε προθυμίας ἐλλείποντες ὑπερβολήν: [73] πέρας γὰρ ἁλώσεως ὑπελάμβανον τὸ Ῥωμαίους παρελθεῖν εἰς τὸ ἅγιον, ὃ δὴ κἀκεῖνοι τοῦ κρατεῖν ἀρχήν. [74] Συρρήγνυται δὲ περὶ τὰς εἰσόδους μάχη καρτερά, τῶν μὲν καταλαβέσθαι καὶ τὸ ἱερὸν εἰσβιαζομένων, τῶν δὲ Ἰουδαίων ἐξωθούντων αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ τὴν Ἀντωνίαν. [75] Καὶ τὰ βέλη μὲν ἦν ἀμφοτέροις ἄχρηστα καὶ τὰ δόρατα, σπασάμενοι δὲ τὰ ξίφη συνεπλέκοντο, καὶ περὶ τὴν συμβολὴν ἄκριτον ἦν ὁποτέρωθεν ἕκαστοι μάχοιντο, πεφυρμένων μὲν τῶν ἀνδρῶν καὶ περὶ τὴν στενοχωρίαν διηλλαγμένων, τῆς δὲ βοῆς ἀσημάντου προσπιπτούσης διὰ τὸ μέγεθος. [76] Φόνος τε ἦν ἑκατέρωθεν πολύς, καὶ τῶν πεσόντων τά τε σώματα καὶ τὰς πανοπλίας πατοῦντες ἔθραυον οἱ μαχόμενοι. [77] ἀεὶ δ' ἐφ' ὁπότερον βρίσειεν ῥέων ὁ πόλεμος, παρακέλευσις μὲν ἦν τῶν πλεονεκτούντων, οἰμωγαὶ δὲ τῶν τρεπομένων. Οὔτε δὲ αἱ φυγαὶ τόπον εἶχον οὔτε αἱ διώξεις, ἀλλ' ἀγχώμαλοι ῥοπαὶ καὶ μετακλίσεις μεμιγμένης ἐγίνοντο τῆς παρατάξεως. [78] Τοῖς δ' ἔμπροσθεν γινομένοις ἢ τοῦ θνήσκειν ἢ τοῦ κτείνειν ἀνάγκη παρῆν οὐκ οὔσης ἀναφυγῆς: οἱ γὰρ κατὰ νώτου πρόσω βιαζόμενοι τοὺς σφετέρους παρ' ἀμφοῖν οὐδὲ τῇ μάχῃ μεταίχμιον κατέλειπον. [79] Πλεονεκτούντων δὲ τῶν Ἰουδαίων τοῖς θυμοῖς τὴν Ῥωμαίων ἐμπειρίαν καὶ κλινομένης καθάπαν ἤδη τῆς παρατάξεως, ἀπὸ γὰρ ἐνάτης ὥρας τῆς νυκτὸς εἰς ἑβδόμην τῆς ἡμέρας ἐπολέμουν, [80] οἱ μὲν ἀθρόοι καὶ τὸν τῆς ἁλώσεως κίνδυνον ἔχοντες ἀνδρείας ἐφόδιον Ῥωμαῖοι δὲ μέρει τῆς δυνάμεως, οὔπω γὰρ ἐπαναβεβήκει τὰ τάγματα, κἀκείνοις ἐπανεῖχον οἱ μαχόμενοι τότε, κρατεῖν τῆς Ἀντωνίας ἀποχρῆν ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος ἐδόκει.

7.

068 Two days later twenty of the outpost guards on the ramparts got together and along with the standard- bearer of the fifth legion and two others of a troop of cavalry and trumpeter went noiselessly through the ruins, about the ninth hour of the night, to the Antonia tower. After killing the sleeping sentries, they took the ramparts and ordered the trumpeter to sound his trumpet. 069 The rest of the garrison suddenly got up and ran away, without seeing how many had gotten in, for panic and the sound of the trumpet made them imagine that the enemy had come up in force. 070 When Caesar heard the signal, he immediately ordered his soldiers to arm up and rushed there first with his officers and his elite troops. 071 As the Jews were escaping to the temple, these went down into that mine which John had dug under the Roman earthworks. 072 The rebels of both sides of the Jewish army, John's and Simon's, bravely spared no effort in trying to hold them at bay, 073 for they foresaw that the end was near if once the Romans got into the temple, just as the others saw it as the prelude to conquest. 074 So a fierce battle was fought at the entrance, with the Romans forcing their way in to take the temple and the Jews trying to drive them back to the Antonia tower. 075 Spears and missiles were useless on both sides but all drew their swords and fought it out hand to hand, and in the crush they fought at random, crowding on each other and hemmed in by the confines of the place, and with a tremendous volume of confused shouting. 076 Great slaughter took place on both sides, with the combatants treading upon the bodies and the armour of the slain. 077 On whichever side the battle inclined, the winners urged each other on while the losers cried aloud. There was no room for flight or pursuit, with barely room to turn and only disorderly shiftings of position. 078 Those in front had to kill or be killed, having no way of escape, for on both sides those coming from behind forced those ahead to go on, with no space between the armies. 079 Finally the Jews' violent zeal overcame the Romans' skill and the line began to sag, for the fight had lasted from the ninth hour of the night until the seventh hour of the day. 080 As the Jews crowded forward, motivated by the danger to the temple, only a portion of the Roman army was there, since the legions on which their soldiers depended had not reached them. So they thought it sufficient for the present just to hold the Antonia tower.

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[81] Ἰουλιανὸς δέ τις ἑκατοντάρχης τῶν ἀπὸ τῆς Βιθυνίας, οὐκ ἄσημος ὢν ἀνήρ, ὧν ἐγὼ κατ' ἐκεῖνον ἱστόρησα τὸν πόλεμον ὅπλων τε ἐμπειρίᾳ καὶ ἀλκῇ σώματος καὶ ψυχῆς παραστήματι πάντων ἄριστος, [82] ὁρῶν τοὺς Ῥωμαίους ἐνδιδόντας ἤδη καὶ κακῶς ἀμυνομένους, παρειστήκει δὲ Τίτῳ κατὰ τὴν Ἀντωνίαν, προπηδᾷ καὶ νικῶντας ἤδη τοὺς Ἰουδαίους τρέπεται μόνος μέχρι τῆς τοῦ ἐνδοτέρω ἱεροῦ γωνίας. Ἔφευγε δὲ τὸ πλῆθος ἄθρουν, οὔτε τὴν ἰσχὺν οὔτε τὴν τόλμαν ἀνθρωπίνην ὑπολαμβάνοντες. [83] Ὁ δὲ διὰ μέσων τῶν σκεδαννυμένων ἄλλοτε ἄλλῃ διᾴττων ἐφόνευε τοὺς καταλαμβανομένους, καὶ τῆς ὄψεως ἐκείνης οὐδὲν οὔτε τῷ Καίσαρι θαυμασιώτερον οὔτε τοῖς ἄλλοις παρέστη φρικωδέστερον. [84] Ἐδιώκετο δὲ ἄρα καὶ αὐτὸς ὑπὸ τῆς εἱμαρμένης, ἣν ἀμήχανον διαφυγεῖν θνητὸν ὄντα. [85] Τὰ γὰρ ὑποδήματα πεπαρμένα πυκνοῖς καὶ ὀξέσιν ἥλοις ἔχων, ὥσπερ τῶν ἄλλων στρατιωτῶν ἕκαστος, καὶ κατὰ λιθοστρώτου τρέχων ὑπολισθάνει, πεσὼν δὲ ὕπτιος μετὰ μεγίστου τῆς πανοπλίας ἤχου τοὺς φεύγοντας ἐπιστρέφει. [86] Καὶ τῶν μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς Ἀντωνίας Ῥωμαίων ἤρθη βοὴ περὶ τἀνδρὶ δεισάντων, οἱ δὲ Ἰουδαῖοι περιστάντες αὐτὸν ἀθρόοι τοῖς τε ξυστοῖς καὶ ταῖς ῥομφαίαις πάντοθεν ἔπαιον. [87] Ὁ δὲ πολὺν μὲν τῷ θυρεῷ σίδηρον ἐξεδέχετο, πολλάκις δὲ ἀναστῆναι πειράσας ὑπὸ τοῦ πλήθους τῶν τυπτόντων ἀνετράπη, καὶ κείμενος δ' ὅμως ἔνυττε τῷ ξίφει πολλούς: [88] οὐδὲ γὰρ ἀνῃρέθη ταχέως τῷ τε κράνει καὶ τῷ θώρακι πεφραγμένος πάντα τὰ καίρια πρὸς σφαγὴν καὶ τὸν αὐχένα συνέλκων: μέχρι κοπτομένων αὐτῷ τῶν ἄλλων μελῶν καὶ μηδενὸς προσαμῦναι τολμῶντος ἐνέδωκε. [89] Δεινὸν δὲ πάθος εἰσῄει Καίσαρα ἀνδρὸς οὕτως ἐναρέτου καὶ ἐν ὄψει τοσούτων φονευομένου: καὶ αὐτὸν μὲν ὁ τόπος διέκλειε βοηθεῖν θέλοντα, τοὺς δυναμένους δὲ κατάπληξις. [90] Ἰουλιανὸς μὲν οὖν πολλὰ δυσθανατήσας καὶ τῶν κτεινόντων ὀλίγους ἀπλῆγας καταλιπὼν μόλις ἀποσφάττεται, μέγιστον οὐ παρὰ Ῥωμαίοις καὶ Καίσαρι μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ παρὰ τοῖς πολεμίοις κλέος καταλιπών: [91] Ἰουδαῖοι δὲ καὶ τὸν νεκρὸν ἁρπασάμενοι πάλιν τοὺς Ῥωμαίους τρέπονται καὶ κατακλείουσιν εἰς τὴν Ἀντωνίαν. [92] Ἠγωνίσαντο δὲ ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐπισήμως κατὰ ταύτην τὴν μάχην Ἀλεξᾶς μέν τις καὶ Γυφθέος τοῦ Ἰωάννου τάγματος, ἐκ δὲ τῶν περὶ Σίμωνα Μαλαχίας τε καὶ ὁ τοῦ Μέρτωνος Ἰούδας, καὶ Σωσᾶ υἱὸς Ἰάκωβος τῶν Ἰδουμαίων ἡγεμών, τῶν δὲ ζηλωτῶν ἀδελφοὶ δύο, παῖδες Ἀρί, Σίμων τε καὶ Ἰούδης.

8.

081 But a man of great reputation called Julian, a centurion from Bithynia, whom I had seen earlier in that war, now showed his warlike skill, physical strength, and courage of soul. 082 Seeing the Romans giving ground and putting up a poor resistance, for he stood in the Antonia tower alongside Titus, this man jumped out and on his own put the victorious Jews to flight, making them retire to the corner of the inner court of the temple; from him they fled in droves, seeing his strength and force as superhuman. 083 He rushed through them, scattering and killing those he caught. No sight seemed so admirable to Caesar, or more terrible to others than this. 084 But he too was pursued by fate, which no mortal man can escape. 085 Wearing shoes studded with sharp nails like every other soldier, as he ran along the pavement he slipped and crashed down with a loud noise, causing who were running away to turn back on him. 086 The Romans in the Antonia tower shouted in concern for the man, but the Jews crowded round him and struck at him from all sides with spears and swords. 087 With his shield he parried many a stroke of these weapons and often tried to rise but was thrown down again by the crowd striking at him and even while lying there he stabbed many with his sword. 088 With all his vital parts protected by the helmet and breastplate, and drawing in his neck, it was not easy to finish him off, but finally when his limbs were severed and nobody dared come to protect him, he yielded to his fate. 089 Caesar was deeply moved by the courage of this man, especially as he was killed in the sight of so many. He wished personally to go to his aid but the location would not allow him, while any who could have done so feared to try. 090 Thus Julian after struggling a long time with death and had leaving few of those who killed him go unharmed, was finally and with difficulty dispatched, leaving a great name behind him, not only among the Romans and Caesar, but among his enemies too. 091 The Jews seized his corpse and routed the Romans again, boxing them up in the Antonia tower. 092 On their side, the toughest in this battle were Alexas and Gyphtheus of John's party and of Simon's party, Malachias and Judas, son of Merto and James, son of Sosas, the commander of the Idumaeans, and of the Zealots, two brothers, Simon and Judas, sons of Jairus.

Chapter 02. [093-176]
Josephus calls in vain, for a surrender. The Legions surround the Temple

[93] Τίτος δὲ τοῖς μὲν σὺν αὐτῷ στρατιώταις κατασκάπτειν προσέταξε τοὺς θεμελίους τῆς Ἀντωνίας καὶ τῇ δυνάμει πάσῃ ῥᾳδίαν τὴν ἄνοδον εὐτρεπίζειν, [94] Αὐτὸς δὲ τὸν Ἰώσηπον παραστησάμενος: ἐπέπυστο γὰρ ἐπ' ἐκείνης τῆς ἡμέρας, Πανέμου δ' ἦν ἑπτακαιδεκάτη, τὸν ἐνδελεχισμὸν καλούμενον ἀνδρῶν ἀπορίᾳ διαλελοιπέναι τῷ θεῷ καὶ τὸν δῆμον ἐπὶ τούτῳ δεινῶς ἀθυμεῖν: [95] λέγειν τῷ Ἰωάννῃ πάλιν ἐκέλευσεν ἃ καὶ πρότερον, ὡς εἰ καί τις αὐτὸν ἔρως κακὸς ἔχοι τοῦ μάχεσθαι, προελθόντι μεθ' ὅσων βούλεται πολεμεῖν ἐξείη δίχα τοῦ συναπολέσθαι τήν τε πόλιν καὶ τὸν ναὸν αὐτῷ, μηκέτι μέντοι μιαίνειν τὸ ἅγιον μηδὲ εἰς τὸν θεὸν πλημμελεῖν, παρεῖναι δ' αὐτῷ τὰς ἐπιλελοιπυίας θυσίας ἐκτελεῖν δι' ὧν ἂν ἐπιλέξηται Ἰουδαίων. [96] Καὶ ὁ Ἰώσηπος, ὡς ἂν εἴη μὴ τῷ Ἰωάννῃ μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῖς πολλοῖς ἐν ἐπηκόῳ, τά τε τοῦ Καίσαρος διήγγελλεν ἑβραίζων, [97] καὶ πολλὰ προσηντιβόλει φείσασθαι τῆς πατρίδος καὶ διασκεδάσαι τοῦ ναοῦ γευόμενον ἤδη τὸ πῦρ, τούς τ' ἐναγισμοὺς ἀποδοῦναι τῷ θεῷ. [98] Πρὸς ταῦτα τοῦ δήμου μὲν ἦν κατήφεια καὶ σιγή, πολλὰ δ' ὁ τύραννος λοιδορηθείς τε τῷ Ἰωσήπῳ καὶ καταρασάμενος τὸ τελευταῖον προσέθηκεν, ὡς οὐκ ἄν ποτε δείσειεν ἅλωσιν: θεοῦ γὰρ ὑπάρχειν τὴν πόλιν. [99] Καὶ ὁ Ἰώσηπος πρὸς ταῦτα ἀνέκραγεν "πάνυ γοῦν καθαρὰν τῷ θεῷ τετήρηκας αὐτήν, ἀμίαντον δὲ μένει τὸ ἅγιον, εἰς ὅν τ' ἐλπίζεις σύμμαχον οὐδὲν ἠσέβησας, τὰς δ' ἐθίμους θυσίας ἀπολαμβάνει. [100] Κἂν μὲν σοῦ τις ἀφέλῃ τὴν καθ' ἡμέραν τροφήν, ἀσεβέστατε, τοῦτον ἥγησαι πολέμιον, αὐτὸν δ' ὃν τῆς αἰωνίου θρησκείας ἐστέρησας θεὸν ἐλπίζεις σύμμαχον ἔχειν ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ; [101] Καὶ Ῥωμαίοις τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἀνατίθης, οἳ μέχρι νῦν κήδονται τῶν ἡμετέρων νόμων καὶ τὰς ὑπὸ σοῦ διακοπείσας θυσίας ἀποδίδοσθαι τῷ θεῷ βιάζονται; [102] Τίς οὐκ ἂν στενάξειε καὶ κατολοφύραιτο τῆς παραδόξου μεταβολῆς τὴν πόλιν, εἴ γε ἀλλόφυλοι μὲν καὶ πολέμιοι τὴν σὴν ἀσέβειαν ἐπανορθοῦνται, σὺ δ' ὁ Ἰουδαῖος, ὁ τοῖς νόμοις ἐντραφείς, κἀκείνων πρὸς αὐτοὺς γίνῃ χαλεπώτερος; [103] Ἀλλά τοι, Ἰωάννη, καὶ μετανοῆσαι μὲν ἐκ κακῶν οὐκ αἰσχρὸν ἐν ἐσχάτοις καὶ καλὸν ὑπόδειγμα βουλομένῳ σώζειν τὴν πατρίδα σοι πρόκειται βασιλεὺς Ἰουδαίων Ἰεχονίας, [104] ὅς ποτε στρατεύσαντι τῷ Βαβυλωνίῳ δι' αὐτὸν ἑκὼν ἐξέστη πρὶν ἁλῶναι τῆς πόλεως καὶ μετὰ γενεᾶς αἰχμαλωσίαν ὑπέμεινεν ἐθελούσιον ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ παραδοῦναι ταῦτα πολεμίοις τὰ ἅγια καὶ τὸν οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ περιιδεῖν φλεγόμενον. [105] Διὰ τοῦτο λόγος τε αὐτὸν πρὸς ἁπάντων Ἰουδαίων ἱερὸς ὑμνεῖ καὶ μνήμη ῥέουσα δι' αἰῶνος ἀεὶ νέα τοῖς ἐπιγινομένοις παραδίδωσιν ἀθάνατον. [106] Καλόν, ὦ Ἰωάννη, ὑπόδειγμα, κἂν προσῇ κίνδυνος: ἐγὼ δέ σοι καὶ τὴν ἀπὸ Ῥωμαίων συγγνώμην ἐγγυῶμαι. [107] Μέμνησο δ' ὡς ὁμόφυλος ὢν παραινῶ καὶ Ἰουδαῖος ὢν ἐπαγγέλλομαι, καὶ χρὴ σκοπεῖν τίς ὁ συμβουλεύων καὶ πόθεν. Μὴ γὰρ ἔγωγέ ποτε γενοίμην ζῶν οὕτως αἰχμάλωτος, ἵνα παύσωμαι τοῦ γένους ἢ τῶν πατρίων ἐπιλάθωμαι. [108] Πάλιν ἀγανακτεῖς καὶ κέκραγάς μοι λοιδορούμενος, ἀξίῳ γε καὶ χαλεπωτέρων, ὃς ἀντικρὺς εἱμαρμένης τι παραινῶ καὶ τοὺς ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ βιάζομαι κατακρίτους σώζειν. [109] Τίς οὐκ οἶδεν τὰς τῶν παλαιῶν προφητῶν ἀναγραφὰς καὶ τὸν ἐπιρρέποντα τῇ τλήμονι πόλει χρησμὸν ἤδη ἐνεστῶτα; τότε γὰρ ἅλωσιν αὐτῆς προεῖπον, ὅταν ὁμοφύλου τις ἄρξῃ φόνου. [110] Τῶν ὑμετέρων δὲ πτωμάτων οὐχ ἡ πόλις καὶ τὸ ἱερὸν δὲ πᾶν πεπλήρωται; θεὸς ἄρα, θεὸς αὐτὸς ἐπάγει μετὰ Ῥωμαίων κάθαρσιν αὐτῷ πῦρ καὶ τὴν τοσούτων μιασμάτων γέμουσαν πόλιν ἀναρπάζει."

1.

093 Titus ordered his soldiers to dig up the foundations of the Antonia tower and make an easy entry for his whole army to come up. 094 He sent Josephus out, when he learned how on that day, the seventeenth of Panemus, what was called "the Daily Sacrifice" had been omitted since there was nobody to offer it and that the people were disheartened by this, 095 with a message to John, the same as before, that if he had a mad desire to fight he could come out to battle with as many as he pleased, without involving the city or the temple in his own downfall, and no longer offend God by defiling the temple. He could also, with any of the Jews he chose, resume the sacrifices which had been interrupted. 096 Standing up where he could be heard, not only by John but by many more, Josephus relayed Caesar's message in Hebrew, 097 earnestly appealing to them to spare their city and to prevent the fire which was already licking at the temple and to render to God his due sacrifices. 098 The people heard these words in sadness and silence, but the tyrant showered Josephus with insults and curses, adding that he did feared the city would be captured since it belonged to God. 099 Josephus called aloud, "How pure you have kept this city for God, and how undefiled the temple! You have done no wrong to your ally, and he still receives his due sacrifices! 100 Vile wretch, if anyone cut off your daily rations, you would think him your enemy, yet you hope for God's support in this war after putting an end to his age-old worship! 101 Do you want to blame the Romans, who even now show concern for our laws and almost insist on having still offered to God the sacrifices which you interrupted? 102 Who would not groan and regret the incredible change in this city? It is foreigners and enemies who now correct the impiety you have caused, while you, a Jew educated in our laws, respect them less than they. 103 Still, John, it is no shame to repent our misdeeds, even at the last moment, and save the city, following the good example of Jechoniah, the king of the Jews. 104 Way back then, while at war with the king of Babylon, he left this city of his own accord before it was taken and with his family went into voluntary captivity, rathen than see the sanctuary fought over by the enemy and see the house of God set on fire. 105 For this reason he is held in sacred regard by all Jews, and his memory flows on immortal and fresh to our descendants through all ages. 106 This is an excellent example, John, in such a time of crisis and I warrant that the Romans will still grant you pardon. 107 Note that it is as your countryman and a Jew that I give you this advice and promise. Do not forget who I am who say this, and where I come from. Never as long as I live shall I be so slavish as to abandon my people, or forget our ancestral heritage. 108 You reject me again, roaring and abusing me, though I deserve worse for courting disaster by making you this kind invitation, and trying to save by force those whom God has condemned. 109 Who is unaware of the writings of the ancient prophets, and of the oracle now to be fulfilled on this wretched city? For it was to be taken when someone starts the slaughter of his own countrymen! 110 Are not the city and the temple full of your corpses? It is God then, God himself, who is going to purge by fire and root out by means of the Romans this city, so polluted by you."

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[111] Ταῦτα λέγων ὁ Ἰώσηπος μετ' ὀδυρμοῦ καὶ δακρύων λυγμῷ τὴν φωνὴν ἐνεκόπη. [112] Καὶ Ῥωμαῖοι μὲν ᾤκτειράν τε τοῦ πάθους καὶ τῆς προαιρέσεως αὐτὸν ἐθαύμασαν, οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν Ἰωάννην παρωξύνοντο μᾶλλον ἐπὶ τοὺς Ῥωμαίους ἐπιθυμοῦντες ἐγκρατεῖς γενέσθαι κἀκείνου. [113] Τῶν γε μὴν εὐγενῶν πολλοὺς ἐκίνησεν ὁ λόγος, καὶ τινὲς μὲν ὀρρωδοῦντες τὰς φυλακὰς τῶν στασιαστῶν κατὰ χώραν ἔμενον, ἀπώλειαν μέντοι σφῶν τε αὐτῶν καὶ τῆς πόλεως κατεγνώκεσαν, εἰσὶ δὲ οἳ καιροφυλακήσαντες ἄδειαν ἀναχωρήσεως πρὸς τοὺς Ῥωμαίους κατέφυγον. [114] ὧν ἦσαν ἀρχιερεῖς μὲν Ἰώσηπός τε καὶ Ἰησοῦς, υἱοὶ δὲ ἀρχιερέων τρεῖς μὲν Ἰσμαήλου τοῦ καρατομηθέντος ἐν Κυρήνῃ, καὶ τέσσαρες Ματθίου καὶ εἷς ἑτέρου Ματθίου, διαδρὰς μετὰ τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς ἀπώλειαν, ὃν ὁ τοῦ Γιώρα Σίμων ἀπέκτεινεν σὺν τρισὶν υἱοῖς, ὡς προείρηται. Πολλοὶ δὲ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων εὐγενῶν τοῖς ἀρχιερεῦσι συμμετεβάλοντο. [115] Καῖσαρ δὲ αὐτοὺς τά τε ἄλλα φιλοφρόνως ἐδέξατο καὶ γινώσκων ἀλλοφύλοις ἤθεσιν ἀηδῆ τὴν διατριβὴν ἕξειν ἀπέπεμψεν αὐτοὺς εἰς Γόφναν, τέως ἐκεῖ παραινῶν μένειν: ἀποδώσειν γὰρ ἑκάστῳ τὰς κτήσεις κατὰ σχολὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ πολέμου γενόμενος. [116] Οἱ μὲν οὖν εἰς τὸ δοθὲν πολίχνιον μετὰ πάσης ἀσφαλείας ἀνεχώρουν ἄσμενοι: μὴ φαινομένων δὲ αὐτῶν διεφήμισαν οἱ στασιασταὶ πάλιν ὡς ἀποσφαγεῖεν ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίων οἱ αὐτόμολοι, δηλονότι τοὺς λοιποὺς ἀποτρέποντες τῷ φόβῳ διαδιδράσκειν. [117] Ἤνυστο δ' ὡς καὶ πρότερον αὐτοῖς τὸ πανοῦργον πρὸς καιρόν: ἐπεσχέθησαν γὰρ ὑπὸ τοῦ δέους αὐτομολεῖν.

2.

111 With sighs and tears Josephus spoke these words, his voice choked with sobs, 112 so that even the Romans pitied his plight and wondered at his resolve. But John and his companions were exasperated with the Romans and longed to get their hands on him. 113 Still his speech influenced many of the better sort, some of whom were so afraid of the rebel guards that they stayed put, though they knew that they and the city were doomed, while others watched for a chance to escape and fled to the Romans. 114 Among them were the high priests Joseph and Jesus, and three of high priestly stock, sons of the Ishmael who was beheaded in Cyrene, and four sons of Matthias, and one son of the other Matthias, who escaped after his father's death, who with three of his sons was killed by Simon the son of Gioras, as I already said. Along with the high priests, many of the other nobles went over to the Romans. 115 Caesar received these men kindly, and knowing they would not willingly live by the customs of other nations, sent them to Gophna, there to remain for the present, and told them that after the war he would restore their property to each of them. 116 They retired gladly to the small city assigned to them, fearing no danger. But as they did not reappear, the rebels claimed that these deserters had been killed by the Romans, to deter the rest from trying to escape. 117 This ploy succeeded again, and others were deterred from deserting for fear of a similar fate.

