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Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη

Who was Josephus?
Maps, Graphics

War, Volume 1
War, Volume 2
War, Volume 3
War, Volume 4
War, Volume 5
War, Volume 6
War, Volume 7

Ant. Jud., Bk 1
Ant. Jud., Bk 2
Ant. Jud., Bk 3
Ant. Jud., Bk 4
Ant. Jud., Bk 5
Ant. Jud., Bk 6
Ant. Jud., Bk 7
Ant. Jud., Bk 8
Ant. Jud., Bk 9
Ant. Jud., Bk 10
Ant. Jud., Bk 11
Ant. Jud., Bk 12
Ant. Jud., Bk 13
Ant. Jud., Bk 14
Ant. Jud., Bk 15
Ant. Jud., Bk 16
Ant. Jud., Bk 17
Ant. Jud., Bk 18
Ant. Jud., Bk 19
Ant. Jud., Bk 20

Apion, Bk 1
Apion, Bk 2


Gospel of--
-- Nicodemus
-- Peter
-- Ps-Matthew
-- James (Protevangelium)
-- Thomas (Infancy)
-- Thomas (Gnostic)
-- Joseph of Arimathea
-- Joseph_Carpenter
Pilate's Letter
Pilate's End

Apocalypse of --
-- Ezra
-- Moses
-- Paul
-- Pseudo-John
-- Moses
-- Enoch

Clementine Homilies
Clementine Letters
Clementine Recognitions
Dormition of Mary
Book of Jubilees
Life of Adam and Eve
Odes of Solomon
Pistis Sophia
Secrets of Enoch
Veronica's Veil
Vision of Paul
Vision of Shadrach

Acts of
Andrew & Matthias
Andrew & Peter
Paul & Perpetua
Paul & Thecla
Peter & Paul
Andrew and Peter
Thomas in India

Daily Word 2019


Sundays, 1-34, A
Sundays, 1-34, B
Sundays, 1-34, C

(Ordinary Time)
Weeks 1-11 (Year 1)
Weeks 1-11 (Year 2)

Wks 12-22 (Year 1)
Wks 12-22 (Year 2)

Wks 23-34 (Year 1)
Wks 23-34 (Year 2)

Saints Days


Clement of Rome

Ignatius of Antioch

Polycarp of Smyrna

Barnabas,(Epistle of)

Papias of Hierapolis

Justin, Martyr

The Didachë

Irenaeus of Lyons

Hermas (Pastor of)

Tatian of Syria

Theophilus of Antioch

Diognetus (letter)

Athenagoras of Alex.

Clement of Alexandria

Tertullian of Carthage

Origen of Alexandria

Life of Josephus

βίος Φλαυίου Ἰωσήπου

(to view on a cellphone, best to use widescreen mode)