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[118] Αὖθις δέ, ὡς ἀνακαλέσας τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀπὸ τῆς Γοφνὰ Τίτος ἐκέλευσε μετὰ τοῦ Ἰωσήπου περιελθόντας τὸ τεῖχος ὀφθῆναι τῷ δήμῳ, πλεῖστοι πρὸς τοὺς Ῥωμαίους ἔφευγον. [119] Γενόμενοι δὲ ἀθρόοι καὶ πρὸ τῶν Ῥωμαίων ἱστάμενοι μετ' οἰμωγῆς καὶ δακρύων ἱκέτευον τοὺς στασιαστὰς τὸ μὲν πρῶτον ὅλῃ τοὺς Ῥωμαίους δέξασθαι τῇ πόλει καὶ τὴν πατρίδα σῶσαι πάλιν, [120] εἰ δὲ μή, τοῦ γε ἱεροῦ πάντως ὑπεξελθεῖν καὶ ῥύσασθαι τὸν ναὸν αὐτοῖς: οὐ γὰρ ἂν τολμῆσαι Ῥωμαίους μὴ μετὰ μεγίστης ἀνάγκης καταφλέξαι τὰ ἅγια. [121] Τούτοις μᾶλλον ἀντεφιλονείκουν, καὶ πολλὰ βλάσφημα τοῖς αὐτομόλοις ἀντικεκραγότες ἐπὶ τῶν ἱερῶν πυλῶν τούς τε ὀξυβελεῖς καὶ καταπέλτας καὶ λιθοβόλους μηχανὰς διέστησαν, ὡς τὸ κύκλῳ μὲν ἱερὸν ὑπὸ πλήθους νεκρῶν προσεοικέναι πολυανδρίῳ, τὸν δὲ ναὸν αὐτὸν φρουρίῳ. [122] Τοῖς δὲ ἁγίοις καὶ ἀβάτοις μετὰ τῶν ὅπλων εἰσεπήδων θερμὰς ἔτι τὰς χεῖρας ἐξ ὁμοφύλων ἔχοντες φόνων, καὶ προύκοψαν εἰς τοσοῦτον παρανομίας, ὥσθ' ἣν ἂν εἰκὸς ἀγανάκτησιν γενέσθαι Ἰουδαίων, εἰ Ῥωμαῖοι ταῦτ' ἐξύβριζον εἰς αὐτούς, ταύτην εἶναι παρὰ Ῥωμαίων τότε πρὸς Ἰουδαίους ἀσεβοῦντας εἰς τὰ ἴδια. [123] Τῶν μέν γε στρατιωτῶν οὐκ ἔστιν ὅστις οὐ μετὰ φρίκης εἰς τὸν ναὸν ἀφεώρα καὶ προσεκύνει τούς τε λῃστὰς ηὔχετο πρὶν ἀνηκέστου πάθους μετανοῆσαι.

3.

118 Titus later recalled the men from Gophna and ordered them to go around the wall with Josephus and show themselves to the people, which got many to flee to the Romans. 119 As a group and standing before the Roman lines, with groaning and tears begged the rebels above all to open the city to the Romans and so save their homeland; 120 but if they refused that, at least for all to leave the temple and so save the sanctuary, since the Romans would dare to burn the sanctuary only in case of extreme necessity. 121 The rebels heckled them more and more, and while loudly and bitterly rebuking them as deserters, placed their machines for throwing spears and javelins and stones above the sacred gates, so that all the space around the temple was like a graveyard and the sanctuary itself a fortress. 122 In these holy, inviolable places they rushed about with weapons, their hands still warm with the blood of their own people, commiting such crimes that the same anger that Jews would naturally feel towards Romans who treated them in that way, the Romans now felt towards the Jews, for defiling their own sanctuary. 123 Of the soldiers there was none who did not look with a sacred, reverential horror upon the sanctuary and wish the brigands to repent before their disaster became final.

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[124] Τίτος δὲ ὑπερπαθήσας πάλιν ἐξωνείδιζε τοὺς περὶ τὸν Ἰωάννην, λέγων "ἆρ' οὐχ ὑμεῖς, ὦ μιαρώτατοι, τὸν δρύφακτον τοῦτον προεβάλεσθε τῶν ἁγίων; [125] Οὐχ ὑμεῖς δὲ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ στήλας διεστήσατε, γράμμασιν Ἑλληνικοῖς καὶ ἡμετέροις κεχαραγμένας, μηδένα τὸ γείσιον ὑπερβαίνειν παραγγέλλειν; [126] Οὐχ ἡμεῖς δὲ τοὺς ὑπερβάντας ὑμῖν ἀναιρεῖν ἐπετρέψαμεν, κἂν Ῥωμαῖός τις ᾖ; τί οὖν νῦν, ἀλιτήριοι, καὶ νεκροὺς ἐν αὐτῷ καταπατεῖτε; τί δὲ τὸν ναὸν αἵματι ξένῳ καὶ ἐγχωρίῳ φύρετε; [127] Μαρτύρομαι θεοὺς ἐγὼ πατρίους καὶ εἴ τις ἐφεώρα ποτὲ τόνδε τὸν χῶρον, νῦν μὲν γὰρ οὐκ οἴομαι, μαρτύρομαι δὲ καὶ στρατιὰν τὴν ἐμὴν καὶ τοὺς παρ' ἐμοὶ Ἰουδαίους καὶ ὑμᾶς αὐτούς, ὡς οὐκ ἐγὼ ταῦθ' ὑμᾶς ἀναγκάζω μιαίνειν. [128] Κἂν ἀλλάξητε τῆς παρατάξεως τὸν τόπον, οὔτε προσελεύσεταί τις Ῥωμαίων τοῖς ἁγίοις οὔτε ἐνυβρίσει, τηρήσω δὲ τὸν ναὸν ὑμῖν καὶ μὴ θέλουσι."

4.

124 Titus was very grieved with the situation and rebuked John's group, "You wretches, did you not build this balustrade in front of your sanctuary? 125 Did you not place slabs at regular intervals, inscribed in Greek and in our tongue, that no foreigner should go beyond that wall. 126 Did we not permit you to kill anyone, even a Roman, who went beyond it? And now, you ruffians, what are you doing there but trampling on corpses? Why are you polluting the temple with foreign and local blood? 127 Let the gods of my country and any god who ever watched over this place, though now I doubt if any do, and my own army and the Jews with me, and yourselves too, witness that it is not I who make you defile this place. 128 If you will just change this battleground for another, no Roman will come near your sanctuary or do it any harm, for I will save your temple, even if you don't care."

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[129] Ταῦτα τοῦ Ἰωσήπου διαγγέλλοντος ἐκ τοῦ Καίσαρος, οἱ λῃσταὶ καὶ ὁ τύραννος οὐκ ἀπ' εὐνοίας ἀλλὰ κατὰ δειλίαν γίνεσθαι τὰς παρακλήσεις δοκοῦντες ὑπερηφάνουν. [130] Τίτος δὲ ὡς οὔτε οἶκτον ἑαυτῶν τοὺς ἄνδρας οὔτε φειδὼ τοῦ ναοῦ ποιουμένους ἑώρα, πάλιν πρὸς πόλεμον ἄκων ἐχώρει. [131] Πᾶσαν μὲν οὖν τὴν δύναμιν ἐπάγειν αὐτοῖς οὐχ οἷόν τε ἦν μὴ χωρουμένην τῷ τόπῳ, τριάκοντα δ' ἐπιλέξας ἀφ' ἑκάστης ἑκατονταρχίας τοὺς ἀρίστους καὶ τοῖς χιλιάρχοις ἀνὰ χιλίους παραδούς, τούτων δ' ἐπιτάξας ἡγεμόνα Κερεάλιον, ἐπιθέσθαι προσέταξε ταῖς φυλακαῖς περὶ ὥραν τῆς νυκτὸς ἐνάτην. [132] ὄντα δὲ καὶ αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις καὶ συγκαταβαίνειν παρεσκευασμένον οἵ τε φίλοι διὰ τὸ μέγεθος τοῦ κινδύνου κατέσχον καὶ τὰ παρὰ τῶν ἡγεμόνων λεγόμενα: [133] πλεῖον γὰρ αὐτὸν ἀνύσειν ἔφασαν ἐπὶ τῆς Ἀντωνίας καθεζόμενον καὶ τὴν μάχην ἀγωνοθετοῦντα τοῖς στρατιώταις ἢ εἰ καταβὰς προκινδυνεύοι: πάντας γὰρ ὁρῶντος Καίσαρος ἀγαθοὺς πολεμιστὰς ἔσεσθαι. [134] Τούτοις πεισθεὶς Καῖσαρ καὶ δι' ἓν τοῦτο τοῖς στρατιώταις ὑπομένειν εἰπών, ἵνα κρίνῃ τὰς ἀρετὰς αὐτῶν καὶ μήτε τῶν ἀγαθῶν τις ἀγέραστος μήτε τῶν ἐναντίων ἀτιμώρητος διαλάθῃ, γένηται δὲ αὐτόπτης καὶ μάρτυς ἁπάντων ὁ καὶ τοῦ κολάζειν καὶ τοῦ τιμᾶν κύριος, [135] τοὺς μὲν ἐπὶ τὴν πρᾶξιν ἔπεμπε καθ' ἣν ὥραν προείρηται, προελθὼν δὲ αὐτὸς εἰς τὸ εὐκάτοπτον ἀπὸ τῆς Ἀντωνίας ἐκαραδόκει τὸ μέλλον.

5.

129 As Josephus passed on these words of Caesar, the brigands and their tyrant took his exhortations as coming more from fear than goodwill and scorned them. 130 So on seeing these men showing neither pity for themselves nor concern for the temple, Titus reluctantly resumed the war. 131 Unable to bring up his whole force as the place was so narrow, he chose thirty soldiers from every hundred and put a thousand under each tribune and with Cerealius as their supreme commander, gave orders to attack the sentries about the ninth hour of the night. 132 As he was armed and ready to go down with them, his friends prevented him, because of the extreme risk and his officers's advice. 133 They said that rather than coming down and risking his own person in the vanguard he would contribute more by sitting above in the Antonia tower, assigning rewards to soldiers for their part in the struggle, since all would fight well, with Caesar looking at them. 134 Caesar took this advice and said it was to be able to judge their courage, so that no valiant soldier might go unrecognised and miss his reward, and no coward go unpunished. As the one to dispense punishments and rewards to them, he wished to see for himself all that was done. 135 So he sent them to the task at the said hour, and went himself to an elevated place in the Antonia tower from which he could see the action, and there waited impatiently to see how it turned out.

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[136] Οὐ μὴν οἵ γε πεμφθέντες τοὺς φύλακας εὗρον κοιμωμένους, ὡς ἤλπισαν, ἀλλ' ἀναπηδήσασι μετὰ κραυγῆς εὐθέως συνεπλέκοντο: πρὸς δὲ τὴν βοὴν τῶν ἐκκοιτούντων ἔνδοθεν οἱ λοιποὶ κατὰ στῖφος ἐξέθεον. [137] Τῶν μὲν δὴ πρώτων τὰς ὁρμὰς ἐξεδέχοντο Ῥωμαῖοι: περιέπιπτον δ' οἱ μετ' ἐκείνους τῷ σφετέρῳ τάγματι, καὶ πολλοὶ τοῖς οἰκείοις ὡς πολεμίοις ἐχρῶντο. [138] Τὴν μὲν γὰρ διὰ βοῆς ἐπίγνωσιν ἡ κραυγὴ συγχυθεῖσα παρ' ἀμφοῖν, τὴν δὲ δι' ὀμμάτων ἡ νὺξ ἕκαστον ἀφείλετο, καὶ τυφλώττειν ἄλλως οὓς μὲν οἱ θυμοὶ παρεσκεύαζον οὓς δ' οἱ φόβοι: διὰ τοῦτο τὸν προστυχόντα πλήττειν ἦν ἄκριτον. [139] Ῥωμαίους μὲν οὖν συνησπικότας καὶ κατὰ συντάξεις προπηδῶντας ἧττον ἔβλαπτεν ἡ ἄγνοια: καὶ γὰρ ἦν παρ' ἑκάστῳ μνήμη τοῦ συνθήματος: [140] Ἰουδαῖοι δ' ἀεὶ σκεδαννύμενοι καὶ τάς τε προσβολὰς καὶ τὰς ὑποχωρήσεις ἀνέδην ποιούμενοι πολλάκις φαντασίαν παρεῖχον ἀλλήλοις πολεμίων: τὸν ὑποστρέφοντα γὰρ ἕκαστος οἰκεῖον διὰ σκότους ὡς ἐπιόντα Ῥωμαῖον ἐξεδέχετο. [141] Πλείους γοῦν ὑπὸ τῶν ἰδίων ἢ τῶν πολεμίων ἐτρώθησαν, ἕως ἡμέρας γενομένης ὄψει τὸ λοιπὸν ἡ μάχη διεκρίνετο, καὶ κατὰ φάλαγγα διαστάντες τοῖς τε βέλεσιν εὐτάκτοις ἐχρῶντο καὶ ταῖς ἀμύναις. [142] Οὐδέτεροι δὲ οὔτ' εἶκον οὔτ' ἐκοπίων, ἀλλ' οἱ μὲν ὡς ἐφορῶντος Καίσαρος κατ' ἄνδρα καὶ κατὰ συντάξεις ἤριζον ἀλλήλοις, καὶ προκοπῆς ἕκαστος ἐκείνην αὐτῷ τὴν ἡμέραν ἄρξειν ὑπελάμβανεν, εἰ γενναίως ἀγωνίσαιτο: [143] Ἰουδαίοις δ' ἐβράβευε τὰς τόλμας ὅ τε περὶ σφῶν αὐτῶν καὶ τοῦ ἱεροῦ φόβος καὶ ὁ τύραννος ἐφεστὼς καὶ τοὺς μὲν παρακαλῶν, τοὺς δὲ μαστιγῶν καὶ διεγείρων ἀπειλαῖς. [144] Συνέβαινε δὲ τὸ μὲν πλεῖστον σταδιαίαν εἶναι τὴν μάχην, ἐν ὀλίγῳ δὲ καὶ ταχέως ἀντιστρέφεσθαι τὰς ῥοπάς: οὐδέτεροι γὰρ οὔτε φυγῆς οὔτε διώξεως μῆκος εἶχον. [145] Ἀεὶ δὲ πρὸς τὸ συμβαῖνον οἰκεῖος ἀπὸ τῆς Ἀντωνίας ὁ θόρυβος ἦν, θαρρεῖν δὲ καὶ κρατοῦσι τοῖς σφετέροις ἐπεβόων καὶ μένειν τρεπομένοις. [146] Ἦν δὲ ὥσπερ τι πολέμου θέατρον: οὐδὲν γὰρ οὔτε Τίτον οὔτε τοὺς περὶ αὐτὸν ἐλάνθανε τῶν κατὰ τὴν μάχην. [147] Τὸ δὲ πέρας ἀρξάμενοι τῆς νυκτὸς ἐνάτης ὥρας ὑπὲρ πέμπτην τῆς ἡμέρας διελύθησαν ἀφ' οὗπερ ἤρξαντο τόπου τῆς συμβολῆς, μηδέτεροι βεβαίως κλίναντες τοὺς ἑτέρους, ἀλλὰ τὴν νίκην μέσην ἐν ἀγχωμάλῳ καταλιπόντες. [148] Καὶ Ῥωμαίων μὲν ἐπισήμως ἠγωνίσαντο πολλοί, Ἰουδαίων δ' ἐκ μὲν τῶν περὶ Σίμωνα Ἰούδης ὁ τοῦ Μαρεώτου καὶ Σίμων ὁ τοῦ Ὁσαία, τῶν δὲ Ἰδουμαίων Ἰάκωβος καὶ Σίμων, Ἀκατελᾶ μὲν οὗτος παῖς, Σωσᾶ δὲ ὁ Ἰάκωβος, τῶν δὲ μετὰ Ἰωάννου Γεφθέος καὶ Ἀλεξᾶς, τῶν δὲ ζηλωτῶν Σίμων υἱὸς Ἀρί.

6.

136 Those who were sent did not find the temple sentries asleep as they hoped, but with a great shout they immediately assulted them, and when the others inside heard the sentries shouting, they ran out in droves. 137 The Romans repulsed the first wave of the attack, and many in the rear attacked their own troops confusing their own side with the enemy, 138 for the shouting on both sides made them unable to recognise each other's voices, and as it was night they could hardly see each other, and some were so blinded by passion and fear as to hardly care whom they struck. 139 This ignorance affected the Romans less than the Jews, because they interlocked their shields and made more united attacks than the others, and each remembered the watchword. 140 The Jews were always scattered, attacking and retreating at random, and often mistaking each other for enemies, thinking that their own men coming back in the dark were Romans and so attacking them. 141 More were wounded by their own side than by the enemy, until at daybreak the truth of things became visible and they re-formed in distinct groups to hurl their spears and defend themselves in good order. 142 Neither side would yield or give up. The Romans, under the eye of Titus, rivalled each other as to who should fight the hardest, individually and by regiments, each one aware that if he fought bravely this day would begin his promotion. 143 What mainly urged the Jews to act bravely was their fear for themselves and for the temple, plus the presence of their tyrant, who prompted some and beat and threatened others. 144 This fight was for the most part in one place, where the soldiers went on and returned in a short time and suddenly, for there was no large area for either flight or pursuit. 145 But still there was a regular roar from the Romans in the Antonia tower, loudly calling to their own men to press on when they were winning and to hold firm when they were retreating. 146 It was like a theatre of war, where nothing escaped the eyes of Titus and the people round him. 147 Finally this battle that started at the ninth hour of the night, ended about the fifth hour of the day just where it began, with neither side having clearly won and leaving victory in the balance. 148 While many of the Romans distinguished themselves, on the Jewish side the heroes were: Judas the son of Merto and Simon the son of Josas, of Simon's party; the Idumaeans, James, son of Sosas and Simon, son of Cathlas, of John's party; Gyphtheus and Alexas; and Simon, son of Jairus, of the Zealot party.

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[149] Ἐν τούτῳ δ' ἡ λοιπὴ τῶν Ῥωμαίων δύναμις ἡμέραις ἑπτὰ καταστρεψαμένη τοὺς τῆς Ἀντωνίας θεμελίους μέχρι τοῦ ἱεροῦ πλατεῖαν ὁδὸν εὐτρεπίσαντο. [150] Πλησιάσαντα δὲ τῷ πρώτῳ περιβόλῳ τὰ τάγματα κατήρχετο χωμάτων, τὸ μὲν ἀντικρὺς τῆς τοῦ εἴσω ἱεροῦ γωνίας, ἥτις ἦν κατ' ἄρκτον καὶ δύσιν, τὸ δὲ κατὰ τὴν βόρειον ἐξέδραν, ἣ μεταξὺ τῶν δύο πυλῶν ἦν: [151] τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν δύο θάτερον μὲν κατὰ τὴν ἑσπέριον στοὰν τοῦ ἔξωθεν ἱεροῦ, τὸ δ' ἕτερον ἔξω κατὰ τὴν βόρειον. Προύκοπτεν μέντοι μετὰ πολλοῦ καμάτου καὶ ταλαιπωρίας αὐτοῖς τὰ ἔργα [καὶ] τὴν ὕλην ἀφ' ἑκατὸν σταδίων συγκομίζουσιν, [152] ἐκακοῦντο δ' ἔσθ' ὅπη καὶ κατ' ἐπιβουλάς, αὐτοὶ διὰ περιουσίαν τοῦ κρατεῖν ὄντες ἀδεέστεροι καὶ δι' ἀπόγνωσιν ἤδη σωτηρίας χρώμενοι τολμηροτέροις τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις. [153] Τῶν γὰρ ἱππέων τινὲς ὁπότε προέλθοιεν ἐπὶ ξυλείαν ἢ χόρτου συλλογήν, τὸν τῆς συγκομιδῆς χρόνον ἀνίεσαν βόσκεσθαι τοὺς ἵππους ἀποχαλινοῦντες, οὓς οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι κατὰ στῖφος ἐκπηδῶντες ἥρπαζον. [154] Καὶ τούτου συνεχῶς γινομένου νομίσας Καῖσαρ, ὅπερ ἦν, ἀμελείᾳ τῶν σφετέρων πλέον ἢ τῇ Ἰουδαίων ἀνδρείᾳ γίνεσθαι τὰς ἁρπαγάς, ἔγνω σκυθρωπότερον τοὺς λοιποὺς πρὸς φυλακὴν τῶν ἵππων ἐπιστρέψαι. [155] Καὶ κελεύσας ἀπαχθῆναι τὴν ἐπὶ θανάτῳ τῶν ἀπολεσάντων στρατιωτῶν ἕνα, φόβῳ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἐτήρησε τοὺς ἵππους: οὐκέτι γὰρ εἴων νέμεσθαι, καθάπερ δὲ συμπεφυκότες αὐτοῖς ἐπὶ τὰς χρείας ἐξῄεσαν. [156] Οἱ μὲν οὖν προσεπολέμουν τῷ ἱερῷ καὶ τὰ χώματα διήγειρον.

7.

149 Meanwhile the rest of the Roman army had in the space of seven days flattened the foundations of the Antonia tower and had made an easy and broad access to the temple. 150 Then the legions came near the first court, and began to raise embankments, one opposite the north-west corner of the inner temple, another at the northern hall between the two gates, 151 and two more, one at the western portico of the outer temple; the other against its northern portico. However, these works advanced only with great toil and difficulty as the materials had to be brought from a hundred furlongs away. 152 A further problem was in planning, so that their superior power would not expose them to the traps laid for them by the Jews, whose despair of escaping made them even more daring. 153 For example, some of their cavalry, when they went out to gather wood or hay, left their horses free to graze while they were foraging, but the Jews dashed out in groups and seized them. 154 After several instance of this, Caesar reckoned that the horse-stealing was due more to his own men's carelessness than to the daring of the Jews, and applied greater severity to make the rest take care of their horses. 155 He ordered the execution of one of the men who had lost his horse, and by fear made the others more careful of theirs. 156 No longer did they leave them free to graze, but went about their duties as if physically joined to them. The rest continued the attack on the temple and raising earthworks against it.

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[157] Μετὰ δὲ μίαν ἡμέραν αὐτῶν τῆς ἀνόδου πολλοὶ τῶν στασιαστῶν, οἷς ἁρπαγαί τε ἐπέλειπον ἤδη καὶ ὁ λιμὸς ἤπειγε, συνελθόντες ταῖς κατὰ τὸ Ἐλαιῶν ὄρος Ῥωμαίων φυλακαῖς ἐπιτίθενται περὶ ὥραν ἑνδεκάτην τῆς ἡμέρας, οἰόμενοι πρῶτον μὲν ἀδοκήτων, ἔπειτα πρὸς θεραπείαις ἤδη τοῦ σώματος ὄντων ῥᾳδίως διεκπαίσειν. [158] Προαισθόμενοι δὲ τὴν ἔφοδον αὐτῶν οἱ Ῥωμαῖοι καὶ ταχέως ἐκ τῶν πλησίον φρουρίων συνδραμόντες εἶργον ὑπερπηδᾶν καὶ διακόπτειν τὸ περιτείχισμα βιαζομένους. [159] Γενομένης δὲ καρτερᾶς τῆς συμβολῆς ἄλλα τε πολλὰ παρ' ἑκατέρων γενναίως ἐπράχθη, Ῥωμαίων μὲν μετὰ τῆς ἰσχύος ἐμπειρίᾳ τοῦ πολεμεῖν χρωμένων, Ἰουδαίων δὲ ἀφειδέσι ταῖς ὁρμαῖς καὶ τοῖς θυμοῖς ἀκατασχέτοις: [160] ἐστρατήγει δὲ τῶν μὲν αἰδώς, τῶν δὲ ἀνάγκη: τό τε γὰρ ἐξαφεῖναι Ἰουδαίους ὥσπερ ἄρκυσιν ἐνειλημμένους Ῥωμαίοις αἴσχιστον ἐδόκει, κἀκεῖνοι μίαν ἐλπίδα σωτηρίας εἶχον, εἰ βιασάμενοι ῥήξειαν τὸ τεῖχος: [161] καὶ τῶν ἀπὸ σπείρας τις ἱππέων, Πεδάνιος τοὔνομα, τρεπομένων ἤδη τῶν Ἰουδαίων καὶ κατὰ τῆς φάραγγος συνωθουμένων ῥόθιον ἐκ πλαγίου παρελαύνων τὸν ἵππον ἁρπάζει τινὰ φεύγοντα τῶν πολεμίων, νεανίαν στιβαρόν τε ἄλλως τὸ σῶμα καὶ καθωπλισμένον, δραξάμενος ἐκ τοῦ σφυροῦ: [162] τοσοῦτον μὲν ἑαυτὸν ἐκ τρέχοντος ἐπέκλινε τοῦ ἵππου, τοσοῦτον δὲ ἐπεδείξατο τῆς δεξιᾶς τὸν τόνον καὶ τοῦ λοιποῦ σώματος ἔτι δ' ἐμπειρίας ἱππικῆς. [163] Ὁ μὲν οὖν ὥσπερ τι κειμήλιον ἁρπασάμενος ἧκε φέρων Καίσαρι τὸν αἰχμάλωτον: Τίτος δὲ τὸν μὲν λαβόντα τῆς δυνάμεως θαυμάσας, τὸν δὲ ληφθέντα τῆς περὶ τὸ τεῖχος ἐπιχειρήσεως κολάσαι κελεύσας, αὐτὸς ἐν ταῖς περὶ τὸ ἱερὸν διαμάχαις ἦν καὶ τὰ χώματα κατήπειγεν.

8.

157 The day after the ascent [of the legions]
, since looting yielded nothing and they were faint with hunger many of the rebels joined in an attack on the Roman sentries on the Mount of Olives about the eleventh hour of the day, thinking that the attack would be unexpected and that as they would be attending to their bodies at that time they would easily be defeated. 158 But the Romans were soon alerted to their attack and gathering quickly from the nearby guard-posts, stopped them from forcing their way over or through the perimeter wall. 159 A sharp fight ensued, with many noble deeds performed on both sides, with the Romans showing their courage and warrior skill, and the Jews their fearless aggression and untamed fury. 160 One side was urged on by shame and the other by necessity, for it seemed shameful to the Romans to let the Jews escape, now they were caught in a kind of net, while the Jews' only hope of safety lay in breaking through the perimeter. 161 One cavalryman named Pedanius, when the Jews had been repulsed and forced down into the ravine, spurred his horse along their flank and caught up a fleeing enemy, a robust young man and fully armoured, grasping him by his ankle. 162 So low did Pedanius bend from his galloping horse, and such was his strength of arm and body, and so skilled was he in horsemanship, 163 that he seized his prey like an heirloom and brought him captive to Caesar. Titus admired the great strength of the man who had seized the other and had the captive punished for his attempt against the Roman wall. Then he pressed on with besieging the temple and raising the earthworks.