1. Family, education and early manhood

2. Jewish revolt against Rome begins

3. Factions among the Galilean rebels

4. Josephus as defender of Galilee

5. Risks he took for the sake of justice

6. His intentions are misunderstood

7. Josephus forestalls his enemies

8. His strong leadership, in Galilee

9. Various plots to depose him

10. He gives his opponents an amnesty

11. Tries to spare Sepphoris and Tiberias

12. At Sepphoris he fights the Romans

13. Taken prisoner and brought to Rome

Chapter 1. Family, education and early manhood of Josephus

[1] Ἐμοὶ δὲ γένος ἐστὶν οὐκ ἄσημον, ἀλλ᾽ ἐξ ἱερέων ἄνωθεν καταβεβηκός. Ὥσπερ δ᾽ ἡ παρ᾽ ἑκάστοις ἄλλη τίς ἐστιν εὐγενείας ὑπόθεσις, οὕτως παρ᾽ ἡμῖν ἡ τῆς ἱερωσύνης μετουσία τεκμήριόν ἐστιν γένους λαμπρότητος. [2] Ἐμοὶ δ᾽ οὐ μόνον ἐξ ἱερέων ἐστὶν τὸ γένος, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐκ τῆς πρώτης ἐφημερίδος τῶν εἰκοσιτεσσάρων, πολλὴ δὲ κἀν τούτῳ διαφορά, καὶ τῶν ἐν ταύτῃ δὲ φυλῶν ἐκ τῆς ἀρίστης. Ὑπάρχω δὲ καὶ τοῦ βασιλικοῦ γένους ἀπὸ τῆς μητρός· οἱ γὰρ Ἀσαμωναίου παῖδες, ὧν ἔγγονος ἐκείνη, τοῦ ἔθνους ἡμῶν ἐπὶ μήκιστον χρόνον ἠρχιεράτευσαν καὶ ἐβασίλευσαν. [3] Ἐρῶ δὲ τὴν διαδοχήν· ὁ πρόπαππος ἡμῶν Σίμων ὁ Ψελλὸς ἐπικαλούμενος. Οὗτος ἐγένετο καθ᾽ ὃν καιρὸν ἠρχιεράτευσεν Σίμωνος ἀρχιερέως ὁ παῖς, ὃς πρῶτος ἀρχιερέων Ὑρκανὸς ὠνομάσθη. [4] Γίνονται δὲ τῷ Ψελλῷ Σίμωνι παῖδες ἐννέα· τούτων ἐστὶν Ματθίας ὁ Ἠφαίου λεγόμενος· οὗτος ἠγάγετο πρὸς γάμον θυγατέρα Ἰωνάθου ἀρχιερέως τοῦ πρώτου ἐκ τῶν Ἀσαμωναίου παίδων γένους ἀρχιερατεύσαντος τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ Σίμωνος τἀρχιερέως, καὶ γίνεται παῖς αὐτῷ Ματθίας ὁ Κυρτὸς ἐπικληθεὶς ἄρχοντος Ὑρκανοῦ τὸν πρῶτον ἐνιαυτόν. [5] Τούτου γίνεται Ἰώσηπος ἐνάτῳ ἔτει τῆς Ἀλεξάνδρας ἀρχῆς, καὶ Ἰωσήπου Ματθίας βασιλεύοντος Ἀρχελάου τὸ δέκατον, Ματθία δὲ ἐγὼ τῷ πρώτῳ τῆς Γαΐου Καίσαρος ἡγεμονίας. Ἐμοὶ δὲ παῖδές εἰσιν τρεῖς, Ὑρκανὸς μὲν ὁ πρεσβύτατος ἔτει τετάρτῳ τῆς Οὐεσπασιανοῦ Καίσαρος ἡγεμονίας, ἑβδόμῳ δὲ Ἰοῦστος, ἐνάτῳ δὲ Ἀγρίππας. [6] Τὴν μὲν τοῦ γένους ἡμῶν διαδοχήν, ὡς ἐν ταῖς δημοσίαις δέλτοις ἀναγεγραμμένην εὗρον, οὕτως παρατίθεμαι τοῖς διαβάλλειν ἡμᾶς πειρωμένοις χαίρειν φράσας. 1. 001 The family from which I come is not ignoble, but is descended from priests away back, and as rank is reckoned differently among different peoples, among us the priestly rank is what makes a family illustrious. 002 Not alone am I of a priestly clan but from the first of the twenty-four priestly ranks; and as there is considerable difference between the ranks, I come from the best family of them. I am of royal blood on my mother's side as the children of Hasmoneus, from whom her family springs, for a long time held both the office of high priest and king. 003 Let me list my ancestors. My grandfather's father was named Simon, nicknamed the Stammerer" and he lived at the time of the son of Simon, who was first high priest to be called Hyrcanus. 