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[164] Ἐν ᾧ Ἰουδαῖοι κακούμενοι ταῖς συμβολαῖς ἀεὶ κατ' ὀλίγον κορυφουμένου τοῦ πολέμου καὶ τῷ ναῷ προσέρποντος, καθάπερ σηπομένου σώματος ἀπέκοπτον τὰ προειλημμένα μέλη φθάνοντες τὴν εἰς τὸ πρόσω νομήν. [165] Τῆς γὰρ βορείου καὶ κατὰ δύσιν στοᾶς τὸ συνεχὲς πρὸς τὴν Ἀντωνίαν ἐμπρήσαντες ἔπειτα ἀπέρρηξαν ὅσον πήχεις εἴκοσι, ταῖς ἰδίαις χερσὶν ἀρξάμενοι καίειν τὰ ἅγια. [166] Μετὰ δ' ἡμέρας δύο, τετράδι καὶ εἰκάδι τοῦ προειρημένου μηνός, τὴν πλησίον στοὰν ὑποπιμπρᾶσι Ῥωμαῖοι, καὶ μέχρι πεντεκαίδεκα πηχῶν προκόψαντος τοῦ πυρὸς ἀποκόπτουσιν ὁμοίως Ἰουδαῖοι τὴν ὀροφήν, μήτε καθάπαξ ἐξιστάμενοι τῶν ἔργων καὶ τὸ πρὸς τὴν Ἀντωνίαν συναφὲς αὐτῶν διαιροῦντες: [167] διὸ καὶ παρὸν κωλύειν ὑποπιμπράντας, οἱ δὲ πρὸς τὴν ἐμβολὴν τοῦ πυρὸς ἠρεμήσαντες τὴν νομὴν ἐμέτρησαν αὐτῷ σφίσι χρησίμως. [168] Περὶ μὲν δὴ τὸ ἱερὸν οὐ διέλειπον αἱ συμβολαί, συνεχὴς δ' ἦν κατὰ μέρος ἐκθεόντων ἐπ' ἀλλήλους ὁ πόλεμος.

9.

164 Meanwhile the Jews were so stressed by the fighting as the war crept ever higher up towards the temple that they, as it were, cut off the infected limbs, in order to prevent the ailment from spreading. 165 They set fire to the north-west portico adjoining the Antonia tower, and then broke off about twenty feet of that portico, thereby with their own hands starting to burn the Temple. 166 Two days later, on the twenty-fourth day of that month, the Romans set fire to the next portico, when the fire went fifteen feet farther, and the Jews hacked away its roof, not giving up until the Antonia tower was cut off from the temple. 167 Even when they could have stopped the fire, they did nothing while the temple was first set on fire and measured the scene entirely by what suited their purpose. 168 Around the temple the clashes continued and the war proceeded by constant small sallies of one side against each other.

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[169] Τῶν Ἰουδαίων δέ τις κατὰ ταύτας τὰς ἡμέρας ἀνὴρ τό τε σῶμα βραχὺς καὶ τὴν ὄψιν εὐκαταφρόνητος γένους θ' ἕνεκα καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἄσημος, Ἰωνάθης ἐκαλεῖτο, προελθὼν κατὰ τὸ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως Ἰωάννου μνημεῖον ἄλλα τε πολλὰ πρὸς τοὺς Ῥωμαίους ὑπερηφάνως ἐφθέγγετο καὶ τὸν ἄριστον αὐτῶν εἰς μονομαχίαν προυκαλεῖτο. [170] Τῶν δὲ ταύτῃ παρατεταγμένων οἱ πολλοὶ μὲν ὑπερηφάνουν, ἦσαν δ' οἳ κατὰ τὸ εἰκὸς ἐδεδοίκεσαν, ἥπτετό γε μὴν τινῶν καὶ λογισμὸς οὐκ ἀσύνετος θανατῶντι μὴ συμπλέκεσθαι: [171] τοὺς γὰρ ἀπεγνωκότας τὴν σωτηρίαν ἅμα καὶ τὰς ὁρμὰς ἀταμιεύτους ἔχειν καὶ τὸ θεῖον εὐδυσώπητον, τό τε παραβάλλεσθαι πρὸς οὓς καὶ τὸ νικᾶν οὐ μέγα καὶ μετ' αἰσχύνης τὸ λειφθῆναι σφαλερόν, οὐκ ἀνδρείας ἀλλὰ θρασύτητος εἶναι. [172] Μηδενὸς δ' ἐπὶ πολὺ προιόντος καὶ τοῦ Ἰουδαίου πολλὰ κατακερτομοῦντος αὐτοὺς εἰς δειλίαν, ἀλαζὼν γάρ τις ἦν αὑτῷ σφόδρα καὶ τῶν Ῥωμαίων ὑπερήφανος, Πούδης τις ὄνομα τῶν ἐξ ἴλης ἱππέων βδελυξάμενος αὐτοῦ τά τε ῥήματα καὶ τὸ αὔθαδες, [173] εἰκὸς δὲ καὶ πρὸς τὴν βραχύτητα τοῦ σώματος αὐτὸν ἀσκέπτως ἐπαρθῆναι, προπηδᾷ, καὶ τὰ μὲν ἄλλα περιῆν συμβαλών, προεδόθη δὲ ὑπὸ τῆς τύχης: πεσόντα γὰρ αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰωνάθης ἀποσφάττει προσδραμών. [174] Ἔπειτα ἐπιβὰς τῷ νεκρῷ τό τε ξίφος ᾑμαγμένον ἀνέσειε καὶ τῇ λαιᾷ τὸν θυρεὸν ἐπηλάλαξέ τε τῇ στρατιᾷ πολλὰ καὶ πρὸς τὸν πεσόντα κομπάζων καὶ τοὺς ὁρῶντας Ῥωμαίους ἐπισκώπτων, [175] ἕως αὐτὸν ἀνασκιρτῶντα καὶ ματαίζοντα Πρῖσκός τις ἑκατοντάρχης τοξεύσας διήλασε βέλει: πρὸς ὃ τῶν τε Ἰουδαίων καὶ τῶν Ῥωμαίων κραυγὴ συνεξήρθη διάφορος. [176] Ὁ δὲ δινηθεὶς ἐκ τῶν ἀλγηδόνων ἐπὶ τὸ σῶμα τοῦ πολεμίου κατέπεσεν, ὠκυτάτην ἀποφήνας ἐν πολέμῳ τὴν ἐπὶ τῷ ἀλόγως εὐτυχοῦντι νέμεσιν.

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169 About this time one of the Jews called Jonathan, low of stature, of despicable appearance, and undistinguished by birth or in any other way went out to the tomb of John the high priest and volubly insulting the Romans, challenged the best of them to a single combat. 170 Many in the opposing army scorned him but some were rightly afraid of him, on the basis that it was not wise to fight with a man who wanted to die. 171 People in utter despair had, besides other passions, an untamable violence in attack and had no regard to God himself, and to risk oneself against someone whom it is no great achievement to defeat and by whom you run the risk of being taken prisoner, would show not manliness, but rashness. 172 For quite a while nobody went out to accept the man's challenge and the Jew - an insolent type who scorned the Romans - went on calling them cowards, but then a cavalryman called Pudens, tired of the other's words and bravado, and perhaps foolishly scorning his puny size, ran out at him 173 and was getting the better of the encounter but then had the bad luck of falling down, and as he was down, Jonathan ran at him and cut his throat. 174 Then, standing upon his corpse, he brandished his bloody sword, and shook his shield with his left hand, shouting loudly at the army, exulting over the dead man and mocking the Roman onlookers, 175 until finally a centurion called Priscus shot him with an arrow as he was leaping and playing the fool, which brought a shout from the Jews and the Romans, though for different reasons. 176 Jonathan swooned at the pain of his wounds and fell across the body of his opponent - a clear instance of how in war, for no apparent reason, a reverse can follow a success.

Chapter 03. [177-219]
Jewish trap burns many Roman soldiers; Desperation and Famine in the City

[177] Οἱ δὲ ἀνὰ τὸ ἱερὸν στασιασταὶ φανερῶς τε οὐκ ἀνίεσαν τοὺς ἐπὶ τῶν χωμάτων στρατιώτας ἀμυνόμενοι καθ' ἑκάστην ἡμέραν, καὶ τοῦ προειρημένου μηνὸς ἑβδόμῃ καὶ εἰκάδι δόλον ἐνσκευάζονται τοιόνδε. [178] Τῆς ἑσπερίου στοᾶς τὸ μεταξὺ τῶν δοκῶν καὶ τῆς ὑπ' αὐτῆς ὀροφῆς ὕλης ἀναπιμπλᾶσιν αὔης, πρὸς δὲ ἀσφάλτου τε καὶ πίσσης: ἔπειθ' ὡς καταπονούμενοι δῆθεν ὑπεχώρουν. [179] Πρὸς ὃ τῶν μὲν ἀσκέπτων πολλοὶ ταῖς ὁρμαῖς φερόμενοι προσέκειντο τοῖς ὑποχωροῦσιν ἐπί τε τὴν στοὰν ἀνεπήδων προσθέμενοι κλίμακας, οἱ δὲ συνετώτεροι τὴν ἄλογον τροπὴν τῶν Ἰουδαίων ὑπονοήσαντες ἔμενον. [180] Κατεπλήσθη μέντοι τῶν ἀναπηδησάντων ἡ στοά, κἀν τούτῳ Ἰουδαῖοι πᾶσαν ὑποπιμπρᾶσιν αὐτήν. Αἰρομένης δ' αἰφνιδίως πάντοθεν τῆς φλογὸς τούς τε ἔξω τοῦ κινδύνου Ῥωμαίους ἔκπληξις ἐπέσχε δεινὴ καὶ τοὺς περισχεθέντας ἀμηχανία. [181] Κυκλούμενοι δὲ ὑπὸ τῆς φλογὸς οἱ μὲν εἰς τὴν πόλιν ὀπίσω κατεκρήμνιζον ἑαυτούς, οἱ δ' εἰς τοὺς πολεμίους, πολλοὶ δ' ἐλπίδι σωτηρίας εἰς τοὺς σφετέρους καταπηδῶντες ἐκλῶντο τὰ μέλη, πλείστων δ' ἔφθανε τὰς ὁρμὰς τὸ πῦρ καί τινες τὴν φλόγα σιδήρῳ. [182] Περιεῖχε δ' εὐθέως καὶ τοὺς ἄλλως φθειρομένους τὸ πῦρ ἐπὶ πλεῖστον ἐκφερόμενον. Καίσαρα δὲ καίπερ χαλεπαίνοντα τοῖς ἀπολλυμένοις, ἐπειδὴ δίχα παραγγέλματος ἀναβεβήκεσαν, ὅμως οἶκτος εἰσῄει τῶν ἀνδρῶν: [183] καὶ μηδενὸς προσαμύνειν δυναμένου, τοῦτο γοῦν παραμύθιον ἦν τοῖς φθειρομένοις τὸ βλέπειν ὑπὲρ οὗ τις ἠφίει τὴν ψυχὴν ὀδυνώμενον: βοῶν τε γὰρ αὐτοῖς καὶ προπηδῶν καὶ τοῖς περὶ αὐτὸν ἐκ τῶν ἐνόντων ἐπαμύνειν παρακαλῶν δῆλος ἦν. [184] Τὰς δὲ φωνὰς ἕκαστος καὶ τὴν διάθεσιν ὥσπερ τι λαμπρὸν ἀποφέρων ἐντάφιον εὔθυμος ἀπέθνησκεν. [185] Ἔνιοί γε μὴν ἐπὶ τὸν τοῖχον τῆς στοᾶς ὄντα πλατὺν ἀναχωρήσαντες ἐκ μὲν τοῦ πυρὸς διεσώθησαν, ὑπὸ δὲ τῶν Ἰουδαίων περισχεθέντες ἐπὶ πολὺ μὲν ἀντέσχον διατιτρωσκόμενοι, τέλος δὲ πάντες ἔπεσον,

1.

177 The rebels in the temple tried every day to beat off the soldiers upon the ramparts and sprang this trap on the twenty-seventh day of that month. 178 They filled with dry materials and asphalt and pitch the part of the western portico between the beams and the roof, and then retreated as though weary of their efforts. 179 Many of the more thoughtless Romans, spurred by passion, closely pursued them as they retreated and put ladders against the portico and climbed on top of it, but the more prudent of the troops, wondered at this strange retreat of the Jews and stayed put. 180 The colonnade was full of the men who had ascended the ladders, and then the Jews set all of it on fire, and as the flames suddenly burst out everywhere, the Romans outside of danger were shocked, while those caught in it were totally helpless. 181 When they saw themselves surrounded by the flames, some of them jumped down backwards toward the city and some jumped in among the enemy. Many who jumped towards their own men in hope of safety broke their bones, but most of them were caught by the fire and some killed themselves by their own swords, rather than be burned, 182 though the fire suddenly engulfed men who otherwise would have died in some other way. Caesar was distressed by these deaths, even though they had gone up there without his orders, 183 but he had no way to save them, though it was some comfort to those who were dying that they did so in view of the one for whose sake they died, for he called out to them and sprang up and urged the people round him all they could to bring them relief. 184 So each man died willingly, carrying with him Caesar's words and wishes as an epitaph. 185 Some who retreated to the thick wall of the portico were saved from the fire, but were then surrounded by the Jews, and although resisting for a long time, they were wounded and finally they all fell.

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[186] καὶ τελευταῖός τις αὐτῶν νεανίας, ὀνόματι Λόγγος, ὅλον ἐπικοσμήσας τὸ πάθος καὶ κατ' ἄνδρα μνήμης ἀξίων ὄντων πάντων τῶν ἀπολωλότων ἄριστος φανείς. [187] Ὃν οἱ μὲν Ἰουδαῖοι τῆς τε ἀλκῆς ἀγάμενοι καὶ ἄλλως ἀνελεῖν ἀσθενοῦντες καταβῆναι πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ δεξιᾷ παρεκάλουν, ὁ δὲ ἀδελφὸς Κορνήλιος ἐκ θατέρου μὴ καταισχῦναι τὸ σφέτερον κλέος καὶ τὴν Ῥωμαίων στρατιάν. Τούτῳ πεισθεὶς καὶ διαράμενος φανερὸν ἑκατέροις τοῖς τάγμασι τὸ ξίφος αὑτὸν ἀναιρεῖ. [188] Τῶν δὲ τῷ πυρὶ περισχεθέντων Ἀρτώριός τις πανουργίᾳ διασώζεται: προσκαλεσάμενος γάρ τινα τῶν στρατιωτῶν Λούκιον, ᾧ συνεσκήνει, μεγάλῃ τῇ φωνῇ "κληρονόμον, ἔφη, καταλείπω σε τῶν ἐμαυτοῦ κτημάτων, [189] εἰ προσελθών με δέξαιο." τοῦ δὲ ἑτοίμως προσδραμόντος ὁ μὲν ἐπ' αὐτὸν κατενεχθεὶς ἔζησεν, ὁ δὲ δεξάμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ βάρους τῷ λιθοστρώτῳ προσαραχθεὶς παραχρῆμα θνήσκει. [190] Τοῦτο τὸ πάθος πρὸς καιρὸν μὲν Ῥωμαίοις ἐνεποίησεν ἀθυμίαν, πρὸς δὲ τὸ μέλλον ὅμως ἀπαρακλήτους κατεσκεύασεν φυλακτικωτέρους τε πρὸς τὰς Ἰουδαίων ἀπάτας ὠφέλησεν, ἐν αἷς τὰ πολλὰ δι' ἄγνοιαν τῶν τόπων καὶ τὸ ἦθος τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἐβλάπτοντο. [191] Κατεκάη δ' ἡ στοὰ μέχρι τοῦ Ἰωάννου πύργου, ὃν ἐκεῖνος ἐν τῷ πρὸς Σίμωνα πολέμῳ κατεσκεύασεν ὑπὲρ τὰς ἐξαγούσας ὑπὲρ τὸν ξυστὸν πύλας: τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν ἐπὶ διεφθαρμένοις ἤδη Ἰουδαῖοι τοῖς ἀναβᾶσιν ἀπέκοψαν. [192] Τῇ δ' ὑστεραίᾳ καὶ Ῥωμαῖοι τὴν βόρειον στοὰν ἐνέπρησαν μέχρι τῆς ἀνατολικῆς ὅλην, ὧν ἡ συνάπτουσα γωνία τῆς Κεδρῶνος καλουμένης φάραγγος ὑπερδεδόμητο, παρ' ὃ καὶ φοβερὸν ἦν τὸ βάθος. Καὶ τὰ μὲν περὶ τὸ ἱερὸν ἐν τούτοις ἦν.

2.

186 Towards the end, one young man among them named Longus adorned this sad affair, and of all who died he seems most worthy of remembrance. 187 The Jews admired his courage and even those keenest to be rid of him tried to persuade him to come down, promising him his life. But his brother Cornelius advised against it, not to tarnish his glory or that of the Roman army. Persuaded by this he raised his sword in the sight of both armies and killed himself. 188 Another of those surrounded by the fire, Artorius, escaped by his wits, for in a loud voice he called on Lucius, a colleague with whom he shared a tent and said, "I will bequeath you all I have, if you will come and catch me." 189 The man ran to catch him and Artorius jumped down on him, saving his own life, while the one who broke his fall was dashed against the pavement by his weight, and died instantly. 190 This misfortune made the Romans sad for a while, but it put them more upon their guard in future and protected them against the wiles of the Jews, which greatly hampered them through their unfamiliarity with the place and the nature of the citizens. 191 This portico was burned down as far as John's tower, which he built in his war against Simon over the gates that led to the Xystus. The Jews cut off the rest of that portico from the temple, after killing those who had climbed up on it. 192 But next day the Romans burned down the entire northern portico, as far as the east wing, whose shared corner overlooked the valley called Cedron, a frightful depth below. Such was the state of the temple at that time.

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[193] Τῶν δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ λιμοῦ φθειρομένων κατὰ τὴν πόλιν ἄπειρον μὲν ἔπιπτε τὸ πλῆθος, ἀδιήγητα δὲ συνέβαινε τὰ πάθη. [194] Καθ' ἑκάστην γὰρ οἰκίαν, εἴ που τροφῆς παραφανείη σκιά, πόλεμος ἦν, καὶ διὰ χειρῶν ἐχώρουν οἱ φίλτατοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἐξαρπάζοντες τὰ ταλαίπωρα τῆς ψυχῆς ἐφόδια. [195] Πίστις δ' ἀπορίας οὐδὲ τοῖς θνήσκουσιν ἦν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοὺς ἐκπνέοντας οἱ λῃσταὶ διηρεύνων, μή τις ὑπὸ κόλπον ἔχων τροφὴν σκήπτοιτο τὸν θάνατον αὑτῷ. [196] Οἱ δ' ὑπ' ἐνδείας κεχηνότες ὥσπερ λυσσῶντες κύνες ἐσφάλλοντο, καὶ παρεφέροντο ταῖς τε θύραις ἐνσειόμενοι μεθυόντων τρόπον καὶ ὑπ' ἀμηχανίας εἰς τοὺς αὐτοὺς οἴκους εἰσπηδῶντες δὶς ἢ τρὶς ὥρᾳ μιᾷ. [197] Πάντα δὲ ὑπ' ὀδόντας ἦγεν ἡ ἀνάγκη, καὶ τὰ μηδὲ τοῖς ῥυπαρωτάτοις τῶν ἀλόγων ζῴων πρόσφορα συλλέγοντες ἐσθίειν ὑπέφερον: ζωστήρων γοῦν καὶ ὑποδημάτων τὸ τελευταῖον οὐκ ἀπέσχοντο καὶ τὰ δέρματα τῶν θυρεῶν ἀποδέροντες ἐμασῶντο. [198] Τροφὴ δ' ἦν καὶ χόρτου τισὶ παλαιοῦ σπάραγμα: τὰς γὰρ ἶνας ἔνιοι συλλέγοντες ἐλάχιστον σταθμὸν ἐπώλουν Ἀττικῶν τεσσάρων. [199] Καὶ τί δεῖ τὴν ἐπ' ἀψύχοις ἀναίδειαν τοῦ λιμοῦ λέγειν; εἶμι γὰρ αὐτοῦ δηλώσων ἔργον οἷον μήτε παρ' Ἕλλησιν μήτε παρὰ βαρβάροις ἱστόρηται, φρικτὸν μὲν εἰπεῖν, ἄπιστον δὲ ἀκοῦσαι. [200] Καὶ ἔγωγε μὴ δόξαιμι τερατεύεσθαι τοῖς αὖθις ἀνθρώποις, κἂν παρέλειπον τὴν συμφορὰν ἡδέως, εἰ μὴ τῶν κατ' ἐμαυτὸν εἶχον ἀπείρους μάρτυρας. ἄλλως τε καὶ ψυχρὰν ἂν καταθείμην τῇ πατρίδι χάριν καθυφέμενος τὸν λόγον ὧν πέπονθεν τὰ ἔργα.

3.

193 A huge number died throughout the city by famine amid unspeakable suffering. 194 If even a hint of any kind of food appeared anywhere, war broke out and the dearest friends would fight about it, snatching from each other the slightest means of sustaining life. 195 Unwilling to believe that the dying had no food, the brigands would search them even as they expired in case they had food hidden on their persons and were just faking death. 196 They were gaping with want and went about staggering like mad dogs and reeling against doors like drunks, and in their plight, rushed into the same houses two or three times in the same day. 197 Their hunger was so dire that it made them chew everything, so they gathered what the meanest animals would not touch and made themselves eat them, and in the end they did not baulk even at belts and shoes, and pulled off and gnawed the leather of their shields. 198 Some ate wisps of old hay while others gathered fibres and sold a very small weight of them for four Atticae. 199 But why describe the awfulness of the famine causing them to eat dead things when I am going to relate a fact unparalleled among Greeks or Barbarians, something horrible to speak of it and incredible when heard? 200 I would willingly omit this horror, not to pass on to our descendants something so dreadful, except that there are so many witnesses to it, and besides, my country would hardly thank me for suppressing the hardships endured at this time.

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[201] Γυνή τις τῶν ὑπὲρ τὸν Ἰορδάνην κατοικούντων, Μαρία τοὔνομα, πατρὸς Ἐλεαζάρου, κώμης Βηθεζουβᾶ, σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο οἶκος ὑσσώπου, διὰ γένος καὶ πλοῦτον ἐπίσημος, μετὰ τοῦ λοιποῦ πλήθους εἰς τὰ Ἱεροσόλυμα καταφυγοῦσα συνεπολιορκεῖτο. [202] Ταύτης τὴν μὲν ἄλλην κτῆσιν οἱ τύραννοι διήρπασαν, ὅσην ἐκ τῆς Περαίας ἀνασκευασαμένη μετήνεγκεν εἰς τὴν πόλιν, τὰ δὲ λείψανα τῶν κειμηλίων καὶ εἴ τι τροφῆς ἐπινοηθείη καθ' ἡμέραν εἰσπηδῶντες ἥρπαζον οἱ δορυφόροι. [203] Δεινὴ δὲ τὸ γύναιον ἀγανάκτησις εἰσῄει, καὶ πολλάκις λοιδοροῦσα καὶ καταρωμένη τοὺς ἅρπαγας ἐφ' αὑτὴν ἠρέθιζεν. [204] Ὡς δ' οὔτε παροξυνόμενός τις οὔτ' ἐλεῶν αὐτὴν ἀνῄρει, καὶ τὸ μὲν εὑρεῖν τι σιτίον ἄλλοις ἐκοπία, πανταχόθεν δὲ ἄπορον ἦν ἤδη καὶ τὸ εὑρεῖν, ὁ λιμὸς δὲ διὰ σπλάγχνων καὶ μυελῶν ἐχώρει καὶ τοῦ λιμοῦ μᾶλλον ἐξέκαιον οἱ θυμοί, σύμβουλον λαβοῦσα τὴν ὀργὴν μετὰ τῆς ἀνάγκης ἐπὶ τὴν φύσιν ἐχώρει, [205] καὶ τὸ τέκνον, ἦν δὲ αὐτῇ παῖς ὑπομάστιος, ἁρπασαμένη "βρέφος, εἶπεν, ἄθλιον, ἐν πολέμῳ καὶ λιμῷ καὶ στάσει τίνι σε τηρήσω; [206] Τὰ μὲν παρὰ Ῥωμαίοις δουλεία, κἂν ζήσωμεν ἐπ' αὐτούς, φθάνει δὲ καὶ δουλείαν ὁ λιμός, οἱ στασιασταὶ δὲ ἀμφοτέρων χαλεπώτεροι. [207] ἴθι, γενοῦ μοι τροφὴ καὶ τοῖς στασιασταῖς ἐρινὺς καὶ τῷ βίῳ μῦθος ὁ μόνος ἐλλείπων [208] ταῖς Ἰουδαίων συμφοραῖς." καὶ ταῦθ' ἅμα λέγουσα κτείνει τὸν υἱόν, ἔπειτ' ὀπτήσασα τὸ μὲν ἥμισυ κατεσθίει, τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν κατακαλύψασα ἐφύλαττεν. [209] Εὐθέως δ' οἱ στασιασταὶ παρῆσαν, καὶ τῆς ἀθεμίτου κνίσης σπάσαντες ἠπείλουν, εἰ μὴ δείξειεν τὸ παρασκευασθέν, ἀποσφάξειν αὐτὴν εὐθέως. ἡ δὲ καὶ μοῖραν αὐτοῖς εἰποῦσα καλὴν τετηρηκέναι τὰ λείψανα τοῦ τέκνου διεκάλυψεν. [210] Τοὺς δ' εὐθέως φρίκη καὶ παρέκστασις ᾕρει καὶ παρὰ τὴν ὄψιν ἐπεπήγεσαν. ἡ δ' "ἐμόν, ἔφη, τοῦτο τέκνον γνήσιον καὶ τὸ ἔργον ἐμόν. [211] Φάγετε, καὶ γὰρ ἐγὼ βέβρωκα. Μὴ γένησθε μήτε μαλακώτεροι γυναικὸς μήτε συμπαθέστεροι μητρός. Εἰ δ' ὑμεῖς εὐσεβεῖς καὶ τὴν ἐμὴν ἀποστρέφεσθε θυσίαν, ἐγὼ μὲν ὑμῖν βέβρωκα, καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν δὲ ἐμοὶ μεινάτω." μετὰ ταῦθ' οἱ μὲν τρέμοντες ἐξῄεσαν, [212] πρὸς ἓν τοῦτο δειλοὶ καὶ μόλις ταύτης τῆς τροφῆς τῇ μητρὶ παραχωρήσαντες, ἀνεπλήσθη δ' εὐθέως ὅλη τοῦ μύσους ἡ πόλις, καὶ πρὸ ὀμμάτων ἕκαστος τὸ πάθος λαμβάνων ὥσπερ αὐτῷ τολμηθὲν ἔφριττε. [213] Σπουδὴ δὲ τῶν λιμωττόντων ἐπὶ τὸν θάνατον ἦν, καὶ μακαρισμὸς τῶν φθασάντων πρὶν ἀκοῦσαι καὶ θεάσασθαι κακὰ τηλικαῦτα.

4.

201 On the far side of the Jordan lived a woman named Mary, whose father was Eleazar, from the village of Bethezob, which means the house of Hyssop, distinguished by her family and wealth. With the rest of the people she had fled to Jerusalem and was besieged with them there at this time. 202 The woman's other property, that she had brought with her from Perea and moved to the city, had already been taken. Whatever she had saved and any food she had arranged to keep, had been taken by the guards, who came every day to her house for that purpose. 203 This made the poor woman furious and she frequently cursed them for their thieving. 204 But though provoked to anger at her, none of them would kill her, even out of pity for her plight, and if she found any food, her labours were for others and not for herself, and it had become impossible for her any way to find any more food, while hunger pierced through her bowels and marrow. Her rage flared up beyond the hunger itself and she thought of nothing but her anger and her need, that drove her to an unnatural deed. 205 Snatching up her son, a child sucking at her breast, she said, "Poor infant, why should I save you amid this war and famine and sedition? 206 Under the Romans, if we live we must be slaves, but even before that the famine will destroy us; but the seditious are worst of all. 207 Come then, be my food and and avenging fury to these rebels and a tale to fill out for the world what is lacking in the disaster of the Jews." 208 With these words she killed her son and roasted him and ate half of him and kept the other half hidden. 209 The rebels soon came in soon and smelling the scent of this terrible food, threatened to cut her throat if she did not show them what she had prepared. She replied that she had saved a portion of it for them, and then showed the remnants of the child. 210 As they were seized with horror and amazement and gaped at the sight, she said to them, "This is my own son and it was my own doing! Come, eat of this food, for I have eaten of it myself! 211 Do not be gentler than a woman or more merciful than a mother, but if you are so devout and reject my sacrifice, as I have eaten the first half, let me keep the rest." 212 They went out trembling and horrified and yet had difficulty leaving the rest of that food to the mother. The whole city was soon shocked by this horror and each one trembled at it, as if it had been done by himself. 213 So those suffering of hunger wished to die and those already dead were deemed happy, not having lived to hear or see such things.

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[214] Ταχέως δὲ καὶ Ῥωμαίοις διηγγέλθη τὸ πάθος. Τῶν δ' οἱ μὲν ἠπίστουν, οἱ δὲ ᾤκτειρον, τοὺς δὲ πολλοὺς εἰς μῖσος τοῦ ἔθνους σφοδρότερον συνέβη προελθεῖν. [215] Καῖσαρ δὲ ἀπελογεῖτο καὶ περὶ τούτου τῷ θεῷ, φάσκων παρὰ μὲν αὐτοῦ Ἰουδαίοις εἰρήνην καὶ αὐτονομίαν προτείνεσθαι καὶ πάντων ἀμνηστίαν τῶν τετολμημένων, τοὺς δὲ ἀντὶ μὲν ὁμονοίας στάσιν, [216] ἀντὶ δὲ εἰρήνης πόλεμον, πρὸ κόρου δὲ καὶ εὐθηνίας λιμὸν αἱρουμένους, ἰδίαις δὲ χερσὶν ἀρξαμένους καίειν τὸ συντηρούμενον ὑφ' ἡμῶν ἱερὸν αὐτοῖς, εἶναι καὶ τοιαύτης τροφῆς ἀξίους. [217] Καλύψειν μέντοι τὸ τῆς τεκνοφαγίας μύσος αὐτῷ τῷ τῆς πατρίδος πτώματι καὶ οὐ καταλείψειν ἐπὶ τῆς οἰκουμένης ἡλίῳ καθορᾶν πόλιν, ἐν ᾗ μητέρες οὕτω τρέφονται. [218] Προσήκειν μέντοι πρὸ μητέρων πατράσιν τὴν τοιαύτην τροφήν, οἳ καὶ μετὰ τηλικαῦτα πάθη μένουσιν ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις. [219] Ταῦθ' ἅμα διεξιὼν ἐνενόει καὶ τὴν ἀπόγνωσιν τῶν ἀνδρῶν: οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἔτι σωφρονῆσαι τοὺς πάντα προπεπονθότας ἐφ' οἷς εἰκὸς ἦν μεταβαλέσθαι μὴ παθοῦσιν.

5.

214 Soon this sad example was also told to the Romans, some of whom could not believe it while others were moved to pity, but it roused many of them to a fiercer hatred of our nation. 215 Caesar excused himself before God about this matter, saying that he had offered peace and liberty to the Jews, and an amnesty for all their former offences, 216 but that they had chosen revolt over harmony, war over peace, and famine instead of food in plenty. "With their own hands they began to burn down the temple which we have spared up to now, and therefore they deserve to eat such food. 217 This awful act of eating her own child merits the destruction of their whole country, that men ought not to let any city in the world see the sun, where mothers are so fed. 218 But it is the fathers rather than the mothers who should eat such food, since it is they who remain in arms against us, despite woes such as these." 219 As he said this, he reflected on how desperate they must be, and he did not expect such men to return to a sober mind after such sufferings, when they could have avoided them by repenting.

Chapter 04. [220-270]
The Romans burn the Temple Gates. Against Titus' wishes, the Sanctuary is burned

[220] Ἤδη δὲ τῶν δύο ταγμάτων συντετελεκότων τὰ χώματα Λώου μηνὸς ὀγδόῃ προσάγειν ἐκέλευσε τοὺς κριοὺς κατὰ τὴν ἑσπέριον ἐξέδραν τοῦ ἔξωθεν ἱεροῦ. [221] Πρὸ δὲ τούτων ἓξ ἡμέρας ἀδιαλείπτως ἡ στερροτάτη πασῶν ἑλέπολις τύπτουσα τὸν τοῖχον οὐδὲν ἤνυσεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ ταύτης καὶ τῶν ἄλλων τὸ μέγεθος καὶ ἡ ἁρμονία τῶν λίθων ἦν ἀμείνων. [222] Τῆς δὲ βορείου πύλης ὑπώρυττον ἕτεροι τοὺς θεμελίους καὶ πολλὰ ταλαιπωρήσαντες τοὺς ἔμπροσθεν λίθους ἐξεκύλισαν. Ἀνείχοντο δ' ὑπὸ τῶν ἐνδοτέρω καὶ διέμεινεν ἡ πύλη, μέχρι τὰς δι' ὀργάνων καὶ τῶν μοχλῶν ἐπιχειρήσεις ἀπογνόντες κλίμακας ταῖς στοαῖς προσέφερον. [223] Οἱ δὲ Ἰουδαῖοι κωλῦσαι μὲν οὐκ ἔφθασαν, ἀναβᾶσι δὲ συμπεσόντες ἐμάχοντο, καὶ τοὺς μὲν ἀνωθοῦντες εἰς τοὐπίσω κατεκρήμνιζον, τοὺς δ' ὑπαντιάζοντας ἀνῄρουν: [224] πολλοὺς δὲ τῶν κλιμάκων ἀποβαίνοντας πρὶν φράξασθαι τοῖς θυρεοῖς παίοντες ταῖς ῥομφαίαις ἔφθανον, ἐνίας δὲ γεμούσας ὁπλιτῶν κλίμακας παρακλίνοντες ἄνωθεν κατέσειον: [225] ἦν δ' οὐκ ὀλίγος καὶ αὐτῶν φόνος. Οἱ δὲ ἀνενεγκόντες τὰς σημαίας περὶ αὐτῶν ἐπολέμουν, δεινὴν ἡγούμενοι καὶ πρὸς αἰσχύνης τούτων τὴν ἁρπαγήν. [226] Τέλος δὲ καὶ τῶν σημαιῶν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι κρατοῦσιν καὶ τοὺς ἀναβάντας διαφθείρουσιν: οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ πρὸς τὸ τῶν ἀπολωλότων πάθος ὀρρωδοῦντες ἀνεχώρουν. [227] Τῶν μὲν οὖν Ῥωμαίων ἄπρακτος οὐδεὶς ἀπέθανεν, τῶν δὲ στασιαστῶν οἳ κατὰ τὰς προτέρας μάχας ἠγωνίσαντο γενναίως καὶ τότε καὶ Ἐλεάζαρος ἀδελφιδοῦς τοῦ τυράννου Σίμωνος. [228] Ὁ δὲ Τίτος ὡς ἑώρα τὴν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀλλοτρίοις ἱεροῖς φειδὼ πρὸς βλάβης τοῖς στρατιώταις γινομένην καὶ φόνου, τὰς πύλας προσέταξεν ὑφάπτειν.

1.

220 Two of the legions had completed their earthworks on the eighth of the month Lous, when Titus ordered the battering rams to be brought to the western part of the outer temple. 221 Before these came, the strongest of the other rams had battered the wall ceaselessly for six days, without making a dent in it, for the size and inlay of the stones was too strong. 222 Others undermined the foundations of the northern gate and had with great exertions removed the stones in front, yet the gate still stood, upheld by the inner stones until, despairing of knocking it with rams and crowbars, they brought their ladders to the porticoes. 223 The Jews did not hurry to stop them but attacked and fought them as they climbed up, thrusting some of them down backwards headlong and killing others of them face to face. 224 They also killed many with their swords as they stepped off the ladders, before they could protect themselves with their shields, and threw down some of the ladders when they were full of warriors. 225 But at the same time not a few Jews were killed, since the standard-bearers fought hard to keep their standards, deeming it a shameful disaster to let them be taken away. 226 Finally the Jews took the standards and killed those who had gone up the ladders, while the rest were so horrified by the fate of the fallen that they retreated. 227 None of the Romans died without fighting, and those of the rebels who had fought bravely in previous battles did so again now, including Eleazar, the nephew of Simon the tyrant. 228 But when Titus saw that his efforts to spare a foreign temple only led to his soldiers being wounded and killed, he ordered them to set the gates on fire.

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[229] Ἐν δὲ τούτῳ πρὸς αὐτὸν αὐτομολοῦσιν Ἄνανός τε ὁ ἀφαμμαούς, τῶν Σίμωνος δορυφόρων ὁ φονικώτατος, καὶ Ἀρχέλαος υἱὸς Μαγαδδάτου, συγγνώμην ἐλπίσαντες ἐπειδὴ κρατούντων Ἰουδαίων ἀπεχώρουν. [230] Τίτος δὲ καὶ τοῦτο τὸ πανούργημα προβάλλεται τῶν ἀνδρῶν, καὶ τὴν ἄλλην περὶ τοὺς ἰδίους ὠμότητα πεπυσμένος ὥρμητο κτείνειν ἑκατέρους, ὑπ' ἀνάγκης ἦχθαι λέγων αὐτούς, οὐκ ἐκ προαιρέσεως παρεῖναι, καὶ σωτηρίας οὐκ ἀξίους εἶναι τοὺς φλεγομένης ἤδη δι' αὐτοὺς τῆς πατρίδος ἐξαλλομένους. [231] Ἐκράτει δ' ὅμως τοῦ θυμοῦ ἡ πίστις, καὶ ἀφίησι τοὺς ἄνδρας, οὐ μὴν ἐν ἴσῃ μοίρᾳ κατέτασσε τοῖς ἄλλοις. [232] Ἤδη δὲ ταῖς πύλαις οἱ στρατιῶται προσῆγον τὸ πῦρ, καὶ περιτηκόμενος ὁ ἄργυρος διεδίδου ταχέως εἰς τὴν ξυλείαν τὴν φλόγα, ἔνθεν ἀθρόως ἐκφερομένη τῶν στοῶν ἐπελαμβάνετο. [233] Τοῖς δὲ Ἰουδαίοις ὁρῶσι τὸ πῦρ ἐν κύκλῳ μετὰ τῶν σωμάτων παρείθησαν αἱ ψυχαί, καὶ διὰ τὴν κατάπληξιν ἀμύνειν μὲν ἢ σβεννύειν ὥρμησεν οὐδείς, αὖοι δ' ἑστῶτες ἀφεώρων. [234] Οὐ μὴν πρὸς τὸ δαπανώμενον ἀθυμοῦντες εἰς γοῦν τὸ λοιπὸν ἐσωφρόνουν, ἀλλ' ὡς ἤδη καὶ τοῦ ναοῦ καιομένου τοὺς θυμοὺς ἐπὶ Ῥωμαίους ἔθηγον. [235] Ἐκείνην μὲν οὖν τὴν ἡμέραν καὶ τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν νύκτα τὸ πῦρ ἐπεκράτει: κατὰ μέρος γάρ, οὐχ ὁμοῦ πάντοθεν ἴσχυσαν ὑφάψαι τὰς στοάς.

2.

229 Meanwhile Ananus from Emmaus, the most bloody of Simon's bodyguards and Archelaus, son of Magadatus, deserted to him, hoping for a pardon as they left the Jews at a time when they were winning. 230 Titus rejected this as a cunning trick, and as he had heard of their other savagery to the Jews, he was going to have them quickly killed. He said they had not come of their own free choice, and were only driven to desert by necessity, and that men who fled after setting their city on fire did not deserve to be spared. 231 But the guarantee he had promised to deserters overcame his resentments and so he dismissed them, but without the same privileges that he had given to others. 232 The soldiers had already set fire to the gates and when their silver overlay melted the flames quickly caught hold of the wood beneath, and spread from there to the porticoes. 233 When the Jews saw this fire all round them, they sagged in body and spirit and felt so shocked that none of them rushed either to defend himself or to quench the fire, but they just stood as mute onlookers. 234 However, their grief at this destruction made them no wiser in future, but the thought of the sanctuary itself being already on fire only heated their wrath against the Romans. 235 This fire continued to gain ground all that day and the next, for they could only set the porticoes alight bit by bit, and were unable to burn it all at once.

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[236] Τῇ δ' ἐπιούσῃ Τίτος μέρει τῆς δυνάμεως σβεννύειν τε καὶ τὰ παρὰ τὰς πύλας ὁδοποιεῖν εἰς εὐμαρεστέραν τῶν ταγμάτων ἄνοδον κελεύσας αὐτὸς συνῆγε τοὺς ἡγεμόνας. [237] Καὶ συνελθόντων ἓξ τῶν κορυφαιοτάτων, Τιβερίου τε Ἀλεξάνδρου τοῦ πάντων τῶν στρατευμάτων ἐπάρχοντος, καὶ Σέξτου Κερεαλίου τοῦ τὸ πέμπτον ἄγοντος τάγμα, καὶ Λαρκίου Λεπίδου τὸ δέκατον, καὶ Τίτου Φρυγίου τὸ πεντεκαιδέκατον, [238] πρὸς οἷς Φρόντων ἦν Ἑτέριος στρατοπεδάρχης τῶν ἀπὸ Ἀλεξανδρείας δύο ταγμάτων, καὶ Μᾶρκος Ἀντώνιος Ἰουλιανὸς ὁ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐπίτροπος, καὶ μετὰ τούτους ἐπιτρόπων καὶ χιλιάρχων ἀθροισθέντων, βουλὴν περὶ τοῦ ναοῦ προυτίθει. [239] Τοῖς μὲν οὖν ἐδόκει χρῆσθαι τῷ τοῦ πολέμου νόμῳ: μὴ γὰρ ἄν ποτε Ἰουδαίους παύσασθαι νεωτερίζοντας τοῦ ναοῦ μένοντος, ἐφ' ὃν οἱ πανταχόθεν συλλέγονται. [240] Τινὲς δὲ παρῄνουν, εἰ μὲν καταλίποιεν αὐτὸν Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ μηδεὶς ἐπ' αὐτοῦ τὰ ὅπλα θείη, σώζειν, εἰ δὲ πολεμοῖεν ἐπιβάντες, καταφλέγειν: φρούριον γάρ, οὐκέτι ναὸν εἶναι, καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν ἔσεσθαι τῶν ἀναγκασάντων τὴν ἀσέβειαν, οὐκ αὐτῶν. [241] Ὁ δὲ Τίτος οὐδ' ἂν ἐπιβάντες ἐπ' αὐτοῦ πολεμῶσιν Ἰουδαῖοι φήσας ἀντὶ τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἀμυνεῖσθαι τὰ ἄψυχα οὐδὲ καταφλέξειν ποτὲ τηλικοῦτον ἔργον: Ῥωμαίων γὰρ ἔσεσθαι τὴν βλάβην, ὥσπερ καὶ κόσμον τῆς ἡγεμονίας αὐτοῦ μένοντος: [242] θαρροῦντες δὲ ἤδη προσετίθεντο τῇ γνώμῃ Φρόντων τε καὶ Ἀλέξανδρος καὶ Κερεάλιος. [243] Τότε μὲν οὖν διαλύει τὸ συνέδριον καὶ τὰς ἄλλας δυνάμεις διαναπαῦσαι κελεύσας τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν, ὅπως ἐρρωμενεστέροις ἐν τῇ παρατάξει χρήσαιτο, τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν σπειρῶν ἐπιλέκτοις ὁδοποιεῖν διὰ τῶν ἐρειπίων προσέταξε καὶ τὸ πῦρ σβεννύειν.

3.

236 On the following day Titus ordered part of his army to quench the fire and to make a road for the easier entry of the legions, while he himself met with the officers. 237 The six chief commanders present were: Tiberius Alexander, head of the whole force, Sextus Cerealius, head of the fifth legion, Larcius Lepidus, head of the tenth, and Titus Frigius, head of the fifteenth. 238 With them was Fronto Haterius, head of the two legions from Alexandria, and Marcus Antonius Julianus, the procurator of Judea, and all the rest of the procurators and tribunes. 239 Asked what should be done about the sanctuary, some thought they should act by the rules of war, since the Jews would never stop rebelling while that house still stood, as their rallying point. 240 Others advised that if the Jews would leave it and none of them stored arms there, it should be spared, but that if they got up on it and fought on, it should be burned, since it is no longer a sanctuary but a fortress, and the impiety would fall on those who made this necessary rather than on them. 241 But Titus said that even if the Jews got up on the sanctuary and fought from there, he wished to spare those lifeless things from the flames, rather than the men themselves. It was the Romans who would lost by burning such a building, for while it stood it would adorn their rule. 242 Fronto and Alexander and Cerealius supported this view. 243 He concluded the meeting and told the officers to allow a rest-period to most of their forces, to invigorate them for the fray, but ordered that some elite troops from the legions should make their way through the ruins and quench the fire.

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[244] Κατ' ἐκείνην μὲν δὴ τὴν ἡμέραν τῶν Ἰουδαίων κάματός τε καὶ κατάπληξις ἐκράτησε τὰς ὁρμάς: τῇ δ' ἐπιούσῃ συλλεξάμενοί τε τὴν ἰσχὺν καὶ ἀναθαρσήσαντες ἐπεκθέουσι διὰ τῆς ἀνατολικῆς πύλης τοῖς φύλαξι τοῦ ἔξωθεν ἱεροῦ περὶ δευτέραν ὥραν. [245] Οἱ δὲ καρτερῶς μὲν ἐδέξαντο αὐτῶν τὴν ἐμβολὴν καὶ φραξάμενοι τοῖς θυρεοῖς κατὰ μέτωπον ὥσπερ τεῖχος ἐπύκνωσαν τὴν φάλαγγα, δῆλοι δ' ἦσαν οὐκ ἐπὶ πολὺ συμμενοῦντες πλήθει τε τῶν ἐκτρεχόντων καὶ θυμοῖς ἡττώμενοι. [246] Φθάσας δὲ τῆς παρατάξεως τὴν ῥοπὴν Καῖσαρ, καθεώρα γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἀντωνίας, ἐπήμυνε μετὰ τῶν ἐπιλέκτων ἱππέων. [247] Ἰουδαῖοι δὲ τὴν ἔφοδον οὐχ ὑπέμειναν, ἀλλὰ τῶν πρώτων πεσόντων ἐτράπησαν οἱ πολλοί: [248] καὶ ὑποχωροῦσι μὲν τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις ἐπιστρεφόμενοι προσέκειντο, μεταβαλλομένων δὲ ἀνέφευγον πάλιν, ἕως περὶ πέμπτην τῆς ἡμέρας ὥραν οἱ μὲν βιασθέντες εἰς τὸ ἔνδον συνεκλείσθησαν ἱερόν.

4.

244 All that day the Jews were so tired and alarmed that it sapped their energy, but the next day they regathered their forces and about the second hour made a bold attack on those guarding the eastern gate of the outer temple court. 245 These held out with great bravery and kept their line by covering themselves in front with their shields as though with a wall, though clearly they could not hold out very long against the number and fury of their attackers. 246 Watching from the Antonia tower, Caesar saw that the line about to break and sent some elite cavalry to support them. 247 The Jews could not stand up to this onset and the fall of their front ranks put many others to flight. 248 Yet whenever the Romans eased off, the Jews returned and fought them, retreating again when they wheeled about, until about the fifth hour of the day they gave up and barricaded themselves in the inner part of the temple.

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[249] Τίτος δὲ ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὴν Ἀντωνίαν διεγνωκὼς τῆς ἐπιούσης ἡμέρας ὑπὸ τὴν ἕω μετὰ πάσης ἐμβαλεῖν τῆς δυνάμεως καὶ τὸν ναὸν περικατασχεῖν. [250] Τοῦ δ' ἄρα κατεψήφιστο μὲν τὸ πῦρ ὁ θεὸς πάλαι, παρῆν δ' ἡ εἱμαρμένη χρόνων περιόδοις ἡμέρα δεκάτη Λώου μηνός, καθ' ἣν καὶ πρότερον ὑπὸ τοῦ τῶν Βαβυλωνίων βασιλέως ἐνεπρήσθη. [251] Λαμβάνουσι δ' αἱ φλόγες ἐκ τῶν οἰκείων τὴν ἀρχὴν καὶ τὴν αἰτίαν: ὑποχωρήσαντος γὰρ τοῦ Τίτου πρὸς ὀλίγον λωφήσαντες οἱ στασιασταὶ πάλιν τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις ἐπιτίθενται, καὶ τῶν τοῦ ναοῦ φρουρῶν γίνεται συμβολὴ πρὸς τοὺς σβεννύντας τὸ πῦρ τοῦ ἔνδοθεν ἱεροῦ, οἳ τρεψάμενοι τοὺς Ἰουδαίους μέχρι τοῦ ναοῦ παρηκολούθουν. [252] Ἔνθα δὴ τῶν στρατιωτῶν τις οὔτε παράγγελμα περιμείνας οὔτ' ἐπὶ τηλικούτῳ δείσας ἐγχειρήματι, δαιμονίῳ ὁρμῇ τινι χρώμενος ἁρπάζει μὲν ἐκ τῆς φλεγομένης † φλογός, ἀνακουφισθεὶς δὲ ὑπὸ συστρατιώτου τὸ πῦρ ἐνίησι θυρίδι χρυσῇ, καθ' ἣν εἰς τοὺς περὶ τὸν ναὸν οἴκους εἰσιτὸν ἦν ἐκ τοῦ βορείου κλίματος. [253] αἰρομένης δὲ τῆς φλογὸς Ἰουδαίων μὲν ἐγείρεται κραυγὴ τοῦ πάθους ἀξία, καὶ πρὸς τὴν ἄμυναν συνέθεον, οὔτε τοῦ ζῆν ἔτι φειδὼ λαμβάνοντες οὔτε ταμιευόμενοι τὴν ἰσχύν, δι' ὃ φυλακτικοὶ πρότερον ἦσαν οἰχομένου.

5.

249 Titus went back into the Antonia tower, having decided to storm the temple with his whole army the next day at dawn, and to surround the sanctuary. 250 God had long since doomed it to the fire, and now, in the turning of the ages, that fatal day had come, on the tenth of the month Lous, the very day it was burned long ago by the king of Babylon. 251 These flames however arose from and were caused by the inhabitants themselves, for after Titus withdrew the rebels stayed quiet for a while but then attacked the Romans again. The defenders of the sanctuary clashed with those who were fighting the fire in the inner temple, but the Romans put the Jews to flight and went as far as the sanctuary itself. 252 Meanwhile one of the soldiers, without waiting for orders and heedless of such a dreadful deed, but urged on by a divine fury, snatched something from the blaze and, hoisted up by a colleague, set fire to a golden window giving on to the chambers near the sanctuary, on the north side. 253 As the flames went upward, the Jews cried out at the disaster and ran together to prevent it, risking their lives and stopping at nothing to prevent the ruin of that temple for whose sake they had fought so long.

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[254] Δραμὼν δέ τις ἀγγέλλει Τίτῳ: κἀκεῖνος, ἔτυχεν δὲ κατὰ σκηνὴν ἀναπαυόμενος ἐκ τῆς μάχης, ὡς εἶχεν ἀναπηδήσας ἔθει πρὸς τὸν ναὸν εἴρξων τὸ πῦρ. [255] Κατόπιν δὲ οἵ τε ἡγεμόνες εἵποντο πάντες, καὶ πτοηθέντα τούτοις ἠκολούθει τὰ τάγματα: βοὴ δὲ ἦν καὶ θόρυβος ἅτε τηλικαύτης δυνάμεως ἀτάκτως κεκινημένης. [256] Ὁ μὲν οὖν Καῖσαρ τῇ τε φωνῇ καὶ τῇ δεξιᾷ διεσήμαινε τοῖς μαχομένοις τὸ πῦρ σβεννύειν, οὔτε δὲ βοῶντος ἤκουον μείζονι κραυγῇ τὰς ἀκοὰς προκατειλημμένοι καὶ τοῖς νεύμασι τῆς χειρὸς οὐ προσεῖχον, οἱ μὲν τῷ πολεμεῖν, οἱ δὲ ὀργῇ περισπώμενοι. [257] Τῶν δὲ ταγμάτων εἰσθεόντων οὔτε παραίνεσις οὔτ' ἀπειλὴ κατεῖχεν τὰς ὁρμάς, ἀλλ' ὁ θυμὸς ἁπάντων ἐστρατήγει: καὶ περὶ τὰς εἰσόδους συνωθούμενοι πολλοὶ μὲν ὑπ' ἀλλήλων κατεπατοῦντο, πολλοὶ δὲ θερμοῖς ἔτι καὶ τυφομένοις τοῖς ἐρειπίοις τῶν στοῶν ἐμπίπτοντες ἡττωμένων συμφοραῖς ἐχρῶντο. [258] Πλησίον δὲ τοῦ ναοῦ γινόμενοι τῶν μὲν τοῦ Καίσαρος παραγγελμάτων προσεποιοῦντο μηδὲ κατακούειν, τοῖς πρὸ αὐτῶν δὲ τὸ πῦρ ἐνιέναι παρεκελεύοντο. [259] Τῶν δὲ στασιαστῶν ἀμηχανία μὲν ἦν ἤδη τοῦ βοηθεῖν, φόνος δὲ πανταχοῦ καὶ τροπή. Τὸ δὲ πλέον ἀπὸ τοῦ δήμου λαὸς ἀσθενὴς καὶ ἄνοπλος ὅπου καταληφθείη τις ἀπεσφάττετο, καὶ περὶ μὲν τὸν βωμὸν πλῆθος ἐσωρεύετο νεκρῶν, κατὰ δὲ τῶν τοῦ ναοῦ βάθρων αἷμά τ' ἔρρει πολὺ καὶ τὰ τῶν ἄνω φονευομένων σώματα κατωλίσθανε.