004 This Simon the Stammerer" had nine sons, one of whom was Matthias (known as Ephaeus) who married the daughter of the high priest Jonathan, the first of the sons of Hasmoneus to be high priest; and Simon's brother also became high priest. He had a son called Matthias Curtus, in the first year of the reign of Hyrcanus. 005 His son's name was Joseph, born in the ninth year of the reign of Alexandra. His son Matthias was born in the tenth year of the reign of Archelaus, and to this Matthias I was born in the first regnal year of Gaius Caesar. I have three sons: Hyrcanus, the eldest, born in the fourth, Justus born in the seventh and Agrippa in the ninth year of the reign of Vespasian. 006 So have I set down the genealogy of our family as I have found it described in the public records, to put an end to any would-be detractors.
[7] Ὁ πατὴρ δέ μου Ματθίας οὐ διὰ μόνην τὴν εὐγένειαν ἐπίσημος ἦν, ἀλλὰ πλέον διὰ τὴν δικαιοσύνην ἐπῃνεῖτο, γνωριμώτατος ὢν ἐν τῇ μεγίστῃ πόλει τῶν παρ᾽ ἡμῖν τοῖς Ἱεροσολυμίταις. [8] Ἐγὼ δὲ συμπαιδευόμενος ἀδελφῷ Ματθίᾳ τοὔνομα, γεγόνει γάρ μοι γνήσιος ἐξ ἀμφοῖν τῶν γονέων, εἰς μεγάλην παιδείας προύκοπτον ἐπίδοσιν μνήμῃ τε καὶ συνέσει δοκῶν διαφέρειν, [9] ἔτι δ᾽ ἀντίπαις ὢν περὶ τεσσαρεσκαιδέκατον ἔτος διὰ τὸ φιλογράμματον ὑπὸ πάντων ἐπῃνούμην συνιόντων ἀεὶ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ τῶν τῆς πόλεως πρώτων ὑπὲρ τοῦ παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ περὶ τῶν νομίμων ἀκριβέστερόν τι γνῶναι. [10] Περὶ δὲ ἑκκαίδεκα ἔτη γενόμενος ἐβουλήθην τῶν παρ᾽ ἡμῖν αἱρέσεων ἐμπειρίαν λαβεῖν· τρεῖς δ᾽ εἰσὶν αὗται, Φαρισαίων μὲν ἡ πρώτη, καὶ Σαδδουκαίων ἡ δευτέρα, τρίτη δ᾽ Ἐσσηνῶν, καθὼς πολλάκις εἴπομεν· οὕτως γὰρ ᾤμην αἱρήσεσθαι τὴν ἀρίστην, εἰ πάσας καταμάθοιμι. [11] Σκληραγωγήσας οὖν ἐμαυτὸν καὶ πολλὰ πονηθεὶς τὰς τρεῖς διῆλθον, καὶ μηδὲ τὴν ἐντεῦθεν ἐμπειρίαν ἱκανὴν ἐμαυτῷ νομίσας εἶναι πυθόμενός τινα Βάννουν ὄνομα κατὰ τὴν ἐρημίαν διατρίβειν, ἐσθῆτι μὲν ἀπὸ δένδρων χρώμενον, τροφὴν δὲ τὴν αὐτομάτως φυομένην προσφερόμενον, ψυχρῷ δὲ ὕδατι τὴν ἡμέραν καὶ τὴν νύκτα πολλάκις λουόμενον πρὸς ἁγνείαν, ζηλωτὴς ἐγενόμην αὐτοῦ. [12] Καὶ διατρίψας παρ᾽ αὐτῷ ἐνιαυτοὺς τρεῖς καὶ τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν τελειώσας εἰς τὴν πόλιν ὑπέστρεφον. Ἐννεακαιδέκατον δ᾽ ἔτος ἔχων ἠρξάμην τε πολιτεύεσθαι τῇ Φαρισαίων αἱρέσει κατακολουθῶν, ἣ παραπλήσιός ἐστι τῇ παρ᾽ Ἕλλησιν Στωϊκῇ λεγομένῃ. 2. 007 Distinguished by his noble lineage, my father Matthias was further esteemed for his righteousness and was a person of note in Jerusalem, our greatest city. 008 I was reared with Matthias , my legitimate brother by both parents and made great progress in my education, seeming to have an outstanding memory and intelligence. 009 While still a young lad of fourteen years, I was commended by all for my love of letters, and the high priests and leading men of the city often asked for my opinion about particular points of the law. 010 When I was about sixteen years old, I wished to gain experience of the several sects that were among us. These are three, of which the first is that of the Pharisees, the second that of the Sadducees and the third that of the Essenes, as we have mentioned several times. My idea was that only if I were acquainted with them all could I choose the best. 011 So I went through hard training and difficult exercises in all three. Not content with such experience, when I heard of a man named Banus who lived in the desert and used as clothing only what grew on trees and ate no other food than what grew of its own accord, and bathed often in cold water, night and day, for chastity's sake, I imitated him in those things and stayed three years with him. 012 When I had achieved my purpose, at the age of nineteen I returned to the city and began to live according to the rules of the Pharisees, a sect like what the Greeks call the Stoics
[13] Μετ᾽ εἰκοστὸν δὲ καὶ ἕκτον ἐνιαυτὸν εἰς Ῥώμην μοι συνέπεσεν ἀναβῆναι διὰ τὴν λεχθησομένην αἰτίαν· καθ᾽ ὃν χρόνον Φῆλιξ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐπετρόπευεν ἱερεῖς τινας συνήθεις ἐμοὶ καλοὺς κἀγαθοὺς διὰ μικρὰν καὶ τὴν τυχοῦσαν αἰτίαν δήσας εἰς τὴν Ῥώμην ἔπεμψε λόγον ὑφέξοντας τῷ Καίσαρι. [14] Οἷς ἐγὼ πόρον εὑρέσθαι βουλόμενος σωτηρίας, μάλιστα δὲ πυθόμενος ὅτι καίπερ ἐν κακοῖς ὄντες οὐκ ἐπελάθοντο τῆς εἰς τὸ θεῖον εὐσεβείας, διατρέφοιντο δὲ σύκοις καὶ καρύοις, ἀφικόμην εἰς τὴν Ῥώμην πολλὰ κινδυνεύσας κατὰ θάλασσαν. [15] Βαπτισθέντος γὰρ ἡμῶν τοῦ πλοίου κατὰ μέσον τὸν Ἀδρίαν περὶ ἑξακοσίους τὸν ἀριθμὸν ὄντες δι᾽ ὅλης τῆς νυκτὸς ἐνηξάμεθα, καὶ περὶ ἀρχομένην ἡμέραν ἐπιφανέντος ἡμῖν κατὰ θεοῦ πρόνοιαν Κυρηναϊκοῦ πλοίου φθάσαντες τοὺς ἄλλους ἐγώ τε καί τινες ἕτεροι περὶ ὀγδοήκοντα σύμπαντες ἀνελήφθημεν εἰς τὸ πλοῖον. [16] Διασωθεὶς δ᾽ εἰς τὴν Δικαιάρχειαν, ἣν Ποτιόλους Ἰταλοὶ καλοῦσιν, διὰ φιλίας ἀφικόμην Ἁλιτύρῳ, μιμολόγος δ᾽ ἦν οὗτος μάλιστα τῷ Νέρωνι καταθύμιος Ἰουδαῖος τὸ γένος, καὶ δι᾽ αὐτοῦ Ποππαίᾳ τῇ τοῦ Καίσαρος γυναικὶ γνωσθεὶς προνοῶ ὡς τάχιστα παρακαλέσας αὐτὴν τοὺς ἱερεῖς λυθῆναι. Μεγάλων δὲ δωρεῶν πρὸς τῇ εὐεργεσίᾳ ταύτῃ τυχὼν παρὰ τῆς Ποππαίας ὑπέστρεφον ἐπὶ τὴν οἰκείαν. 3. 013 Then when I was in my twenty-sixth year I made a voyage to Rome, for reasons I shall presently describe. When Felix was procurator of Judea, on a small and trifling charge he chained up some excellent priests known to me, and sent them to Rome to plead their case before Caesar. 014 Wanting to save these men, especially as I was told that even in their plight they did not abandon piety towards God but ate only figs and nuts, I went to Rome, though the voyage proved a very dangerous one. 015 For our ship sank in the Adriatic Sea, and we the passengers, about six hundred of us, had to swim for our lives all night. Then at first light we saw a ship from Cyrene, and by the providence of God I and some ei)ghty others got there ahead of the rest and were taken into the ship. 016 When I had so escaped and had arrived at Dicaearchia, which the Italians call Puteoli, I got to know Aliturus, an actor much beloved by Nero and by birth a Jew. Through him I was introduced to Caesar's wife Poppea, and made it my business as soon as possible to ask her to intercede for the priests to be set free. After receiving this favour and many gifts from Poppea, I returned home.