6.

254 Titus was resting in his tent after the last battle, when someone ran to tell him of this fire; and he got up just as he was and ran to the sanctuary, to stop the fire. 255 Behind came all his officers and the various legions in a hub-bub, with the usual noise and confusion when such a large army is on the move. 256 Caesar called loudly to his fighters and signalled to them with his hand, telling them to quench the fire. But distracted with battle and fury, with their ears already dulled by a louder sound they did not hear his shout nor heed his hand-signal. 257 Neither pleas nor threats could restrain the violence of the unrushing legions but all were governed by rage. As they crowded into the temple, many were trampled by each other, and others stumbled blindly among the ruins of the hot and smoking porticoes, and shared in the fate of their vanquished foes. 258 Reaching the temple, they seemed not to hear Caesar's orders to the contrary, but urged those in front to add to the fire. 259 The rebels were unable to do anything and death and carnage were everywhere. Most of the citizens were weak and unarmed and had their throats cut wherever they were caught, and round about the altar lay heaps of corpses, and the steps of the sanctuary ran with their blood, as the bodies killed up above slid down on top of them.

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[260] Καῖσαρ δ' ὡς οὔτε τὰς ὁρμὰς ἐνθουσιώντων τῶν στρατιωτῶν κατασχεῖν οἷός τε ἦν καὶ τὸ πῦρ ἐπεκράτει, παρελθὼν μετὰ τῶν ἡγεμόνων ἔνδον ἐθεάσατο τοῦ ναοῦ τὸ ἅγιον καὶ τὰ ἐν αὐτῷ, πολὺ μὲν τῆς παρὰ τοῖς ἀλλοφύλοις φήμης ἀμείνω, τοῦ δὲ κόμπου καὶ τῆς παρὰ τοῖς οἰκείοις δόξης οὐκ ἐλάττω. [261] Τῆς φλογὸς δὲ οὐδέπω διικνουμένης οὐδαμόθεν εἴσω, τοὺς δὲ περὶ τὸν ναὸν οἴκους νεμομένης, νομίσας, ὅπερ ἦν, ἔτι σώζεσθαι τὸ ἔργον δύνασθαι προπηδᾷ, [262] καὶ αὐτός τε παρακαλεῖν τοὺς στρατιώτας ἐπειρᾶτο τὸ πῦρ σβεννύειν καὶ Λιβεράλιον ἑκατοντάρχην τῶν περὶ αὐτὸν λογχοφόρων ξύλοις παίοντα τοὺς ἀπειθοῦντας ἐκέλευσεν εἴργειν. [263] Τῶν δὲ καὶ τὴν πρὸς τὸν Καίσαρα αἰδῶ καὶ τὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ κωλύοντος φόβον ἐνίκων οἱ θυμοὶ καὶ τὸ πρὸς Ἰουδαίους μῖσος, καὶ πολεμική τις ὁρμὴ λαβροτέρα: [264] τοὺς δὲ πολλοὺς ἐνῆγεν ἁρπαγῆς ἐλπίς, δόξαν τε ἔχοντας ὡς τὰ ἔνδον ἅπαντα χρημάτων μεστὰ εἴη, καὶ τὰ πέριξ ὁρῶντας χρυσοῦ πεποιημένα. [265] Φθάνει δέ τις καὶ τῶν εἴσω παρεληλυθότων ἐκπηδήσαντος τοῦ Καίσαρος πρὸς ἐποχὴν τῶν στρατιωτῶν πῦρ εἰς τοὺς στροφέας ἐμβαλὼν τῆς πύλης † ἐν σκότῳ: [266] τότε γὰρ ἐξαπίνης ἔνδοθεν ἐκφανείσης φλογὸς οἵ τε ἡγεμόνες μετὰ τοῦ Καίσαρος ἀνεχώρουν, καὶ τοὺς ἔξωθεν οὐδεὶς ὑφάπτειν ἐκώλυεν. Ὁ μὲν οὖν ναὸς οὕτως ἄκοντος Καίσαρος ἐμπίπραται.

7.

260 As Caesar could not restrain the fury of his troops and with the fire taking control, he went with his officers into the sanctuary of the temple, and saw it and its contents, which far exceeded what others had reported and was not inferior to the fame it enjoyed among our people. 261 Then, as the flames had nowhere penetrated to its core but were burning the rooms around the sanctuary, Titus, thinking that the building itself could he saved, hurried to persuade the soldiers to quench the fire. 262 He ordered Liberalius, a centurion of the spearmen, to beat with clubs any soldier who refused to obey. 263 But their passions overcame their regard for Caesar and their fear of the officer's command, and their hatred of the Jews and lust for battle won the day. 264 Also, the hope of loot urged many on, believing that the rooms inside were full of money, seeing that everything round about it was made of gold. 265 Besides, before Caesar ran out to restrain the soldiers, someone already in the place went ahead in the dark and threw fire against the hinges of the gate. 266 The flame immediately burst out from within the sanctuary itself, and then the officers, including Caesar, retreated, and there was nobody to forbid those outside adding to the blaze. So the sanctuary was burned down, without Caesar's approval.

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[267] Πολλὰ δ' ἄν τις ἐπολοφυράμενος ἔργῳ πάντων ὧν ὄψει καὶ ἀκοῇ παρειλήφαμεν θαυμασιωτάτῳ κατασκευῆς τε ἕνεκα καὶ μεγέθους ἔτι τε τῆς καθ' ἕκαστον πολυτελείας καὶ τῆς περὶ τὰ ἅγια δόξης, μεγίστην λάβοι παραμυθίαν τὴν εἱμαρμένην ἄφυκτον οὖσαν ὥσπερ ἐμψύχοις οὕτω καὶ ἔργοις καὶ τόποις. [268] Θαυμάσαι δ' ἄν τις ἐν αὐτῇ τῆς περιόδου τὴν ἀκρίβειαν: καὶ μῆνα γοῦν, ὡς ἔφην, καὶ ἡμέραν ἐτήρησεν τὴν αὐτήν, ἐν ᾗ πρότερον ὑπὸ Βαβυλωνίων ὁ ναὸς ἐνεπρήσθη. [269] Καὶ ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς πρώτης αὐτοῦ κτίσεως, ἣν κατεβάλετο Σολομὼν ὁ βασιλεύς; μέχρι τῆς νῦν ἀναιρέσεως, ἣ γέγονεν ἔτει δευτέρῳ τῆς Οὐεσπασιανοῦ ἡγεμονίας, ἔτη συνάγεται χίλια ἑκατὸν τριάκοντα, πρὸς δὲ μῆνες ἑπτὰ καὶ πεντεκαίδεκα ἡμέραι: [270] ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ὕστερον, ἣν ἔτει δευτέρῳ Κύρου βασιλεύοντος ἐποιήσατο Ἀγγαῖος, ἔτη μέχρι τῆς ὑπὸ Οὐεσπασιανοῦ ἁλώσεως τριακονταεννέα πρὸς ἑξακοσίοις καὶ ἡμέραι τεσσαρακονταπέντε.

8.

267 Much as we must mourn the loss of such a work, the most marvellous building ever seen or heard about, for its unique structure and size and for its richness of detail and its glorious reputation for sanctity, one can find solace in the idea that fate, avoidable by living creatures or by works and places, decreed it so. 268 One must also marvel at the precision of the timing, for, as I said before, it happened on the same month and day when the sanctuary was formerly burned by the Babylonians. 269 From its first foundation by king Solomon until its destruction, in the second year of the reign of Vespasian, it lasted one thousand one hundred and thirty years, seven months and fifteen days. 270 From its second building, under Haggai, in the second year of king Cyrus until its destruction under Vespasian, were six hundred and thirty-nine years and forty-five days.

Chapter 05. [271-315]
The Jews' distress at the burning of the Temple. Portents that preceded the destruction of Jerusalem

[271] Καιομένου δὲ τοῦ ναοῦ τῶν μὲν προσπιπτόντων ἦν ἁρπαγή, φόνος δὲ τῶν καταλαμβανομένων μυρίος καὶ οὔτε ἡλικίας ἦν ἔλεος οὔτ' ἐντροπὴ σεμνότητος, ἀλλὰ καὶ παιδία καὶ γέροντες καὶ βέβηλοι καὶ ἱερεῖς ὁμοίως ἀνῃροῦντο, καὶ πᾶν γένος ἐπεξῄει περισχὼν ὁ πόλεμος, ὁμοῦ τούς τε ἱκετεύοντας καὶ τοὺς ἀμυνομένους. [272] Συνήχει δὲ ἡ φλὸξ ἐπὶ πλεῖστον ἐκφερομένη τοῖς τῶν πιπτόντων στεναγμοῖς, καὶ διὰ μὲν τὸ ὕψος τοῦ λόφου καὶ τὸ τοῦ φλεγομένου μέγεθος ἔργου πᾶσαν ἄν τις ἔδοξε καίεσθαι τὴν πόλιν, τῆς δὲ βοῆς ἐκείνης οὐδὲν ἐπινοηθῆναι δύναιτ' ἂν ἢ μεῖζον ἢ φοβερώτερον. [273] Τῶν τε γὰρ Ῥωμαικῶν ταγμάτων ἀλαλαγμὸς ἦν συμφερομένων, καὶ τῶν στασιαστῶν πυρὶ καὶ σιδήρῳ κεκυκλωμένων κραυγή, τοῦ τε ἀποληφθέντος ἄνω λαοῦ τροπή τε μετ' ἐκπλήξεως εἰς τοὺς πολεμίους καὶ πρὸς τὸ πάθος οἰμωγαί. [274] Συνεβόα δὲ τοῖς ἐπὶ τοῦ λόφου τὸ κατὰ τὴν πόλιν πλῆθος: ἤδη δὲ πολλοὶ τῷ λιμῷ μαραινόμενοι καὶ μεμυκότες ὡς εἶδον τὸ τοῦ ναοῦ πῦρ, εἰς ὀδυρμοὺς πάλιν καὶ κραυγὴν εὐτόνησαν: συνήχει δὲ ἥ τε Περαία καὶ τὰ πέριξ ὄρη βαρυτέραν ποιοῦντα τὴν βοήν. [275] Ἦν δὲ τοῦ θορύβου τὰ πάθη φοβερώτερα: τὸν μέν γε τοῦ ἱεροῦ λόφον ἐκ ῥιζῶν ἄν τις ἔδοξε βράττεσθαι πάντοθεν τοῦ πυρὸς καταγέμοντα, δαψιλέστερον δὲ τὸ αἷμα τοῦ πυρὸς εἶναι καὶ τῶν φονευόντων πλείους τοὺς φονευομένους: [276] οὐδαμοῦ γὰρ ἡ γῆ διεφαίνετο τῶν νεκρῶν, ἀλλὰ σωροῖς ἐπιβαίνοντες οἱ στρατιῶται σωμάτων ἐπὶ τοὺς διαφεύγοντας ἔθεον. [277] Τὸ μὲν οὖν λῃστρικὸν πλῆθος ὠσάμενοι τοὺς Ῥωμαίους μόλις εἰς τὸ ἔξω διεκπίπτουσιν ἱερὸν κἀκεῖθεν εἰς τὴν πόλιν, τοῦ δημοτικοῦ δὲ τὸ λειφθὲν ἐπὶ τὴν ἔξω στοὰν κατέφυγε. [278] Τῶν δὲ ἱερέων τινὲς τὸ μὲν πρῶτον ἀπὸ τοῦ ναοῦ τούς τε ὀβελοὺς καὶ τὰς ἕδρας αὐτῶν μολίβου πεποιημένας ἀνασπῶντες εἰς τοὺς Ῥωμαίους ἠφίεσαν, [279] αὖθις δὲ ὡς οὔτε ἤνυόν τι καὶ τὸ πῦρ ἐπ' αὐτοὺς ἀνερρήγνυτο, ἐπὶ τὸν τοῖχον ἀναχωρήσαντες ὄντα ὀκτάπηχυν τὸ εὖρος ἔμενον. [280] Δύο γε μὴν τῶν ἐπισήμων, παρὸν σωθῆναι πρὸς Ῥωμαίους μεταστᾶσιν ἢ διακαρτερεῖν πρὸς τὴν μετὰ τῶν ἄλλων τύχην, ἑαυτοὺς ἔρριψαν εἰς τὸ πῦρ καὶ τῷ ναῷ συγκατεφλέγησαν, Μηιρός τε υἱὸς Βελγᾶ καὶ Ἰώσηπος Δαλαίου.

1.

271 While the sanctuary was burning, all that came to hand was looted and thousands of captives were killed. No pity was shown for youth or respect for age, but children and old men and laity and priests were all alike killed, so that this war engulfed and destroyed all sorts of people, whether begged or fought for their lives. 272 The flame carried a long way and echoed with the groans of the fallen, and as the hill was high and the temple buildings were large, it seemed the whole city was on fire. Nothing louder or more terrible than this noise is imaginable, 273 mingling the shouting from the Roman legions and the cries of the rebels, now surrounded by fire and sword. Those who were left above were forced back onto the enemy and wailed in panic at their lot, 274 and the people in the city joined their cries with those up the hill and many who were wasted and silenced by hunger broke out again into groans and shouts on seeing the sanctuary on fire, until Perea and the mountains round about returned the echo, increasing its volume. 275 Even more terrible was the disaster itself, for the hill on which the temple stood seemed boiling hot, as though shot through with fire and the bloodshed spread wider than the fire and there seemed more of the slain than of the killers. 276 The ground could not be seen, for all the corpses lying on it, and the soldiers marched over heaps of bodies, in pursuit of the fugitives. 277 Many of the brigands were forced out and could barely get to the outer court and from there into the city, while the rest of the people fled to the portico of the outer court. 278 Some of the priests pulled up from the sanctuary the spikes set into it, with their bases made of lead, to shoot at the Romans; 279 but as this achieved nothing and the fire was bursting upon them, they retreated to the wall that was eight feet broad and stayed there. 280 Two of their prominent members, Meirus the son of Belgas and Joseph the son of Daleus, who might have saved themselves by going over to the Romans, or have bravely shared the fate of the others, threw themselves into the fire and were burned along with the temple.

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[281] Ῥωμαῖοι δὲ μάταιον τὴν ἐπὶ τοῖς πέριξ φειδὼ κρίναντες τοῦ ναοῦ φλεγομένου πάντα συνεπίμπρασαν, τά τε λείψανα τῶν στοῶν καὶ τὰς πύλας πλὴν δύο, τῆς μὲν ἐκ τῶν ἀνατολικῶν τῆς δὲ μεσημβρινῆς: καὶ ταύτας ὕστερον κατέσκαψαν. [282] Ἔκαιον δὲ καὶ τὰ γαζοφυλάκια, ἐν οἷς ἄπειρον μὲν χρημάτων πλῆθος ἄπειροι δ' ἐσθῆτες καὶ ἄλλα κειμήλια, συνελόντι δ' εἰπεῖν, πᾶς ὁ Ἰουδαίων σεσώρευτο πλοῦτος, ἀνεσκευασμένων ἐκεῖ τοὺς οἴκους τῶν εὐπόρων. [283] Ἧκον δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν λοιπὴν στοὰν τοῦ ἔξωθεν ἱεροῦ: καταφεύγει δ' ἐπ' αὐτὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ δήμου γύναια καὶ παιδία καὶ σύμμικτος ὄχλος εἰς ἑξακισχιλίους. [284] Πρὶν δὲ Καίσαρα κρῖναί τι περὶ αὐτῶν ἢ κελεῦσαι τοὺς ἡγεμόνας, φερόμενοι τοῖς θυμοῖς οἱ στρατιῶται τὴν στοὰν ὑφάπτουσι, καὶ συνέβη τοὺς μὲν ῥιπτοῦντας αὑτοὺς ἐκ τῆς φλογὸς διαφθαρῆναι, τοὺς δὲ ἐν αὐτῇ: περιεσώθη δὲ ἐκ τοσούτων οὐδείς. [285] Τούτοις αἴτιος τῆς ἀπωλείας ψευδοπροφήτης τις κατέστη κατ' ἐκείνην κηρύξας τὴν ἡμέραν τοῖς ἐπὶ τῆς πόλεως, ὡς ὁ θεὸς ἐπὶ τὸ ἱερὸν ἀναβῆναι κελεύει δεξομένους τὰ σημεῖα τῆς σωτηρίας. [286] Πολλοὶ δ' ἦσαν ἐγκάθετοι παρὰ τῶν τυράννων τότε πρὸς τὸν δῆμον προφῆται προσμένειν τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ βοήθειαν καταγγέλλοντες, ὡς ἧττον αὐτομολοῖεν καὶ τοὺς ἐπάνω δέους καὶ φυλακῆς γενομένους ἐλπὶς παρακροτοίη. [287] Πείθεται δὲ ταχέως ἄνθρωπος ἐν συμφοραῖς, ὅταν δ' ἤδη καὶ τῶν κατεχόντων δεινῶν ἀπαλλαγὴν ὁ ἐξαπατῶν ὑπογράφῃ, τόθ' ὁ πάσχων ὅλος γίνεται τῆς ἐλπίδος.

2.

281 The Romans, judging it useless to spare anything near the sanctuary, burned all those places, and the remains of the porticoes and the gates, except two, on the east side and on the south, both of which they burned later. 282 They also burned down the treasury rooms which held a huge amount of money and many garments and other precious things, for in a word, it was there that all the riches of the Jews were deposited, while the wealthy had built themselves chambers there. 283 The soldiers came to the remaining porticoes in the outer temple, where the women and children had fled along with about six thousand of the people. 284 Before Caesar had decided the fate of these or given the officerss any orders about them, the soldiers in their fury set that portico on fire, so that some were killed by throwing themselves down headlong and some were burned within the porticoes, and nobody escaped alive. 285 The cause of this destruction was a false prophet, who had that day proclaimed publicly in the city that God wanted them to ascend to the temple, where they would receive signs of salvation. 286 Many false prophets were bribed by the tyrants to mislead the people, telling them to expect salvation from God to keep them from deserting, and by such hopes to raise them above fear and anxiety. 287 In adversity one easily accepts such promises, and when through such a seducer one believes he will be saved from present hardships, the sufferer is filled with hope.

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[288] Τὸν γοῦν ἄθλιον δῆμον οἱ μὲν ἀπατεῶνες καὶ καταψευδόμενοι τοῦ θεοῦ τηνικαῦτα παρέπειθον, τοῖς δ' ἐναργέσι καὶ προσημαίνουσι τὴν μέλλουσαν ἐρημίαν τέρασιν οὔτε προσεῖχον οὔτ' ἐπίστευον, ἀλλ' ὡς ἐμβεβροντημένοι καὶ μήτε ὄμματα μήτε ψυχὴν ἔχοντες τῶν τοῦ θεοῦ κηρυγμάτων παρήκουσαν, [289] τοῦτο μὲν ὅτε ὑπὲρ τὴν πόλιν ἄστρον ἔστη ῥομφαίᾳ παραπλήσιον καὶ παρατείνας ἐπ' ἐνιαυτὸν κομήτης, [290] τοῦτο δ' ἡνίκα πρὸ τῆς ἀποστάσεως καὶ τοῦ πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον κινήματος ἀθροιζομένου τοῦ λαοῦ πρὸς τὴν τῶν ἀζύμων ἑορτήν, ὀγδόη δ' ἦν Ξανθικοῦ μηνός, κατὰ νυκτὸς ἐνάτην ὥραν τοσοῦτο φῶς περιέλαμψε τὸν βωμὸν καὶ τὸν ναόν, ὡς δοκεῖν ἡμέραν εἶναι λαμπράν, καὶ τοῦτο παρέτεινεν ἐφ' ἡμίσειαν ὥραν: [291] ὃ τοῖς μὲν ἀπείροις ἀγαθὸν ἐδόκει, τοῖς δὲ ἱερογραμματεῦσι πρὸς τῶν ἀποβεβηκότων εὐθέως ἐκρίθη. [292] Καὶ κατὰ τὴν αὐτὴν ἑορτὴν βοῦς μὲν ἀχθεῖσα ὑπό του πρὸς τὴν θυσίαν ἔτεκεν ἄρνα ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ μέσῳ, [293] ἡ δ' ἀνατολικὴ πύλη τοῦ ἐνδοτέρω ναοῦ χαλκῆ μὲν οὖσα καὶ στιβαρωτάτη, κλειομένη δὲ περὶ δείλην μόλις ὑπ' ἀνθρώπων εἴκοσι, καὶ μοχλοῖς μὲν ἐπερειδομένη σιδηροδέτοις, κατάπηγας δὲ ἔχουσα βαθυτάτους εἰς τὸν οὐδὸν ὄντα διηνεκοῦς λίθου καθιεμένους, ὤφθη κατὰ νυκτὸς ὥραν ἕκτην αὐτομάτως ἠνοιγμένη. [294] Δραμόντες δὲ οἱ τοῦ ἱεροῦ φύλακες ἤγγειλαν τῷ στρατηγῷ, κἀκεῖνος ἀναβὰς μόλις αὐτὴν ἴσχυσεν κλεῖσαι. [295] Πάλιν τοῦτο τοῖς μὲν ἰδιώταις κάλλιστον ἐδόκει τέρας: ἀνοῖξαι γὰρ τὸν θεὸν αὐτοῖς τὴν τῶν ἀγαθῶν πύλην: οἱ λόγιοι δὲ λυομένην αὐτομάτως τοῦ ναοῦ τὴν ἀσφάλειαν ἐνενόουν, καὶ πολεμίοις δῶρον ἀνοίγεσθαι τὴν πύλην, δηλωτικόν τε ἐρημίας ἀπέφαινον ἐν αὑτοῖς τὸ σημεῖον. [296] Μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἑορτὴν οὐ πολλαῖς ἡμέραις ὕστερον, μιᾷ καὶ εἰκάδι Ἀρτεμισίου μηνός, φάσμα τι δαιμόνιον ὤφθη μεῖζον πίστεως: [297] τερατεία δὲ ἂν ἔδοξεν οἶμαι τὸ ῥηθησόμενον, εἰ μὴ καὶ παρὰ τοῖς θεασαμένοις ἱστόρητο καὶ τὰ ἐπακολουθήσαντα πάθη τῶν σημείων ἦν ἄξια: [298] πρὸ γὰρ ἡλίου δύσεως ὤφθη μετέωρα περὶ πᾶσαν τὴν χώραν ἅρματα καὶ φάλαγγες ἔνοπλοι διᾴττουσαι τῶν νεφῶν καὶ κυκλούμεναι τὰς πόλεις. [299] Κατὰ δὲ τὴν ἑορτήν, ἣ πεντηκοστὴ καλεῖται, νύκτωρ οἱ ἱερεῖς παρελθόντες εἰς τὸ ἔνδον ἱερόν, ὥσπερ αὐτοῖς ἔθος πρὸς τὰς λειτουργίας, πρῶτον μὲν κινήσεως ἔφασαν ἀντιλαβέσθαι καὶ κτύπου, μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα φωνῆς ἀθρόας "μεταβαίνομεν ἐντεῦθεν." τὸ δὲ τούτων φοβερώτερον, [300] Ἰησοῦς γάρ τις υἱὸς Ἀνανίου τῶν ἰδιωτῶν ἄγροικος πρὸ τεσσάρων ἐτῶν τοῦ πολέμου τὰ μάλιστα τῆς πόλεως εἰρηνευομένης καὶ εὐθηνούσης, ἐλθὼν εἰς τὴν ἑορτήν, ἐν ᾗ σκηνοποιεῖσθαι πάντας ἔθος τῷ θεῷ, κατὰ τὸ ἱερὸν ἐξαπίνης ἀναβοᾶν ἤρξατο "φωνὴ ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς, [301] φωνὴ ἀπὸ δύσεως, φωνὴ ἀπὸ τῶν τεσσάρων ἀνέμων, φωνὴ ἐπὶ Ἱεροσόλυμα καὶ τὸν ναόν, φωνὴ ἐπὶ νυμφίους καὶ νύμφας, φωνὴ ἐπὶ τὸν λαὸν πάντα." τοῦτο μεθ' ἡμέραν καὶ νύκτωρ κατὰ πάντας τοὺς στενωποὺς περιῄει κεκραγώς. [302] Τῶν δὲ ἐπισήμων τινὲς δημοτῶν ἀγανακτήσαντες πρὸς τὸ κακόφημον συλλαμβάνουσι τὸν ἄνθρωπον καὶ πολλαῖς αἰκίζονται πληγαῖς. Ὁ δὲ οὔθ' ὑπὲρ αὑτοῦ φθεγξάμενος οὔτε ἰδίᾳ πρὸς τοὺς παίοντας, ἃς καὶ πρότερον φωνὰς βοῶν διετέλει. [303] Νομίσαντες δὲ οἱ ἄρχοντες, ὅπερ ἦν, δαιμονιώτερον τὸ κίνημα τἀνδρὸς ἀνάγουσιν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸν παρὰ Ῥωμαίοις ἔπαρχον. [304] Ἔνθα μάστιξι μέχρι ὀστέων ξαινόμενος οὔθ' ἱκέτευσεν οὔτ' ἐδάκρυσεν, ἀλλ' ὡς ἐνῆν μάλιστα τὴν φωνὴν ὀλοφυρτικῶς παρεγκλίνων πρὸς ἑκάστην [305] ἀπεκρίνατο πληγήν "αἰαὶ Ἱεροσολύμοις." τοῦ δ' Ἀλβίνου διερωτῶντος, οὗτος γὰρ ἔπαρχος ἦν, τίς εἴη καὶ πόθεν, καὶ διὰ τί ταῦτα φθέγγοιτο, πρὸς ταῦτα μὲν οὐδ' ὁτιοῦν ἀπεκρίνατο, τὸν δὲ ἐπὶ τῇ πόλει θρῆνον εἴρων οὐ διέλειπεν, μέχρι καταγνοὺς μανίαν ὁ Ἀλβῖνος ἀπέλυσεν αὐτόν. [306] Ὁ δὲ τὸν μέχρι τοῦ πολέμου χρόνον οὔτε προσῄει τινὶ τῶν πολιτῶν οὔτε ὤφθη λαλῶν, ἀλλὰ καθ' ἡμέραν ὥσπερ εὐχὴν μεμελετηκώς "αἰαὶ Ἱεροσολύμοις" ἐθρήνει. [307] Οὔτε δέ τινι τῶν τυπτόντων αὐτὸν ὁσημέραι κατηρᾶτο οὔτε τοὺς τροφῆς μεταδιδόντας εὐλόγει, μία δὲ πρὸς πάντας ἦν ἡ σκυθρωπὴ κλῃδὼν ἀπόκρισις. [308] Μάλιστα δ' ἐν ταῖς ἑορταῖς ἐκεκράγει: καὶ τοῦτ' ἐφ' ἑπτὰ ἔτη καὶ μῆνας πέντε εἴρων οὔτ' ἤμβλυνεν τὴν φωνὴν οὔτ' ἔκαμεν, μέχρις οὗ κατὰ τὴν πολιορκίαν ἔργα τῆς κλῃδόνος ἰδὼν ἀνεπαύσατο. [309] Περιιὼν γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ τείχους "αἰαὶ πάλιν τῇ πόλει καὶ τῷ λαῷ καὶ τῷ ναῷ" διαπρύσιον ἐβόα, ὡς δὲ τελευταῖον προσέθηκεν "αἰαὶ δὲ κἀμοί", λίθος ἐκ τοῦ πετροβόλου σχασθεὶς καὶ πλήξας αὐτὸν παραχρῆμα κτείνει, φθεγγομένην δ' ἔτι τὰς κλῃδόνας ἐκείνας τὴν ψυχὴν ἀφῆκε.