Chapter 2. Beginnings of the Jewish revolt against Rome

[17] Καταλαμβάνω δ᾽ ἤδη νεωτερισμῶν ἀρχὰς καὶ πολλοὺς ἐπὶ τῇ Ῥωμαίων ἀποστάσει μέγα φρονοῦντας. Καταστέλλειν οὖν ἐπειρώμην τοὺς στασιώδεις καὶ μετανοεῖν ἔπειθον ποιησαμένους πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν πρὸς οὓς πολεμήσουσιν, ὅτι Ῥωμαίων οὐ κατ᾽ ἐμπειρίαν μόνον πολεμικήν, ἀλλὰ καὶ κατ᾽ εὐτυχίαν ἐλαττοῦνται· [18] καὶ μὴ προπετῶς καὶ παντάπασιν ἀνοήτως πατρίσι καὶ γενεαῖς καὶ σφίσιν αὐτοῖς τὸν περὶ τῶν ἐσχάτων κακῶν κίνδυνον ἐπάγειν. [19] Ταῦτα δ᾽ ἔλεγον καὶ λιπαρῶς ἐνεκείμην ἀποτρέπων, δυστυχέστατον ἡμῖν τοῦ πολέμου τὸ τέλος γενήσεσθαι προορώμενος. Οὐ μὴν ἔπεισα· πολὺ γὰρ ἡ τῶν ἀπονοηθέντων ἐπεκράτησεν μανία. 4. 017 There I noticed the beginnings of revolt and how many were eager for revolt from the Romans. I tried to get these agitators to change their minds, pointing out who it was that they wished to fight and that they fell short of the Romans not only in martial skill, but also in good fortune. 018 I urged them not to rashly and foolishly bring the most terrible misfortune upon their country, their families and themselves. 019 This I said earnestly and often, foreseeing that such a war would be dreadful for us in the end. But I failed, for the madness of these desperate men was quite too strong for me.
[20] Δείσας οὖν, μὴ ταῦτα συνεχῶς λέγων διὰ μίσους ἀφικοίμην καὶ ὑποψίας ὡς τὰ τῶν πολεμίων φρονῶν καὶ κινδυνεύσω ληφθεὶς ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν ἀναιρεθῆναι, ἐχομένης ἤδη τῆς Ἀντωνίας, ὅπερ ἦν φρούριον, εἰς τὸ ἐνδοτέρω ἱερὸν ὑπεχώρησα. [21] Μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἀναίρεσιν Μαναήμου καὶ τῶν πρώτων τοῦ λῃστρικοῦ στίφους ὑπεξελθὼν τοῦ ἱεροῦ πάλιν τοῖς ἀρχιερεῦσιν καὶ τοῖς πρώτοις τῶν Φαρισαίων συνδιέτριβον. [22] Φόβος δ᾽ οὔτι μέτριος εἶχεν ἡμᾶς ὁρῶντας τὸν μὲν δῆμον ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις, αὐτοὶ δ᾽ ὄντες ἐν ἀπόρῳ, τί ποιήσομεν, καὶ τοὺς νεωτεριστὰς παύειν οὐ δυνάμενοι, προδήλου δ᾽ ἡμῖν τοῦ κινδύνου παρεστῶτος, συγκατανεύειν μὲν αὐτῶν ταῖς γνώμαις ἐλέγομεν, συνεβουλεύομεν δὲ μένειν ἐφ᾽ αὑτῶν, καὶ τοὺς πολεμίους ἐπελθόντας ἐᾶν, ἵνα τοῦ δικαίως ἀνταίρειν ὅπλα πίστιν εὕρωνται. [23] Ταῦτα δ᾽ ἐπράττομεν ἐλπίζοντες οὐκ εἰς μακρὰν Κέστιον μετὰ μεγάλης δυνάμεως ἀναβάντα παύσειν τὸν νεωτερισμόν.
5. 020 I was afraid that by often saying such things I would be hated and suspected of being on our enemies' side and risk being taken and killed by them, as they already held the Antonia citadel; so I retreated to inside the temple. 021 After Manahem and the leaders of the gang of brigands were put to death, I came out of the temple and then I lived among the high priests and the chief of the Pharisees. 022 We were very afraid when we saw the people in arms, unsure of what to do and unable to restrain the rebellious. But as the danger was very obvious, we pretended to be of the same mind as they, advising them to keep the peace until the enemy came, and only to take arms in self-defence. 023 We did this, hoping that it would not be long before Cestius came with a large force to put an end to this revolt.
[24] Ὁ δ᾽ ἐπελθὼν καὶ συμβαλὼν μάχῃ ἐνικήθη πολλῶν τῶν μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ πεσόντων. Καὶ γίνεται τὸ Κεστίου πταῖσμα συμφορὰ τοῦ σύμπαντος ἡμῶν ἔθνους· ἐπήρθησαν γὰρ ἐπὶ τούτῳ μᾶλλον οἱ τὸν πόλεμον ἀγαπήσαντες καὶ νικήσαντες τοὺς Ῥωμαίους εἰς τέλος ἤλπισαν προσγενομένης καὶ ἑτέρας τινὸς τοιαύτης αἰτίας·
[25] οἱ τὰς πέριξ τῆς Συρίας πόλεις κατοικοῦντες τοὺς παρ᾽ ἑαυτοῖς Ἰουδαίους συλλαμβάνοντες σὺν γυναιξὶ καὶ τέκνοις ἀνῄρουν οὐδεμίαν αὐτοῖς αἰτίαν ἐπικαλεῖν ἔχοντες· οὔτε γὰρ ἐπὶ Ῥωμαίων ἀποστάσει νεώτερόν τι πεφρονήκεσαν οὔτε πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἐκείνους ἐχθρὸν ἢ ἐπίβουλον. [26] Σκυθοπολῖται δὲ πάντων ἀσεβέστατα καὶ παρανομώτατα διεπράξαντο· ἐπελθόντων γὰρ αὐτοῖς Ἰουδαίων ἔξωθεν πολεμίων τοὺς παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς Ἰουδαίους ἐβιάσαντο κατὰ τῶν ὁμοφύλων ὅπλα λαβεῖν, ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἡμῖν ἀθέμιτον, καὶ μετ᾽ ἐκείνων συμβαλόντες ἐκράτησαν τῶν ἐπελθόντων· ἐπειδὴ δ᾽ ἐνίκησαν, ἐκλαθόμενοι τῆς πρὸς τοὺς ἐνοίκους καὶ συμμάχους πίστεως πάντας αὐτοὺς διεχρήσαντο πολλὰς μυριάδας ὄντας. [27] Ὅμοια δ᾽ ἔπαθον καὶ οἱ Δαμασκὸν Ἰουδαῖοι κατοικοῦντες. Ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τούτων ἀκριβέστερον ἐν ταῖς περὶ τοῦ Ἰουδαϊκοῦ πολέμου βίβλοις δεδηλώκαμεν· νῦν δ᾽ αὐτῶν ἐπεμνήσθην βουλόμενος παραστῆσαι τοῖς ἀναγινώσκουσιν, ὅτι οὐ προαίρεσις ἐγένετο τοῦ πολέμου πρὸς Ῥωμαίους Ἰουδαίοις, ἀλλὰ τὸ πλέον ἀνάγκη.
6. 024 But when he came and fought he was defeated and many of his men died. The debacle of Cestius proved the disaster of our whole nation, for those who had a love of warfare were so exalted by this success that they were hopeful of finally conquering the Romans. Another cause of the war was this:
025 Those who lived in the nearby cities of Syria seized and killed the Jews living among them, with their wives and children, without the least grievance against them; for they neither attempted any revolt from the Romans, nor gave them any signs of hatred or treachery. 026 But the people of Scythopolis did the most heinous crime of all; for when attacked from outside by their Jewish enemies, they forced the Jews in their midst to turn their weapons on their own people, which it is unlawful for us to do; and when, with their help, they had fought and defeated their attackers, after the victory they forgot their assurances to these fellow citizens and allies and killed them all, many thousands of them. 027 The Jews who lived in Damascus met a similar fate. But we have given a more detailed account of these things in the books on the Jewish War. I only mention them now to show my readers that the war of the Jews with the Romans did not arise so much from voluntary choice as from necessity.