3.

288 In this way the poor people were led by these deceivers, who lied about God while not seeing or believing the clear signs which foretold their coming ruin. Infatuated, without eyes to see or minds to ponder, they ignored what God was telling them. 289 A star like a sword had stood above the city for a whole year, and a comet too. 290 Also, before the revolt and the troubles preceding the war, when the people flocked to the feast of Azymes, on the eighth day of the month Xanthicus, at the ninth hour of the night, such a great light shone round the altar and the sanctuary, that it appeared to be bright daylight, and lasted for half an hour. 291 The ignorant thought this light was a good sign but the sacred scribes judged it a portent of the events coming soon after. 292 At the same festival, a heifer being led to sacrifice by the high priest brought forth a lamb in the middle of the temple. 293 The bronze eastern gate of the inner temple, so heavy that it was hard for twenty men to shut it, and which rested upon a foundation clad in iron, with bolts fastened deep into its base formed of one single stone, was seen to open of its own accord about the sixth hour of the night. 294 The temple guards came running to the captain of the temple and told him of it and when he came there he had difficulty in shutting the gate again. 295 To the crowd this also appeared to be a favourable prodigy, as though God were opening to them the gateway of good things. But the wise knew that the safety of their temple had fled away and that the gate opened to let in the enemy, a clear advance sign of the desolation coming upon them. 296 A few days after the festival, on the twenty first day of the month Artemisius, a mighty and incredible thing appeared. 297 I guess the account would seem a fable, if it were not reported by eye-witnesses and if the events that followed it were not so important as to merit such signs. 298 Just before sunset, chariots and troops of soldiers in armour were seen running about among the clouds, encircling the cities. 299 Moreover, at the feast we call Pentecost, as the priests were going into the inner sanctuary at night to perform their traditional rites, it is said that they felt a quake and a mighty rumbling and heard a sound as of a large crowd, saying, "Let us move from here." 300 And, something even more terrifying, a man called Jesus ben Ananus, a peasant farmer, four years before the war began and at a time when the city was enjoying peace and prosperity, came to the feast when it is our custom for everyone to make tents to God in the temple, 301 and suddenly began to cry aloud, "A voice from the east, a voice from the west, a voice from the four winds, a voice against Jerusalem and the sanctuary, a voice against the bridegrooms and the brides, a voice against this whole people!" This was his cry, going around through all the lanes of the city day and night. 302 Some of the prominent people were so angry at this dire cry that they seized the man and beat him severely, yet he said nothing in his own defence or against those who chastised him, but repeated the crying out the same words as before. 303 Then our officers, thinking, as it turned out, that this was some kind of divine fury in the man, brought him to the Roman procurator, 304 where he was whipped until his bones were laid bare. And still he made no prayer for himself, and shed no tears, but in the most pitiable tones called out at every stroke of the whip, "Woe, woe to Jerusalem!" 305 When Albinus, who was then in charge, asked him who he was and where he came from and why he said such words, he made no reply, but did not cease his sad refrain, until Albinus took him for a madman and released him. 306 All the while until the war began, this man did not go near any of the citizens, and was unseen by them while he spoke, but every day he uttered these words of lament, as though under a vow, "Woe, woe to Jerusalem!" 307 He spoke no evil to those who beat him every day, nor good to those who gave him food, but this was his reply to all, and it was no less than a sad prediction of what was to come. 308 His cry was loudest at the festivals, and he repeated this refrain for seven years and five months, without growing hoarse or tiring of it, until the very time that he saw his prophecy fulfilled in earnest during our siege. 309 Then it ceased, for as he was going around upon the wall, crying out with all his force, "Woe, woe to the city, and to the people and to the sanctuary!" just as he finally added, "Woe, woe to myself also!" a stone came from one of the machines and struck him and killed him and he gave up his life with the same ominous words.

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[310] Ταῦτά τις ἐννοῶν εὑρήσει τὸν μὲν θεὸν ἀνθρώπων κηδόμενον καὶ παντοίως προσημαίνοντα τῷ σφετέρῳ γένει τὰ σωτήρια, τοὺς δ' ὑπ' ἀνοίας καὶ κακῶν αὐθαιρέτων ἀπολλυμένους, [311] ὅπου γε Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ τὸ ἱερὸν μετὰ τὴν καθαίρεσιν τῆς Ἀντωνίας τετράγωνον ἐποίησαν, ἀναγεγραμμένον ἐν τοῖς λογίοις ἔχοντες ἁλώσεσθαι τὴν πόλιν καὶ τὸν ναόν, ἐπειδὰν τὸ ἱερὸν γένηται τετράγωνον. [312] Τὸ δ' ἐπᾶραν αὐτοὺς μάλιστα πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον ἦν χρησμὸς ἀμφίβολος ὁμοίως ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς εὑρημένος γράμμασιν, ὡς κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν ἐκεῖνον ἀπὸ τῆς χώρας αὐτῶν τις ἄρξει τῆς οἰκουμένης. [313] Τοῦθ' οἱ μὲν ὡς οἰκεῖον ἐξέλαβον καὶ πολλοὶ τῶν σοφῶν ἐπλανήθησαν περὶ τὴν κρίσιν, ἐδήλου δ' ἄρα τὴν Οὐεσπασιανοῦ τὸ λόγιον ἡγεμονίαν ἀποδειχθέντος ἐπὶ Ἰουδαίας αὐτοκράτορος. [314] Ἀλλὰ γὰρ οὐ δυνατὸν ἀνθρώποις τὸ χρεὼν διαφυγεῖν οὐδὲ προορωμένοις. [315] Οἱ δὲ καὶ τῶν σημείων ἃ μὲν ἔκριναν πρὸς ἡδονὴν ἃ δὲ ἐξουθένησαν, μέχρις οὗ τῇ τε ἁλώσει τῆς πατρίδος καὶ τῷ σφῶν αὐτῶν ὀλέθρῳ διηλέγχθησαν τὴν ἄνοιαν.

4.

310 Considering these things, one will find that God takes care of people and foretells to our race by all possible means what is for their safety, but that men die from evils that they madly and freely bring upon themselves. 311 For the Jews, by demolishing the Antonia tower, had made their temple four-square, although it was written in their sacred oracles that their city and their temple would be captured once their temple became four-square. 312 But what most inspired them to undertake this war was an ambiguous oracle also found in their sacred writings, that someone from their country would become ruler of the world about that time. 313 The Jews took this prediction as applying to themselves and many of the wise men were wrong in their estimate of it, for it denoted the rule of Vespasian, who was in Judea when appointed as emperor. 314 But it is not possible for men to avoid fate, even if they see it in advance. 315 For they interpreted some of the signs according to their own taste and some they utterly despised, until the capture of their city and by their own destruction showed their insanity.

Chapter 06. [316-357]
Roman ensigns brought into the Temple. Titus' speech to the Jews and their rash reply

[316] Ῥωμαῖοι δὲ τῶν μὲν στασιαστῶν καταπεφευγότων εἰς τὴν πόλιν, καιομένου δὲ αὐτοῦ τε τοῦ ναοῦ καὶ τῶν πέριξ ἁπάντων, κομίσαντες τὰς σημαίας εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ θέμενοι τῆς ἀνατολικῆς πύλης ἄντικρυς ἔθυσάν τε αὐταῖς αὐτόθι καὶ τὸν Τίτον μετὰ μεγίστων εὐφημιῶν ἀπέφηναν αὐτοκράτορα. [317] Ταῖς δὲ ἁρπαγαῖς οὕτως ἐνεπλήσθησαν οἱ στρατιῶται πάντες, ὥστε κατὰ τὴν Συρίαν πρὸς ἥμισυ τῆς πάλαι τιμῆς τὸν σταθμὸν τοῦ χρυσίου πιπράσκεσθαι. [318] Τῶν δ' ἀνὰ τὸν τοῖχον τοῦ ναοῦ ἱερέων διακαρτερούντων παῖς διψήσας ἱκέτευε τοὺς φύλακας τῶν Ῥωμαίων δοῦναι δεξιὰν αὐτῷ καὶ τὸ δίψος ἐξωμολογεῖτο. [319] Τῶν δὲ τῆς ἡλικίας καὶ τῆς ἀνάγκης οἶκτον λαβόντων καὶ δόντων δεξιὰς καταβὰς αὐτός τε πίνει καὶ ὃ φέρων ἧκεν ἀγγεῖον πλήσας ὕδατος ᾤχετο φεύγων ἄνω πρὸς τοὺς σφετέρους. [320] Τῶν δὲ φυλάκων καταλαβεῖν μὲν οὐδεὶς ἴσχυσε, πρὸς δὲ τὴν ἀπιστίαν ἐβλασφήμουν. Κἀκεῖνος οὐδὲν ἔφη παραβεβηκέναι τῶν συνθηκῶν: λαβεῖν γὰρ δεξιὰν οὐ τοῦ μένειν παρ' αὐτοῖς ἀλλὰ τοῦ καταβῆναι μόνον καὶ λαβεῖν ὕδωρ, ἅπερ ἀμφότερα πεποιηκὼς πιστὸς ἔδοξεν εἶναι. [321] Τὸ μὲν δὴ πανούργημα διὰ τὴν ἡλικίαν μάλιστα τοῦ παιδὸς ἀπεθαύμαζον οἱ πλανηθέντες: πέμπτῃ δ' ἡμέρᾳ λιμώττοντες οἱ ἱερεῖς καταβαίνουσι καὶ πρὸς Τίτον ἀναχθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν φυλάκων ἱκέτευον τυχεῖν σωτηρίας. [322] Ὁ δὲ τὸν μὲν τῆς συγγνώμης καιρὸν αὐτοῖς παρῳχηκέναι φήσας, οἴχεσθαι δὲ δι' ὃν εὐλόγως ἂν αὐτοὺς ἔσωζε, πρέπειν δὲ τοῖς ἱερεῦσι τῷ ναῷ συναπολέσθαι, κελεύει κολάσαι τοὺς ἄνδρας.

1.

316 When the rebels fled into the city and the sanctuary and all the buildings round about it were burned, the Romans brought their ensigns to the temple and set them opposite its eastern gate, where they sacrificed to them and with loud shouts of joy acclaimed Titus as emperor. 317 Through looting, all the soldiers amassed such huge amounts that in Syria a pound weight of gold was sold for half its former value. 318 Among the priests who still held out on the wall of the sanctuary, there was a boy who, parched with thirst, admitted his thirst to the Roman guards and implored them to spare his life. 319 Out of pity for his age his distress they gave him their guarantee so he came down and drank some water and filled the vessel he was carrying and then fled back up to his comrades. 320 When none of the guards could catch him, they rebuked him for breaking his word, but he replied that he had not broken the agreement, for it was not guaranteed that he would stay with them, but only to come down and take some water; both of which he had done, and so he reckoned he had kept his word. 321 Those whom the lad had tricked admired his cunning, for one so young. On the fifth day the priests who were weak with hunger came down and begged for their lives when they were brought to Titus by the guards, 322 but he said that for them the time of pardon was past once the place for which he should spare them had been destroyed, and that priests should be destroyed along with the temple; so he ordered them put to death.

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[323] Οἱ δὲ περὶ τοὺς τυράννους ὡς τῷ τε πολέμῳ πάντοθεν ἐκρατοῦντο καὶ περιτετειχισμένοις διαφυγεῖν οὐδαμόθεν ἦν, προκαλοῦνται τὸν Τίτον εἰς λόγους. [324] Ὁ δὲ καὶ διὰ τὸ φιλάνθρωπον φύσει τὸ γοῦν ἄστυ περισῶσαι προαιρούμενος καὶ τῶν φίλων ἐναγόντων, ἤδη γὰρ μετριάζειν τοὺς λῃστὰς ὑπελάμβανεν, ἵσταται κατὰ τὸ πρὸς δύσιν μέρος τοῦ ἔξωθεν ἱεροῦ: [325] ταύτῃ γὰρ ὑπὲρ τὸν ξυστὸν ἦσαν πύλαι, καὶ γέφυρα συνάπτουσα τῷ ἱερῷ τὴν ἄνω πόλιν: [326] αὕτη τότε μέση τῶν τυράννων ἦν καὶ τοῦ Καίσαρος. Τὸ δὲ πλῆθος ἑκατέροις βύζην ἐφεστήκει, Ἰουδαῖοι μὲν περὶ Σίμωνα καὶ Ἰωάννην μετέωροι συγγνώμης ἐλπίδι, Ῥωμαῖοι δὲ Καίσαρι καραδοκοῦντες αὐτῶν τὴν ἀξίωσιν. [327] Παραγγείλας δὲ τοῖς στρατιώταις Τίτος θυμοῦ τε καὶ βελῶν μένειν ἐγκρατεῖς, καὶ τὸν ἑρμηνέα παραστησάμενος, ὅπερ ἦν τεκμήριον τοῦ κρατεῖν, πρῶτος ἤρξατο λέγειν: [328] "ἆρά γε ἤδη κεκόρεσθε τῶν τῆς πατρίδος κακῶν, ὦ ἄνδρες, οἱ μήτε τῆς ἡμετέρας δυνάμεως μήτε τῆς ἑαυτῶν ἀσθενείας ἔννοιαν λαβόντες, ὁρμῇ δὲ ἀσκέπτῳ καὶ μανίᾳ τόν τε δῆμον καὶ τὴν πόλιν καὶ τὸν ναὸν ἀπολωλεκότες, [329] ἀπολούμενοι δὲ καὶ αὐτοὶ δικαίως, οἳ πρῶτον μὲν ἀφ' οὗ Πομπήιος εἷλεν ὑμᾶς κατὰ κράτος οὐκ ἐπαύσασθε νεωτεροποιίας, ἔπειτα καὶ φανερὸν ἐξηνέγκατε πρὸς Ῥωμαίους πόλεμον; [330] ἆρά γε πλήθει πεποιθότες; καὶ μὴν ἐλάχιστον ὑμῖν μέρος ἀντήρκεσεν τοῦ Ῥωμαίων στρατιωτικοῦ. Πίστει τοιγαροῦν συμμάχων; καὶ τί τῶν ἔξω τῆς ἡμετέρας ἡγεμονίας ἐθνῶν ἔμελλεν αἱρήσεσθαι Ἰουδαίους πρὸ Ῥωμαίων; [331] Ἀλλ' ἀλκῇ σωμάτων; καὶ μὴν ἴστε Γερμανοὺς δουλεύοντας ἡμῖν. ὀχυρότητι δὲ τειχῶν; καὶ τί μεῖζον ὠκεανοῦ τεῖχος κώλυμα, ὃν περιβεβλημένοι Βρεττανοὶ τὰ Ῥωμαίων ὅπλα προσκυνοῦσιν; [332] Καρτερίᾳ ψυχῆς καὶ πανουργίᾳ στρατηγῶν; ἀλλὰ μὴν ᾔδειτε καὶ Καρχηδονίους ἁλόντας. [333] Τοιγαροῦν ὑμᾶς ἐπήγειρε κατὰ Ῥωμαίων ἡ Ῥωμαίων φιλανθρωπία, οἳ πρῶτον μὲν ὑμῖν τήν τε χώραν ἔδομεν νέμεσθαι καὶ βασιλεῖς ὁμοφύλους ἐπεστήσαμεν, [334] ἔπειτα τοὺς πατρίους νόμους ἐτηρήσαμεν, καὶ ζῆν οὐ μόνον καθ' ἑαυτοὺς ἀλλὰ καὶ πρὸς τοὺς ἄλλους ἐπετρέψαμεν ὡς ἐβούλεσθε: [335] τὸ δὲ μέγιστον, δασμολογεῖν τε ὑμῖν ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ καὶ ἀναθήματα συλλέγειν ἐπετρέψαμεν, καὶ τοὺς ταῦτα φέροντας οὔτε ἐνουθετήσαμεν οὔτε ἐκωλύσαμεν, ἵν' ἡμῖν γένησθε πλουσιώτεροι καὶ παρασκευάσησθε τοῖς ἡμετέροις χρήμασιν καθ' ἡμῶν. [336] Ἔπειτα τηλικούτων ἀγαθῶν ἀπολαύοντες ἐπὶ τοὺς παρασχόντας ἠνέγκατε τὸν κόρον καὶ δίκην τῶν ἀτιθασεύτων ἑρπετῶν τοῖς σαίνουσι τὸν ἰὸν ἐναφήκατε. [337] Ἔστω γοῦν, κατεφρονήσατε τῆς Νέρωνος ῥᾳθυμίας, καὶ καθάπερ ῥήγματα ἢ σπάσματα τὸν ἄλλον χρόνον κακοήθως ἠρεμοῦντες ἐν τῇ μείζονι νόσῳ διεφάνητε καὶ πρὸς ἐλπίδας ἀναιδεῖς ἀμέτρους ἐξετείνατε τὰς ἐπιθυμίας. [338] Ἧκεν ὁ πατὴρ οὑμὸς εἰς τὴν χώραν, οὐ τιμωρησόμενος ὑμᾶς τῶν κατὰ Κέστιον, ἀλλὰ νουθετήσων: [339] δέον γοῦν, εἴπερ ἐπ' ἀναστάσει τοῦ ἔθνους παρῆν, ἐπὶ τὴν ῥίζαν ὑμῶν δραμεῖν καὶ ταύτην ἐκπορθεῖν τὴν πόλιν εὐθέως, ὁ δὲ Γαλιλαίαν ἐδῄου καὶ τὰ πέριξ ἐπιδιδοὺς ὑμῖν χρόνον εἰς μεταμέλειαν. [340] Ἀλλ' ὑμῖν ἀσθένεια τὸ φιλάνθρωπον ἐδόκει κἀκ τῆς ἡμετέρας πρᾳότητος τὴν τόλμαν ἐπεθρέψατε. [341] Νέρωνος οἰχομένου τοῦθ' ὅπερ ἐχρῆν τοὺς πονηροτάτους ἐποιήσατε, ταῖς ἐμφυλίοις ἡμῶν ταραχαῖς ἐπεθαρρήσατε καὶ χωρισθέντων εἰς τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἐμοῦ τε καὶ τοῦ πατρὸς εἰς παρασκευὰς τοῦ πολέμου κατεχρήσασθε τοῖς καιροῖς, καὶ οὐκ ᾐδέσθητε ταράσσειν αὐτοκράτορας γεγενημένους οὓς καὶ στρατηγοὺς φιλανθρώπους ἐπειράσατε. [342] Προσφυγούσης γοῦν ἡμῖν τῆς ἡγεμονίας, καὶ τῶν μὲν κατὰ ταύτην ἠρεμούντων πάντων, πρεσβευομένων δὲ καὶ συνηδομένων τῶν ἔξωθεν ἐθνῶν, πάλιν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι πολέμιοι, [343] καὶ πρεσβεῖαι μὲν ὑμῶν πρὸς τοὺς ὑπὲρ Εὐφράτην ἐπὶ νεωτερισμῷ, περίβολοι δὲ τειχῶν ἀνοικοδομούμενοι καινοί, στάσεις δὲ καὶ τυράννων φιλονεικίαι καὶ πόλεμος ἐμφύλιος, μόνα τοῖς οὕτω πονηροῖς πρέποντα. [344] Ἧκον ἐπὶ τὴν πόλιν ἐγὼ παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς ἄκοντος λαβὼν σκυθρωπὰ παραγγέλματα. Τὸν δῆμον ἀκούσας εἰρηνικὰ φρονεῖν ἥσθην. [345] Ὑμᾶς παύσασθαι πρὸ πολέμου παρεκάλουν, μέχρι πολλοῦ πολεμούντων ἐφειδόμην, δεξιὰς αὐτομόλοις ἔδωκα, καταφυγοῦσι πίστεις ἐτήρησα, πολλοὺς αἰχμαλώτους ἠλέησα, τοὺς ἐπείγοντας βασανίσας ἐκόλασα; τείχεσιν ὑμετέροις μηχανὰς ἄκων προσήγαγον, ἀεὶ φονῶντας τοὺς στρατιώτας ἐφ' ὑμῖν κατέσχον, καθ' ἑκάστην νίκην ὡς ἡττώμενος ὑμᾶς εἰς εἰρήνην προυκαλεσάμην. [346] Τοῦ ἱεροῦ πλησίον γενόμενος πάλιν ἑκὼν ἐξελαθόμην τῶν τοῦ πολέμου νόμων, φείσασθαι δὲ παρεκάλουν τῶν ἰδίων ὑμᾶς ἁγίων καὶ σῶσαι τὸν ναὸν ἑαυτοῖς, διδοὺς ἄδειάν τε ἐξόδου καὶ πίστιν σωτηρίας, εἰ δ' ἐβούλεσθε, καὶ μάχης καιρὸν ἐν ἄλλῳ τόπῳ: [347] πάντων ὑπερείδετε καὶ τὸν ναὸν ἰδίαις χερσὶν ἐνεπρήσατε. Ἔπειτα, μιαρώτατοι, προκαλεῖσθέ με πρὸς λόγους νῦν; ἵνα τί σώσητε τοιοῦτον οἷον ἀπόλωλεν; ποίας ὑμᾶς αὐτοὺς ἀξιοῦτε μετὰ τὸν ναὸν σωτηρίας; [348] Ἀλλὰ καὶ νῦν μετὰ τῶν ὅπλων ἑστήκατε καὶ οὐδ' ἐν ἐσχάτοις ὑποκρίνεσθε γοῦν ἱκέτας, ὦ ταλαίπωροι, τίνι πεποιθότες; [349] Οὐ νεκρὸς μὲν ὑμῶν ὁ δῆμος, οἴχεται δ' ὁ ναός, ὑπ' ἐμοὶ δὲ ἡ πόλις, ἐν χερσὶ δὲ ταῖς ἐμαῖς ἔχετε τὰς ψυχάς; εἶτα ὑπολαμβάνετε δόξαν ἀνδρείας τὸ δυσθανατᾶν; [350] Οὐ μὴν ἐγὼ φιλονεικήσω πρὸς τὴν ἀπόνοιαν ὑμῶν, ῥίψασι δὲ τὰ ὅπλα καὶ παραδοῦσι τὰ σώματα χαρίζομαι τὸ ζῆν, ὥσπερ ἐν οἰκίᾳ πρᾷος δεσπότης τὰ μὲν ἀνήκεστα κολάσας, τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ σώζων ἐμαυτῷ."

2.

323 The followers of the tyrants, totally defeated in the war and surrounded on all sides with no way of escape, asked for a conference with Titus. 324 Out of his kindly nature and wanting to save the city from destruction and advised by his friends that the brigands had come to see reason, he took up position on the western side of the outer temple, 325 as there were gates on that side above the Xystus and a bridge connecting the upper city to the temple. 326 This lay between the tyrants and Caesar, while crowds stood on each side; those of the Jewish nation around Simon and John, hoping for pardon, and the Romans around Caesar, eager to hear their petition. 327 Titus bade his soldiers to curb their rage and not use their weapons. Then placing an interpreter between them, he addressed them first as a sign that he was the conqueror: 328 "Now sirs, I hope you have had your fill of your country's woes, who did not give proper heed to our power or your own weakness, but by your rashness have inadvisedly and madly caused the destruction of your people, your city and your temple. 329 You never ceased rebelling since Pompey first conquered you and have since then openly made war on the Romans. 330 Did you rely on your numbers? Well, a small fraction of the Roman army was strong enough for you! Did you trust in allies? But what nations, even outside our dominion, would side with the Jews before the Romans? 331 Did you rely on your bodily strength? But you know that even the Germans are slaves to us. On on the strength of your walls? But what greater defence is there than the wall of the ocean which surrounds the Britons, and yet they surrender to Roman arms. 332 Do you excel us in courage of soul and the strategy of your officers? Don't you know that the Carthaginians were beaten? 333 It must have been the kindness of us Romans that roused you against us, when first we allowed you go on occupying this land and then granted you kings of your own nation, 334 and let you go on observing your ancestral laws and to live as you please, whether on your own or among others. 335 Most of all, we allowed you to collect the tax which is paid to God and any other gifts dedicated to him, not checking or hindering those who brought them, until you became richer than ourselves, and prepared to use our own money against us. 336 After all these benefits, you turned your surplus against your donors, and, like merciless snakes, spat out poison at those who petted you. 337 Perhaps you scorned Nero's inactivity, and at that time remained still, like broken or dislocated limbs waiting for time to heal them, and then your ailment was worse than ever, reaching out with boundless, indecent ambition. 338 My father came into this country, not to punish you for what you had done under Cestius, but to admonish you, 339 for if he had come to destroy your nation, he would have gone directly to the root and destroyed this city immediately; whereas he went and despoiled Galilee and its neighbourhood, to give you time for repentance. 340 You took this sign of mercy for weakness and let your daring thrive on our mildness. 341 When Nero had left this life, you acted like scoundrels, daring to avail of our civil strife and using the time when I and my father were absent in Egypt to prepare for this war, and were not ashamed to trouble us even as emperors, though you had experienced our clemency as generals. 342 But when the empire came to us and all others were at peace and foreign nations were sending envoys to congratulate us, you Jews were again at war with us. 343 You sent envoys to your people beyond the Euphrates to join in your revolt; you built new walls; rebellions arose, with opposing tyrants and civil war among you, as befits a people so perverse. 344 Unwillingly I came to this city, sent by my father, with a sad duty to perform, but when I heard the people were ready for peace, I was glad of it. 345 Before beginning this war I urged you to desist; I spared you even after you had fought so long against me; I gave my guarantee to deserters and kept my promise to refugees; I had mercy on many prisoners, while torturing the instigators of war. Reluctantly I brought my war-machines against your walls. I always restrained the blood-lust of my soldiers, and after every victory I urged you to peace, as though I had lost. 346 When I got close to your temple I again left aside the laws of war and urged you to spare your own sanctuary and save your temple for yourselves, offering you safe conduct to leave it, and would have let you fight in another place if you had wished. 347 But you wretches, who ignored all offers and with your own hands have burned the temple, do you now call me to talk with you? Why can you wish to save, compared with what has been destroyed? What safety do you deserve after your temple is gone? 348 But still you remain armed and even in this extremity cannot even pretend to beg. What are you relying on, you wretches? 349 Are your people not dead and your temple gone and your city not in my power? Are your lives not in my hands? Do you still think it glorious and brave to fight to the death? 350 But I will not copy your madness. If you lay down your arms and surrender to me, I grant you your lives, like a mild master of a household. What is incurable shall be punished and the rest I will keep for my own use."

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[351] Πρὸς ταῦτα ἀποκρίνονται δεξιὰν μὲν μὴ δύνασθαι παρ' αὐτοῦ λαβεῖν, ὀμωμοκέναι γὰρ μήποτε τοῦτο ποιήσειν, ἔξοδον δ' ᾐτοῦντο διὰ τοῦ περιτειχίσματος μετὰ γυναικῶν καὶ τέκνων: ἀπελεύσεσθαι γὰρ εἰς τὴν ἔρημον καὶ καταλείψειν αὐτῷ τὴν πόλιν. [352] Πρὸς ταῦτα ἀγανακτήσας Τίτος, εἰ τύχην ἑαλωκότων ἔχοντες αἱρέσεις αὐτῷ προτείνουσι νενικηκότων, κηρῦξαι μὲν ἐκέλευσεν εἰς αὐτοὺς μήτε αὐτομολεῖν ἔτι μήτε δεξιὰν ἐλπίζειν, φείσεσθαι γὰρ οὐδενός, [353] ἀλλὰ πάσῃ δυνάμει μάχεσθαι καὶ σώζειν ἑαυτοὺς ὅπως ἂν δύνωνται: πάντα γὰρ αὐτὸς ἤδη πράξειν πολέμου νόμῳ: τοῖς δὲ στρατιώταις ἐμπιπράναι καὶ διαρπάζειν ἐπέτρεψεν τὴν πόλιν. [354] Οἱ δὲ ἐκείνην μὲν ἐπέσχον τὴν ἡμέραν, τῇ δὲ ὑστεραίᾳ τό τε ἀρχεῖον καὶ τὴν ἄκραν καὶ τὸ βουλευτήριον καὶ τὸν Ὀφλᾶν καλούμενον ὑφῆψαν: [355] καὶ προύκοψε τὸ πῦρ μέχρι τῶν Ἑλένης βασιλείων, ἃ δὴ κατὰ μέσην τὴν ἄκραν ἦν, ἐκαίοντο δὲ οἱ στενωποὶ καὶ αἱ οἰκίαι νεκρῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ λιμοῦ διεφθαρμένων πλήρεις.

3.

351 They replied that they could not accept his offer as they had sworn never to do so, but they asked leave to pass through the encirclement with their wives and children and go into the desert and leave the city to him. 352 Titus was furious that although already captured, they sought to make terms with him as if they had won; so he had it proclaimed that they could no longer desert to him, nor hope for other guarantees, for he would spare nobody. 353 With his whole force he would fight them, and let them save themselves as best they could, since from now on all would follow the laws of war. So he told the soldiers to burn and loot the city. 354 That day they did nothing, but next day they set fire to the Archives, the Acra, the council chamber and the place called Ophlas. 355 Then the fire reached the palace of queen Helena in the middle of Acra and the narrow lanes also were burned down, and the houses full of the corpses of those who had died by famine.

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[356] Κατὰ ταύτην τὴν ἡμέραν οἵ τε Ἰζάτου βασιλέως υἱοὶ καὶ ἀδελφοί, πρὸς οἷς πολλοὶ τῶν ἐπισήμων δημοτῶν ἐκεῖ συνελθόντες, ἱκέτευσαν Καίσαρα δοῦναι δεξιὰν αὐτοῖς. Ὁ δὲ καίτοι πρὸς πάντας τοὺς ὑπολοίπους διωργισμένος οὐκ ἤλλαξε τὸ ἦθος, δέχεται δὲ τοὺς ἄνδρας. [357] Καὶ τότε μὲν ἐν φρουρᾷ πάντας εἶχε, τοὺς δὲ τοῦ βασιλέως παῖδας καὶ συγγενεῖς δήσας ὕστερον εἰς Ῥώμην ἀνήγαγεν πίστιν ὁμήρων παρέξοντας.

4.

356 On the same day the sons and brothers of king Izates, along with many other top people, gathered and begged Caesar to give them safe passage. Despite his anger at all the rest, he did not lay aside his old fairness, but received these men. 357 He kept them all in custody, but chained the king's sons and relatives and led them with him to Rome, as hostages for their country's fidelity to the Romans.

Chapter 07. [358-373]
Many of the rebels are slaughtered. Burning and looting of the upper city

[358] Οἱ στασιασταὶ δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν βασιλικὴν ὁρμήσαντες αὐλήν, εἰς ἣν δι' ὀχυρότητα πολλοὶ τὰς κτήσεις ἀπέθεντο, τούς τε Ῥωμαίους ἀπ' αὐτῆς τρέπονται καὶ τὸ συνηθροισμένον αὐτόθι τοῦ δήμου πᾶν φονεύσαντες, ὄντας εἰς ὀκτακισχιλίους καὶ τετρακοσίους, τὰ χρήματα διήρπασαν. [359] Ἐζώγρησαν δὲ καὶ Ῥωμαίων δύο, τὸν μὲν ἱππέα τὸν δὲ πεζόν, καὶ τὸν μὲν πεζὸν ἀποσφάξαντες εὐθέως ἔσυραν περὶ τὴν πόλιν, ὥσπερ ἑνὶ σώματι πάντας Ῥωμαίους ἀμυνόμενοι, [360] ὁ δὲ ἱππεὺς ὠφέλιμόν τι αὐτοῖς πρὸς σωτηρίαν ὑποθήσεσθαι λέγων ἀνάγεται πρὸς Σίμωνα: παρ' ᾧ μηδὲν εἰπεῖν ἔχων Ἀρδάλᾳ τινὶ τῶν ἡγεμόνων παραδίδοται κολασθησόμενος. [361] Ὁ δὲ αὐτοῦ ὀπίσω τὼ χεῖρε δήσας καὶ ταινίᾳ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ἀντικρὺ τῶν Ῥωμαίων προήγαγεν ὡς καρατομήσων: φθάνει δ' ἐκεῖνος εἰς τοὺς Ῥωμαίους διαφυγὼν ἐν ὅσῳ τὸ ξίφος ἐσπάσατο ὁ Ἰουδαῖος. [362] Τοῦτον διαφυγόντα ἐκ τῶν πολεμίων ἀνελεῖν μὲν οὐχ ὑπέμεινεν Τίτος, ἀνάξιον δὲ Ῥωμαίων εἶναι στρατιώτην κρίνας, ὅτι ζῶν ἐλήφθη, τά τε ὅπλα ἀφείλετο καὶ τοῦ τάγματος ἐξέβαλεν, ἅπερ ἦν αἰσχυνομένῳ θανάτου χαλεπώτερα.

1.

358 The rebels rushed into the royal palace, where on account of its security many had stored their property and drove out the Romans and killed all the people crowded within it, about eight thousand four hundred in all, and robbed the money. 359 They captured two of the Romans alive, a horseman and a trooper and immediately cut the trooper's throat and had him dragged through the city, as if through his single body to take revenge on all Romans. 360 The horseman, however, claimed to have something to say about their safety and was brought to Simon; but when he got there he had nothing to say, so he was handed over to Ardalas, one of his officers, to be executed. 361 He tied his hands behind him and blindfolded him and brought him out in sight of the Romans, to behead him. But while the Jew was drawing his sword, the man ran across to the Romans. 362 Seeing his escape from the enemy, Titus could not think of putting him to death, but judging him unfit to be a Roman soldier after being taken alive by the enemy, he deprived him of his weapons and expelled him from the legion, which was worse than death, to a man with a sense of shame.

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[363] Τῇ δ' ἑξῆς Ῥωμαῖοι τρεψάμενοι τοὺς λῃστὰς ἐκ τῆς κάτω πόλεως τὰ μέχρι τοῦ Σιλωᾶ [πάντα] ἐνέπρησαν, καὶ τοῦ μὲν ἄστεος ἥδοντο δαπανωμένου, τῶν δ' ἁρπαγῶν διημάρτανον, ἐπειδὴ πάνθ' οἱ στασιασταὶ προκενοῦντες ἀνεχώρουν εἰς τὴν ἄνω πόλιν. [364] Ἦν γὰρ αὐτοῖς μετάνοια μὲν οὐδεμία τῶν κακῶν, ἀλαζονεία δὲ ὡς ἐπ' ἀγαθοῖς: καιομένην γοῦν ἀφορῶντες τὴν πόλιν ἱλαροῖς τοῖς προσώποις εὔθυμοι προσδέχεσθαι τὴν τελευτὴν ἔλεγον, πεφονευμένου μὲν τοῦ δήμου, κεκαυμένου δὲ τοῦ ναοῦ, φλεγομένου δὲ τοῦ ἄστεος μηδὲν καταλιπόντες τοῖς πολεμίοις. [365] Οὐ μὴν ὅ γε Ἰώσηπος ἐν ἐσχάτοις ἱκετεύων αὐτοὺς ὑπὲρ τῶν λειψάνων τῆς πόλεως ἔκαμνεν, ἀλλὰ πολλὰ μὲν πρὸς τὴν ὠμότητα καὶ τὴν ἀσέβειαν εἰπών, πολλὰ δὲ συμβουλεύσας πρὸς σωτηρίαν οὐδὲν τοῦ χλευασθῆναι πλέον ἀπηνέγκατο. [366] Ἐπεὶ δὲ οὔτε παραδοῦναι διὰ τὸν ὅρκον ἑαυτοὺς ὑπέμενον οὔτε πολεμεῖν ἐξ ἴσου Ῥωμαίοις ἔθ' οἷοί τε ἦσαν ὥσπερ εἱρκτῇ περιειλημμένοι, τό τε τοῦ φονεύειν ἔθος ἐκίνει τὰς δεξιάς, σκιδνάμενοι κατὰ τὰ ἔμπροσθεν τῆς πόλεως τοῖς ἐρειπίοις ὑπελόχων τοὺς αὐτομολεῖν ὡρμημένους. [367] Ἡλίσκοντο δὲ πολλοί, καὶ πάντας ἀποσφάττοντες, ὑπὸ γὰρ ἐνδείας οὐδὲ φεύγειν ἴσχυον, ἐρρίπτουν αὐτῶν κυσὶ τοὺς νεκρούς. [368] Ἐδόκει δὲ πᾶς τρόπος ἀπωλείας τοῦ λιμοῦ κουφότερος, ὥστε καὶ Ῥωμαίοις ἀπηλπικότες ἤδη τὸν ἔλεον ὅμως προσέφευγον καὶ φονεύουσι τοῖς στασιασταῖς ἑκόντες ἐνέπιπτον. [369] Τόπος τ' ἐπὶ τῆς πόλεως οὐδεὶς γυμνὸς ἦν, ἀλλὰ πᾶς λιμοῦ νεκρὸν εἶχεν ἢ στάσεως [καὶ πεπλήρωτο νεκρῶν ἢ διὰ στάσιν ἢ διὰ λιμὸν ἀπολωλότων].

2.

363 Next day, the Romans drove the brigands from the lower city and set fire to everything as far as Siloam, happy to destroy the city. But they missed out on plunder, as the rebels had cleared out everything and retreated to the upper city. 364 These were still unrepentant of any wrongs, and rather boasted as if they had done right, and even as they saw the city on fire, with cheerful faces they said that they looked forward to the end. So as the population had been murdered and the temple burnt and the city in flames, nothing was being left for the enemy. 365 Even in this extremity, Josephus did not tire of imploring them to spare the remnants of the city. He said much about their savagery and impiety and advised them how to save their lives, though all he got for this was mockery. 366 Though they could not bear to surrender because of their oath, and were no longer able to fight the Romans, being caged as in a prison, they were so used to killing that they could not keep their hands still; so they scattered at the edges of the city and lay in ambush among its ruins, to catch any who attempted to desert. 367 The many who were caught were all killed, not having the force to escape them due to lack of food, and their corpses were thrown to the dogs. 368 Any other sort of death was preferable to that by hunger, so although despairing of mercy, the Jews still fled to the Romans or fell voluntarily to the murdering rebels. 369 Nowhere in the city was without corpses, for it was full of those who died either of the famine or the sedition.

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[370] Ἔθαλπε δὲ τούς τε τυράννους καὶ τὸ σὺν αὐτοῖς λῃστρικὸν ἐλπὶς ἐσχάτη περὶ τῶν ὑπονόμων, εἰς οὓς καταφεύγοντες οὐ προσεδόκων ἐρευνηθήσεσθαι, μετὰ δὲ τὴν παντελῆ τῆς πόλεως ἅλωσιν ἀναζευξάντων Ῥωμαίων προελθόντες ἀποδράσεσθαι ἐπεχείρουν. [371] Τὸ δὲ ἦν ἄρα ὄνειρος αὐτοῖς: οὔτε γὰρ τὸν θεὸν οὔτε Ῥωμαίους λήσειν ἔμελλον. [372] Τηνικαῦτά γε μὴν τοῖς ὑπογείοις πεποιθότες αὐτοὶ πλείονα τῶν Ῥωμαίων ἐνεπίμπρασαν, καὶ τοὺς ἐκ τῶν καιομένων καταφεύγοντας εἰς τὰς διώρυχας ἔκτεινόν τε ἀνέδην καὶ ἐσύλων καὶ εἴ τινος εὕροιεν τροφὴν ἁρπάζοντες αἵματι πεφυρμένην κατέπινον. [373] Ἦν δὲ καὶ πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἐν ταῖς ἁρπαγαῖς ἤδη πόλεμος αὐτοῖς, δοκοῦσί τε ἄν μοι μὴ φθασθέντες ὑπὸ τῆς ἁλώσεως δι' ὑπερβολὴν ὠμότητος γεύσασθαι καὶ τῶν νεκρῶν.

3.

370 The last hope of the tyrants and their brigands lay in the caves under ground. If they could take refuge there they did not expect to be sought out, planning to come out again and make their escape after the whole city was destroyed and the Romans had left. 371 This was a mere dream, for they could not hide either from God or from the Romans. 372 So they put their trust in these subterranean places and set more places on fire than did the Romans, and mercilessy killed and pillaged whoever fled from their burning houses into these trenches, and if anyone's food was found it was robbed and swallowed along with their blood. 373 They were still fighting each other about loot, and I think that, if they had not been captured, their savagery would have made them eat even the corpses themselves.

Chapter 08. [374-408]
Titus gains possession of the whole city

[374] Καῖσαρ δέ, ὡς ἀμήχανον ἦν ἐξελεῖν δίχα χωμάτων τὴν ἄνω πόλιν περίκρημνον οὖσαν, διανέμει τοῖς ἔργοις τὴν δύναμιν Λώου μηνὸς εἰκάδι. [375] Χαλεπὴ δὲ ἦν τῆς ὕλης ἡ κομιδὴ πάντων, ὡς ἔφην, τῶν περὶ τὴν πόλιν ἐφ' ἑκατὸν σταδίους ἐψιλωμένων εἰς τὰ πρότερον χώματα. [376] Τῶν μὲν οὖν τεσσάρων ταγμάτων ἠγείρετο τὰ ἔργα κατὰ τὸ πρὸς δύσιν κλίμα τῆς πόλεως ἀντικρὺ τῆς βασιλικῆς αὐλῆς, [377] τὸ δὲ συμμαχικὸν πλῆθος καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς ὄχλος κατὰ τὸν ξυστὸν ἔχου καὶ τὴν γέφυραν καὶ τὸν Σίμωνος πύργον, ὃν ᾠκοδόμησε πρὸς Ἰωάννην πολεμῶν ἑαυτῷ φρούριον.

1.

374 When Caesar saw that the upper city was so steep that it could not be taken without earthworks, he set his forces to this work on the twentieth day of the month Lous. 375 Bringing up the materials was difficult, since as I have said, all the trees within a hundred furlongs of the city had been cut down for the previous earthworks. 376 Those of the four legions were built to the west of the city, opposite the royal palace, 377 while the main group of allies and others made theirs at the Xystus, reaching as far as the bridge and Simon's tower, which he had built as a defence in his war against John.

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[378] Κατὰ ταύτας τὰς ἡμέρας οἱ τῶν Ἰδουμαίων ἡγεμόνες κρύφα συνελθόντες ἐβουλεύσαντο περὶ παραδόσεως σφῶν αὐτῶν, καὶ πέμψαντες ἄνδρας πέντε πρὸς Τίτον ἱκέτευον δοῦναι δεξιὰν αὐτοῖς. [379] Ὁ δὲ καὶ τοὺς τυράννους ἐνδώσειν ἐλπίσας ἀποσπασθέντων τῶν Ἰδουμαίων, οἳ πολὺ τοῦ πολέμου μέρος ἦσαν, βραδέως μέν, ἀλλ' οὖν κατανεύει τε τὴν σωτηρίαν αὐτοῖς καὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀνέπεμψε. [380] Παρασκευαζομένων δὲ ἀποχωρεῖν αἰσθάνεται Σίμων, καὶ πέντε μὲν τοὺς ἀπελθόντας πρὸς Τίτον εὐθέως ἀναιρεῖ, τοὺς δὲ ἡγεμόνας, ὧν ἐπισημότατος ἦν ὁ τοῦ Σωσᾶ Ἰάκωβος, συλλαβὼν εἵργνυσι: [381] τὸ δὲ πλῆθος τῶν Ἰδουμαίων ἀμηχανοῦν διὰ τὴν ἀφαίρεσιν τῶν ἡγεμόνων οὐκ ἀφύλακτον εἶχε καὶ τὸ τεῖχος φρουραῖς ἐπιμελεστέραις διελάμβανεν. [382] Οὐ μὴν ἀντέχειν οἱ φρουροὶ πρὸς τὰς αὐτομολίας ἴσχυον, ἀλλὰ καίτοι πλείστων φονευομένων πολὺ πλείους οἱ διαφεύγοντες ἦσαν. [383] Ἐδέχοντο δὲ Ῥωμαῖοι πάντας, τοῦ τε Τίτου διὰ πρᾳότητα τῶν προτέρων ἀμελήσαντος παραγγελμάτων, καὶ αὐτοὶ κόρῳ τοῦ κτείνειν ἀπεχόμενοι καὶ κέρδους ἐλπίδι: [384] τοὺς γὰρ δημοτικοὺς καταλιπόντες μόνους τὸν ἄλλον ὄχλον ἐπώλουν σὺν γυναιξὶ καὶ τέκνοις, ἐλαχίστης τιμῆς ἕκαστον πλήθει τε τῶν πιπρασκομένων καὶ ὀλιγότητι τῶν ὠνουμένων. [385] Καίπερ δὲ προκηρύξας μηδένα μόνον αὐτομολεῖν, ὅπως καὶ τὰς γενεὰς ἐξαγάγοιεν, ὅμως καὶ τούτους ἐδέχετο: ἐπέστησε μέντοι τοὺς διακρινοῦντας ἀπ' αὐτῶν, εἴ τις εἴη κολάσεως ἄξιος. [386] Καὶ τῶν μὲν ἀπεμποληθέντων ἄπειρον ἦν τὸ πλῆθος, οἱ δημοτικοὶ δὲ διεσώθησαν ὑπὲρ τετρακισμυρίους, οὓς διαφῆκεν Καῖσαρ ᾗ φίλον ἦν ἑκάστῳ.

2.

378 About this time the officers of the Idumaeans met secretly to consider a surrender and sent five men to Titus and seek his guarantee. 379 Expecting the tyrants to yield if deprived of the Idumaeans, on whom much of the fighting depended, he agreed after some delay and promised them their lives and sent the five men back. 380 But as they prepared to leave Simon noticed it and swiftly killed the five men who had gone to Titus and threw their officers into prison, of whom the foremost was Jacob, son of Sosas. 381 Once their officers were taken the rest of the Idumaeans did not know what to do, and he had them watched and had the walls more closely guarded. 382 Yet the guards could not resist the force of the deserters, for while many of them were killed, an even larger number escaped. 383 They were all received by the Romans, since Titus grew milder about his earlier order to kill them and his men grew tired of killing them and hoped for some gain by sparing them. 384 They left only the citizens and sold the rest with their wives and children at a very low price, for there were many for sale and the buyers were few. 385 Despite an earlier proclamation that nobody could desert on his own, but must bring out their families with them, he did accept some like that. But he placed people in charge to judge which of them deserved punishment. 386 An immense number were sold, but Caesar spared more than forty thousand of the people and let them go where each one pleased.

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[387] Ἐν δὲ ταῖς αὐταῖς ἡμέραις καὶ τῶν ἱερέων τις Θεβουθεῖ παῖς, Ἰησοῦς ὄνομα, λαβὼν περὶ σωτηρίας ὅρκους παρὰ Καίσαρος ἐφ' ᾧ παραδώσει τινὰ τῶν ἱερῶν κειμηλίων, [388] ἔξεισι καὶ παραδίδωσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ τοίχου τοῦ ναοῦ λυχνίας δύο τῶν κατὰ τὸν ναὸν κειμένων παραπλησίας τραπέζας τε καὶ κρατῆρας καὶ φιάλας, πάντα ὁλόχρυσα καὶ στιβαρώτατα, [389] παραδίδωσι δὲ καὶ τὰ καταπετάσματα καὶ τὰ ἐνδύματα τῶν ἀρχιερέων σὺν τοῖς λίθοις καὶ πολλὰ τῶν πρὸς τὰς ἱερουργίας σκευῶν ἄλλα. [390] Συλληφθεὶς δὲ καὶ ὁ γαζοφύλαξ τοῦ ἱεροῦ Φινέας ὄνομα τούς τε χιτῶνας καὶ τὰς ζώνας ὑπέδειξε τῶν ἱερέων πορφύραν τε πολλὴν καὶ κόκκον, ἃ πρὸς τὰς χρείας ἀπέκειτο τοῦ καταπετάσματος, σὺν οἷς κιννάμωμόν τε πολὺ καὶ κασσίαν καὶ πλῆθος ἑτέρων ἀρωμάτων, ἃ συμμίσγοντες ἐθυμίων ὁσημέραι τῷ θεῷ. [391] Παρεδόθη δὲ ὑπ' αὐτοῦ πολλὰ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων κειμηλίων κόσμος τε ἱερὸς οὐκ ὀλίγος, ἅπερ αὐτῷ βίᾳ ληφθέντι τὴν τῶν αὐτομόλων συγγνώμην ἔδωκε.

3.

387 At this time one of the priests, Jesus, the son of Thebuthis, got Caesar's oath that he would be spared if he handed over to him some of the treasures deposited in the temple. 388 He came out and handed over two candlesticks from the wall of the temple, like those in the temple itself, with tables and cisterns and vessels, all made of gold and very heavy. 389 He also handed over the veils and the high priestly vestments, with the precious stones and many other liturgical vessels. 390 Phineas, the treasurer of the temple, was also taken and showed Titus the coats and belts of the priests, with a large store of purple and scarlet kept there for repairing the veil, and cinnamon and cassia, with a large amount of other sweet spices, which were mixed together and offered every day as incense to God. 391 A great many other treasures were also handed over by him and many a sacred ornament; in return for which the man, though taken in war, received the same pardon allowed to those who had voluntarily deserted.

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[392] Συντετελεσμένων δ' ἤδη καὶ τῶν χωμάτων ἐν ὀκτωκαίδεκα ἡμέραις ἑβδόμῃ Γορπιαίου μηνὸς Ῥωμαῖοι μὲν προσῆγον τὰς μηχανάς, τῶν δὲ στασιαστῶν οἱ μὲν ἀπεγνωκότες ἤδη τὴν πόλιν ἀνεχώρουν τοῦ τείχους εἰς τὴν ἄκραν, οἱ δὲ ἐγκατεδύοντο τοῖς ὑπονόμοις: [393] πολλοὶ δὲ διαστάντες ἠμύνοντο τοὺς προσάγοντας τὰς ἑλεπόλεις. Ἐκράτουν δὲ καὶ τούτων Ῥωμαῖοι πλήθει τε καὶ βίᾳ καὶ τὸ μέγιστον, εὐθυμοῦντες ἀθύμων ἤδη καὶ παρειμένων. [394] Ὡς δὲ παρερράγη μέρος τι τοῦ τείχους, καί τινες τῶν πύργων τυπτόμενοι τοῖς κριοῖς ἐνέδοσαν, φυγὴ μὲν ἦν εὐθέως τῶν ἀμυνομένων, δέος δὲ καὶ τοῖς τυράννοις ἐμπίπτει σφοδρότερον τῆς ἀνάγκης: [395] πρὶν γὰρ ὑπερβῆναι τοὺς πολεμίους ἐνάρκων τε καὶ μετέωροι πρὸς φυγὴν ἦσαν, ἦν δὲ ἰδεῖν τοὺς πάλαι σοβαροὺς καὶ τοῖς ἀσεβήμασιν ἀλαζόνας τότε ταπεινοὺς καὶ τρέμοντας, ὡς ἐλεεινὴν εἶναι καίπερ ἐν πονηροτάτοις τὴν μεταβολήν. [396] ὥρμησαν μὲν οὖν ἐπὶ τὸ περιτείχισμα δραμόντες ὤσασθαί τε τοὺς φρουροὺς καὶ διακόψαντες ἐξελθεῖν: [397] ὡς δὲ τοὺς μὲν πάλαι πιστοὺς ἑώρων οὐδαμοῦ, διέφυγον γὰρ ὅπῃ τινὶ συνεβούλευεν ἡ ἀνάγκη, προσθέοντες δὲ οἱ μὲν ὅλον ἀνατετράφθαι τὸ πρὸς δύσιν τεῖχος ἤγγελλον, οἱ δ' ἐμβεβληκέναι τοὺς Ῥωμαίους ἤδη τε πλησίον εἶναι ζητοῦντας αὐτούς, [398] ἕτεροι δὲ καὶ ἀφορᾶν ἀπὸ τῶν πύργων πολεμίους ἔλεγον πλάζοντος τὰς ὄψεις τοῦ δέους, ἐπὶ στόμα πεσόντες ἀνῴμωζον τὴν ἑαυτῶν φρενοβλάβειαν καὶ καθάπερ ὑποκεκομμένοι τὰ νεῦρα τῆς φυγῆς ἠπόρουν. [399] Ἔνθα δὴ μάλιστ' ἄν τις καταμάθοι τήν τε τοῦ θεοῦ δύναμιν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀνοσίοις καὶ τὴν Ῥωμαίων τύχην: οἱ μέν γε τύραννοι τῆς ἀσφαλείας ἐγύμνωσαν αὑτοὺς κἀκ τῶν πύργων κατέβησαν ἑκόντες, ἐφ' ὧν βίᾳ μὲν οὐδέποθ' ἁλῶναι, μόνῳ δ' ἐδύναντο λιμῷ. [400] Ῥωμαῖοι δὲ τοσαῦτα περὶ τοῖς ἀσθενεστέροις τείχεσι καμόντες παρέλαβον τύχῃ τὰ μὴ δυνατὰ τοῖς ὀργάνοις: παντὸς γὰρ ἰσχυρότεροι μηχανήματος ἦσαν οἱ τρεῖς πύργοι, περὶ ὧν ἀνωτέρω δεδηλώκαμεν.

4.

392 The earthworks were completed in eighteen days, on the seventh day of the month Gorpieus, when the Romans brought up their machines. Despairing of holding the city, some of the rebels retreated from the wall to the citadel while others went down under the earth. 393 Many continued to resist those bringing up the catapults, but the Romans defeated them by their numbers and strength, and especially by their high spirits against a dejected enemy. 394 When part of the wall was battered down and some towers yielded to the rams, the opponents fled and the tyrants were even more scared than was proper, 395 for even before the enemy got through the breach they were stunned and got ready to escape. These men, who had up to now been so insolent and arrogant in their wicked practices, were now seen so humbled and trembling, that the change in the scoundrels was pitiful. 396 They rushed on the wall surrounding them, to force their way through the guards and get away. 397 But then they saw how those who had formerly been faithful had left, for each had fled wherever he could, and were told that the western wall was entirely destroyed and others said the Romans had broken through and were looking out for them nearby. 398 Others said in fear that they could see the enemy from the towers, and fell on their faces lamenting their madness, and their nerves were so overcome that they could not run away. 399 Here one may learn the power of God against the unholy and the good fortune of the Romans, for these tyrants now gave up their security and of their own accord came down from the towers, from which they could have not been taken by force, nor indeed by any way other than famine. 400 So the Romans, after all their efforts against the weaker walls, took by good fortune what they never could have taken with their machines, for three of these towers were impregnable to their machines as we have earlier described.

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[401] Καταλιπόντες δὴ τούτους, μᾶλλον δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ καταβληθέντες ἀπ' αὐτῶν, παραχρῆμα μὲν εἰς τὴν ὑπὸ τῇ Σιλωᾶ φάραγγα καταφεύγουσιν, αὖθις δὲ ὀλίγον ἀνακύψαντες ἐκ τοῦ δέους ὥρμησαν ἐπὶ τὸ τῇδε περιτείχισμα. [402] Χρησάμενοι δὲ ταῖς τόλμαις ἀγενεστέραις τῆς ἀνάγκης, κατεάγησαν γὰρ ἤδη τὴν ἰσχὺν ἅμα τῷ δέει καὶ ταῖς συμφοραῖς, ὑπὸ τῶν φρουρῶν ἀνωθοῦνται καὶ σκεδασθέντες ὑπ' ἀλλήλων κατέδυσαν εἰς τοὺς ὑπονόμους. [403] Ῥωμαῖοι δὲ τῶν τειχῶν κρατήσαντες τάς τε σημαίας ἔστησαν ἐπὶ τῶν πύργων καὶ μετὰ κρότου καὶ χαρᾶς ἐπαιάνιζον ἐπὶ τῇ νίκῃ, πολὺ τῆς ἀρχῆς κουφότερον τοῦ πολέμου τὸ τέλος εὑρηκότες: ἀναιμωτὶ γοῦν τοῦ τελευταίου τείχους ἐπιβάντες ἠπίστουν, καὶ μηδένα βλέποντες ἀντίπαλον ἀληθῶς ἠπόρηντο. [404] Εἰσχυθέντες δὲ τοῖς στενωποῖς ξιφήρεις τούς τε καταλαμβανομένους ἐφόνευον ἀνέδην καὶ τῶν συμφευγόντων τὰς οἰκίας αὐτάνδρους ὑπεπίμπρασαν. [405] Πολλὰς δὲ κεραίζοντες ὁπότ' ἔνδον παρέλθοιεν ἐφ' ἁρπαγήν, γενεὰς ὅλας νεκρῶν κατελάμβανον καὶ τὰ δωμάτια πλήρη τῶν τοῦ λιμοῦ πτωμάτων, ἔπειτα πρὸς τὴν ὄψιν πεφρικότες κεναῖς χερσὶν ἐξῄεσαν. [406] Οὐ μὴν οἰκτείροντες τοὺς οὕτως ἀπολωλότας ταὐτὸ καὶ πρὸς τοὺς ζῶντας ἔπασχον, ἀλλὰ τὸν ἐντυγχάνοντα διελαύνοντες ἀπέφραξαν μὲν τοὺς στενωποὺς νεκροῖς, αἵματι δὲ ὅλην τὴν πόλιν κατέκλυσαν, ὡς πολλὰ καὶ τῶν φλεγομένων σβεσθῆναι τῷ φόνῳ. [407] Καὶ οἱ μὲν κτείνοντες ἐπαύσαντο πρὸς ἑσπέραν, ἐν δὲ τῇ νυκτὶ τὸ πῦρ ἐπεκράτει, φλεγομένοις δ' ἐπανέτειλεν Ἱεροσολύμοις ἡμέρα Γορπιαίου μηνὸς ὀγδόη, [408] πόλει τοσαύταις χρησαμένῃ συμφοραῖς κατὰ τὴν πολιορκίαν, ὅσοις ἀπὸ κτίσεως ἀγαθοῖς κεχρημένη πάντως ἂν ἐπίφθονος ἔδοξεν, οὐ μὴν ἀξίᾳ κατ' ἄλλο τι τῶν τηλικούτων ἀτυχημάτων ἢ τὸ γενεὰν τοιαύτην ἐνεγκεῖν, ὑφ' ἧς ἀνετράπη.

5.

401 Now they abandoned these towers, or rather were expelled from them by God, and fled to that valley below Siloam, where they recovered for a while from their panic and rushed against the barrier on that side, 402 but as they were too subdued to attack it with sufficient force, for their strength was sapped by fear and hardship, they were repulsed by the guards and scattered and went down into the mines. 403 Now the Romans held the walls and placed their ensigns upon the towers and noisily and joyfully celebrated their victory, finding the end of this war much easier than its beginning. Having taken the last wall without bloodshed, they could hardly believe it, and were perplexed at seeing no more opponents. 404 Then they poured through the lanes of the city with swords drawn, killing any whom they overtook outside and setting fire to the houses with all who took refuge in them. 405 As they were looting, when they came into the houses they often found in them entire families dead and the upper rooms full of those who had died of famine, and being horrified by the sight, left without touching anything. 406 But this pity for the dead did not extent to those who were still alive, for they ran through everyone they met and choked the lanes with their corpses and made the whole city run with blood, so that the fire in many of the houses was quenched with blood. 407 Though the killing ceased towards evening, the fire spread during the night, and the eighth day of the month Gorpieus saw Jerusalem in flames, 408 a city that had endured as many woes during this siege as it had enjoyed prosperity from its foundation, which made it seem so enviable. The city did not deserve such calamities, except that it produced such a generation as brought it to destruction.

Chapter 09. [409-434]
The number of the fallen and the captured. Escapees, including Simon and John

[409] Παρελθὼν δὲ Τίτος εἴσω τά τε ἄλλα τῆς ὀχυρότητος τὴν πόλιν καὶ τῶν πύργων ἀπεθαύμασεν, οὓς οἱ τύραννοι κατὰ φρενοβλάβειαν ἀπέλιπον. [410] Κατιδὼν γοῦν τό τε ναστὸν αὐτῶν ὕψος καὶ τὸ μέγεθος ἑκάστης πέτρας τήν τε ἀκρίβειαν τῆς ἁρμονίας, καὶ ὅσοι μὲν εὖρος ἡλίκοι δὲ ἦσαν τὴν ἀνάστασιν, [411] "σὺν θεῷ γε ἐπολεμήσαμεν, ἔφη, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ τῶνδε τῶν ἐρυμάτων Ἰουδαίους καθελών, ἐπεὶ χεῖρες ἀνθρώπων ἢ μηχαναὶ τί πρὸς τούτους τοὺς [412] πύργους δύνανται;" τότε μὲν οὖν πολλὰ τοιαῦτα διελέχθη πρὸς τοὺς φίλους, τοὺς δὲ τῶν τυράννων δεσμώτας, ὅσοι κατελήφθησαν ἐν τοῖς φρουρίοις, ἀνῆκεν. [413] αὖθις δὲ τὴν ἄλλην ἀφανίζων πόλιν καὶ τὰ τείχη κατασκάπτων τούτους τοὺς πύργους κατέλιπε μνημεῖον εἶναι τῆς αὐτοῦ τύχης, ᾗ συστρατιώτιδι χρησάμενος ἐκράτησε τῶν ἁλῶναι μὴ δυναμένων.

1.

409 On his arrival at the city, Titus had admired its strength but in particular those strong towers which the tyrants in their frenzy had relinquished. 410 Noting their solid height and the size of their individual blocks and the exactness of their joints, and how great was their breadth and how extensive their length, he said 411 "God was surely on our side in this war and it was God who brought down the Jews from these forts, for what could human hands or machines do to knock these mighty towers?" 412 He said many such things to his friends at the time, and set free those left in prison by the tyrants. 413 Later, after entirely demolishing the rest of the city and destroying its walls, he left these towers as a monument to fortune, which had enabled him to take what otherwise could not be taken.

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[414] Ἐπεὶ δ' οἱ στρατιῶται μὲν ἔκαμνον ἤδη φονεύοντες, πολὺ δέ τι πλῆθος τῶν περιόντων ἀνεφαίνετο, κελεύει Καῖσαρ μόνους μὲν τοὺς ἐνόπλους καὶ χεῖρας ἀντίσχοντας κτείνειν, τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν πλῆθος ζωγρεῖν. [415] Οἱ δὲ μετὰ τῶν παρηγγελμένων τό τε γηραιὸν καὶ τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς ἀνῄρουν, τὸ δ' ἀκμάζον καὶ χρήσιμον εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν συνελάσαντες ἐγκατέκλεισαν τῷ τῶν γυναικῶν περιτειχίσματι. [416] Καὶ φρουρὸν μὲν ἐπέστησε Καῖσαρ ἕνα τῶν ἀπελευθέρων, Φρόντωνα δὲ τῶν φίλων ἐπικρινοῦντα τὴν ἀξίαν ἑκάστῳ τύχην. [417] Ὁ δὲ τοὺς μὲν στασιώδεις καὶ λῃστρικοὺς πάντας ὑπ' ἀλλήλων ἐνδεικνυμένους ἀπέκτεινε, τῶν δὲ νέων τοὺς ὑψηλοτάτους καὶ καλοὺς ἐπιλέξας ἐτήρει τῷ θριάμβῳ. [418] Τοῦ δὲ λοιποῦ πλήθους τοὺς ὑπὲρ ἑπτακαίδεκα ἔτη δήσας ἔπεμψεν εἰς τὰ κατ' Αἴγυπτον ἔργα, πλείστους δ' εἰς τὰς ἐπαρχίας διεδωρήσατο Τίτος φθαρησομένους ἐν τοῖς θεάτροις σιδήρῳ καὶ θηρίοις: οἱ δ' ἐντὸς ἑπτακαίδεκα ἐτῶν ἐπράθησαν. [419] Ἐφθάρησαν δὲ αὐτῶν ἐν αἷς διέκρινεν ὁ Φρόντων ἡμέραις ὑπ' ἐνδείας χίλιοι πρὸς τοῖς μυρίοις, οἱ μὲν ὑπὸ μίσους τῶν φυλάκων μὴ μεταλαμβάνοντες τροφῆς, οἱ δ' οὐ προσιέμενοι διδομένην: πρὸς δὲ τὸ πλῆθος ἦν ἔνδεια καὶ σίτου.

2.

414 Since his soldiers were already tired of killing and there appeared to be large numbers still alive, Caesar ordered them to kill none but those who were in arms opposing them, but to take the rest alive. 415 But above their orders they killed the aged and the infirm, but drove together into the temple those in the prime of life who might be useful to them, imprisoning them within the walls of the court of the women. 416 Over these Caesar set one of his freedmen, and his friend Fronto, to decide the fate of each one according to his merits. 417 This man killed all the rebels and brigands, who informed on each other, but chose the tallest and finest of the youth, reserving them for the triumph. 418 The rest of the people who were over seventeen years old were put them in chains and sent to work in Egypt; and Titus sent many as gifts to the provinces, to be killed by the sword and by wild beasts in their theatres, but those aged under seventeen years were sold as slaves. 419 While Fronto was carrying out this selection, eleven thousand starved to death, some getting no food because of the hatred of their captors, others refusing it when it was offered, and anyway there was not enough corn to feed so many.

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[420] Τῶν μὲν οὖν αἰχμαλώτων πάντων, ὅσα καθ' ὅλον ἐλήφθη τὸν πόλεμον, ἀριθμὸς ἐννέα μυριάδες καὶ ἑπτακισχίλιοι συνήχθη, τῶν δὲ ἀπολομένων κατὰ πᾶσαν τὴν πολιορκίαν μυριάδες ἑκατὸν καὶ δέκα. [421] Τούτων τὸ πλέον ὁμόφυλον μὲν ἀλλ' οὐκ ἐπιχώριον: ἀπὸ γὰρ τῆς χώρας ὅλης ἐπὶ τὴν τῶν ἀζύμων ἑορτὴν συνεληλυθότες ἐξαπίνης τῷ πολέμῳ περιεσχέθησαν, ὥστε τὸ μὲν πρῶτον αὐτοῖς τὴν στενοχωρίαν γενέσθαι λοιμώδη φθοράν, αὖθις δὲ καὶ λιμὸν ὠκύτερον. [422] Ὅτι δ' ἐχώρει τοσούτους ἡ πόλις, δῆλον ἐκ τῶν ἐπὶ Κεστίου συναριθμηθέντων, ὃς τὴν ἀκμὴν τῆς πόλεως διαδηλῶσαι Νέρωνι βουλόμενος καταφρονοῦντι τοῦ ἔθνους παρεκάλεσεν τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς, εἴ πως δυνατὸν εἴη τὴν πληθὺν ἐξαριθμήσασθαι: [423] οἱ δ' ἐνστάσης ἑορτῆς, πάσχα καλεῖται, καθ' ἣν θύουσιν μὲν ἀπὸ ἐνάτης ὥρας μέχρις ἑνδεκάτης, ὥσπερ δὲ φατρία περὶ ἑκάστην γίνεται θυσίαν οὐκ ἐλάσσων ἀνδρῶν δέκα, μόνον γὰρ οὐκ ἔξεστιν δαίνυσθαι, πολλοὶ δὲ καὶ συνείκοσιν ἀθροίζονται, [424] τῶν μὲν θυμάτων εἰκοσιπέντε μυριάδας ἠρίθμησαν, πρὸς δὲ πεντακισχίλια ἑξακόσια. [425] Γίνονται ἀνδρῶν, ἵν' ἑκάστου δέκα δαιτυμόνας θῶμεν, μυριάδες ἑβδομήκοντα καὶ διακόσιαι καθαρῶν ἁπάντων καὶ ἁγίων: [426] οὔτε γὰρ λεπροῖς οὔτε γονορροιικοῖς οὔτε γυναιξὶν ἐπεμμήνοις οὔτε τοῖς ἄλλως μεμιασμένοις ἐξὸν ἦν τῆσδε τῆς θυσίας μεταλαμβάνειν, [427] ἀλλ' οὐδὲ τοῖς ἀλλοφύλοις, ὅσοι κατὰ θρησκείαν παρῆσαν, πολὺ δὲ τούτων πλῆθος ἔξωθεν συλλέγεται.

3.

420 During this whole war a total of ninety-seven thousand prisoners were taken and eleven hundred thousand died during the siege. 421 Most of them were fellow Jews but not from the locality, who had come up from all parts of the country to the feast of unleavened bread and were abruptly shut in by the war, which caused such overcrowding from the start that plague arose among them and a little later a famine, which killed even more quickly. 422 That the city could hold so many is shown by the census taken under Cestius, for wanting to describe the city's strength to Nero who despised that nation, urged the high priests to try to count the number of their people. 423 They did this at the feast called Pascha, when they offer their sacrifices from the ninth hour until the eleventh, with no less than ten people sharing in each sacrifice, as it is not lawful for them to feast alone by themselves, and often there are twenty in a group. 424 The number of sacrifices was found to be two hundred and fifty-six thousand five hundred. 425 Allowing for no more than ten sharing together, this amounts to two million, seven hundred thousand, two hundred purified persons, 426 for those with leprosy, or gonorrhea, or women in their monthly periods, or the otherwise polluted, cannot lawfully partake of this sacrifice, 427 nor any foreigners either, who come here to worship, since many in the crowd come from abroad.

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[428] Τότε γε μὴν ὥσπερ εἰς εἱρκτὴν ὑπὸ τῆς εἱμαρμένης πᾶν συνεκλείσθη τὸ ἔθνος, καὶ ναστὴν ὁ πόλεμος τὴν πόλιν ἀνδρῶν ἐκυκλώσατο. [429] Πᾶσαν γοῦν ἀνθρωπίνην καὶ δαιμονίαν φθορὰν ὑπερβάλλει τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ἀπολωλότων: ἐπεὶ γοῦν τῶν φανερῶν οὓς μὲν ἀνεῖλον οὓς δ' ᾐχμαλωτίσαντο Ῥωμαῖοι, τοὺς ἐν τοῖς ὑπονόμοις ἀνηρεύνων καὶ τοὔδαφος ἀναῤῥηγνύντες ὅσοις μὲν ἐνετύγχανον ἔκτεινον, [430] εὑρέθησαν δὲ κἀκεῖ νεκροὶ πλείους δισχιλίων, οἱ μὲν ὑπὸ σφῶν αὐτῶν οἱ δὲ ὑπ' ἀλλήλων, τὸ πλέον δ' ὑπὸ τοῦ λιμοῦ διεφθαρμένοι. [431] Δεινὴ δ' ὑπήντα τοῖς ἐπεισπίπτουσιν ὀδμὴ τῶν σωμάτων, ὡς πολλοὺς μὲν ἀναχωρεῖν εὐθέως, τοὺς δὲ ὑπὸ πλεονεξίας εἰσδύεσθαι νεκροὺς σεσωρευμένους ἐμπατοῦντας: [432] πολλὰ γὰρ τῶν κειμηλίων ἐν ταῖς διώρυξιν εὑρίσκετο, καὶ πᾶσαν θεμιτὴν ὁδὸν ἐποίει τὸ κέρδος: ἀνήγοντο δὲ καὶ δεσμῶται πολλοὶ τῶν τυράννων: οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐν ἐσχάτοις ἐπαύσαντο τῆς ὠμότητος. [433] Ἀπετίσατό γε μὴν ὁ θεὸς ἀμφοτέρους ἀξίως, καὶ Ἰωάννης μὲν λιμώττων μετὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἐν τοῖς ὑπονόμοις ἣν πολλάκις ὑπερηφάνησε παρὰ Ῥωμαίων δεξιὰν λαβεῖν ἱκέτευσε, Σίμων δὲ πολλὰ διαμαχήσας πρὸς τὴν ἀνάγκην, ὡς διὰ τῶν ἑξῆς δηλώσομεν, αὑτὸν παραδίδωσιν. [434] Ἐφυλάχθη δὲ ὁ μὲν τῷ θριάμβῳ σφάγιον, ὁ δ' Ἰωάννης δεσμοῖς αἰωνίοις. Ῥωμαῖοι δὲ τάς τ' ἐσχατιὰς τοῦ ἄστεος ἐνέπρησαν καὶ τὰ τείχη κατέσκαψαν.

4.

428 The entire nation was fated to be shut up as if in prison and the war encircled the city when it was full of people. 429 The numbers slain there exceeded any previous destruction by either human or supernatural force. For of those present, the Romans killed some and took some as prisoners and then made a search for those still under the ground, and those they found they killed. 430 There they also found more than two thousand dead, some of them by suicide and some killed by each other, but mainly killed by hunger. 431 The horrible stench of the corpses forced some who found them to leave immediately, but others, greedy for gain, went and trod upon the heaped-up corpses, 432 for a large amount of treasure was found in these passages and the loot drew them to find a way of getting it. Many prisoners were now released who had been jailed by the tyrants, who kept up their savagery to the end. 433 Yet God gave them both their proper punishment, for when John and his brothers ran short of food in these caves, he begged the Romans for the protection he had often proudly rejected before, though Simon fought on until he was forced to surrender, as we shall tell. 434 His death was thus reserved for the triumph, while John was condemned to life imprisonment. The Romans set fire to the edges of the city and entirely demolished its walls.

Chapter 10. [435-442]
The second devastation of Jerusalem. Aftermath: summary of its tragic history

[435] Ἑάλω μὲν οὕτως Ἱεροσόλυμα ἔτει δευτέρῳ τῆς Οὐεσπασιανοῦ ἡγεμονίας Γορπιαίου μηνὸς ὀγδόῃ, ἁλοῦσα δὲ καὶ πρότερον πεντάκις τοῦτο δεύτερον ἠρημώθη. [436] Ἀσωχαῖος μὲν γὰρ ὁ τῶν Αἰγυπτίων βασιλεὺς καὶ μετ' αὐτὸν Ἀντίοχος, ἔπειτα Πομπήιος καὶ ἐπὶ τούτοις σὺν Ἡρώδῃ Σόσσιος ἑλόντες ἐτήρησαν τὴν πόλιν. [437] Πρὸ δὲ τούτων ὁ τῶν Βαβυλωνίων βασιλεὺς κρατήσας ἠρήμωσεν αὐτὴν μετὰ ἔτη τῆς κτίσεως χίλια τετρακόσια ἑξηκονταοκτὼ μῆνας ἕξ. [438] Ὁ δὲ πρῶτος κτίσας ἦν Χαναναίων δυνάστης ὁ τῇ πατρίῳ γλώσσῃ κληθεὶς βασιλεὺς δίκαιος: ἦν γὰρ δὴ τοιοῦτος. Διὰ τοῦτο ἱεράσατό τε τῷ θεῷ πρῶτος καὶ τὸ ἱερὸν πρῶτος δειμάμενος Ἱεροσόλυμα τὴν πόλιν προσηγόρευσεν Σόλυμα καλουμένην πρότερον. [439] Τὸν μὲν δὴ τῶν Χαναναίων λαὸν ἐκβαλὼν ὁ τῶν Ἰουδαίων βασιλεὺς Δαυίδης κατοικίζει τὸν ἴδιον, καὶ μετὰ τοῦτον ἔτεσι τετρακοσίοις ἑβδομήκοντα καὶ ἑπτὰ μησὶν ἓξ ὑπὸ Βαβυλωνίων κατασκάπτεται. [440] Ἀπὸ δὲ Δαυίδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ὃς πρῶτος αὐτῆς ἐβασίλευσεν Ἰουδαῖος, μέχρι τῆς ὑπὸ Τίτου γενομένης κατασκαφῆς ἔτη χίλια καὶ ἑκατὸν ἑβδομήκοντα καὶ ἐννέα. [441] Ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς πρώτης κτίσεως ἔτη μέχρι τῆς ἐσχάτης ἁλώσεως δισχίλια ἑκατὸν ἑβδομήκοντα καὶ ἑπτά. [442] Ἀλλὰ γὰρ οὔθ' ἡ ἀρχαιότης οὔθ' ὁ πλοῦτος ὁ βαθὺς οὔτε τὸ διαπεφοιτηκὸς ὅλης τῆς οἰκουμένης ἔθνος οὔθ' ἡ μεγάλη δόξα τῆς θρησκείας ἤρκεσέ τι πρὸς ἀπώλειαν αὐτῇ. Τοιοῦτο μὲν δὴ τὸ τέλος τῆς Ἱεροσολύμων πολιορκίας.

1.

435 That is how Jerusalem was taken, in the second year of the reign of Vespasian, on the eighth of the month Gorpeius. It had been taken five times before, though this was its second time to be devastated. 436 Shishak, the king of Egypt had captured the city, and later Antiochus, then Pompey, then Sosius and Herod, but all had spared it 437 Before them the king of Babylon had conquered and devastated it, one thousand four hundred and sixty-eight years and six months after it was built. 438 Its founder was a Canaanite chief called in our own tongue the Righteous King, for such he was. He was the first to worship God there and first built a temple and gave the city which was formerly called Salem, the name "Jerusalem." 439 David, the king of the Jews, expelled the Canaanites and settled his own people there, and four hundred and seventy-seven years and six months later, it was demolished by the Babylonians. 440 From king David, the first of the Jews to reign there, to this destruction under Titus, were one thousand one hundred and seventy-nine years, 441 but from its first building until this final destruction were two thousand one hundred and seventy-seven years. 442 But neither its great antiquity, its vast riches, its nation spread over all the world, or the great glory of its worship, sufficed to spare it from destruction. So ended the siege of Jerusalem.