[28] Νικηθέντος οὖν, ὡς ἔφαμεν, τοῦ Κεστίου, τῶν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν οἱ πρῶτοι θεασάμενοι τοὺς μὲν λῃστὰς ἅμα τοῖς νεωτερισταῖς εὐπορουμένους ὅπλων, δείσαντες δ᾽ αὐτοὶ μὴ ἄνοπλοι καθεστηκότες ὑποχείριοι γένωνται τοῖς ἐχθροῖς, ὃ καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα συνέβη, καὶ πυθόμενοι τὴν Γαλιλαίαν οὔπω πᾶσαν Ῥωμαίων ἀφεστάναι, μέρος δ᾽ αὐτῆς ἠρεμεῖν ἔτι, [29] πέμπουσιν ἐμὲ καὶ δύο ἄλλους τῶν ἱερέων καλοὺς κἀγαθοὺς ἄνδρας, Ἰώζαρον καὶ Ἰούδαν, πείσοντας τοὺς πονηροὺς καταθέσθαι τὰ ὅπλα καὶ διδάξοντας, ὡς ἔστιν ἄμεινον τοῖς κρατίστοις τοῦ ἔθνους αὐτὰ τηρεῖσθαι. Ἔγνωστο δὲ τούτοις ἀεὶ μὲν ἔχειν τὰ ὅπλα πρὸς τὸ μέλλον ἕτοιμα, περιμένειν δέ, τί πράξουσιν Ῥωμαῖοι, μαθεῖν. 7. 028 When Cestius had been defeated, as already said, since the brigands and rebels had plenty of weapons the notables of Jerusalem feared that they, being unarmed, would be at the mercy of their enemies, as was later the case. And seeing that not all of Galilee had rebelled from the Romans, but that some of it was still at peace, 029 they sent me and two others of the priests, Joazar and Judas - good and virtuous men, to persuade the hotheads there to disarm, for it would be better to reserve those weapons for the bravest of the nation, as they felt that these should always have weapons ready for future needs, while waiting to see what the Romans would do.
[30] Λαβὼν οὖν ἐγὼ τὰς ὑποθήκας ταύτας ἀφικόμην εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν. Καὶ Σεπφωρίτας μὲν οὐκ ἐν ὀλίγῳ περὶ τῆς πατρίδος ἀγῶνι καθεστῶτας εὗρον, διαρπάσαι κεκρικότων αὐτὴν τῶν Γαλιλαίων διὰ τὴν πρὸς Ῥωμαίους ἐκείνων φιλίαν καὶ ὅτι Κεστίῳ Γάλλῳ τῷ τῆς Συρίας ἡγεμονεύοντι δεξιάν τε καὶ πίστιν προτείνειαν. [31] Ἀλλὰ τούτους μὲν ἐγὼ πάντας ἀπήλλαξα τοῦ φόβου πείσας ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν τὰ πλήθη καὶ ἐπιτρέψας ὅσα καὶ θέλουσι διαπέμπεσθαι διὰ τοὺς ἐν Δώροις οἰκείους ὁμηρεύοντας Κεστίῳ. Τὰ δὲ Δῶρα πόλις ἐστὶν τῆς Φοινίκης. Τοὺς ἐν Τιβεριάδι δὲ κατοικοῦντας εὗρον ἐφ᾽ ὅπλα κεχωρηκότας ἤδη δι᾽ αἰτίαν τοιαύτην· 8. 030 On receiving these instructions, I came to Galilee and found the people of Sepphoris in anguish about their area, as the Galileans had resolved to plunder it in retaliation for their friendship with the Romans and because they had made a firm pact with Cestius Gallus, the governor of Syria. 031 But I allayed their fears and persuaded the people to deal kindly with them and let them send messages to their friends as often as they pleased, who were hostages with Cestius at Dora, a city of Phoenicia. But I found the Tiberians ready already up in arms, for the following reason.
[32] Στάσεις τρεῖς ἦσαν κατὰ τὴν πόλιν, μία μὲν ἀνδρῶν εὐσχημόνων, ἦρχε δ᾽ αὐτῆς Ἰούλιος Κάπελλος. [33] Οὗτος δὴ καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ πάντες, Ἡρώδης ὁ Μιαροῦ καὶ Ἡρώδης ὁ τοῦ Γαμάλου καὶ Κομψὸς ὁ τοῦ Κομψοῦ· Κρίσπος γὰρ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ τοῦ μεγάλου βασιλέως γενόμενός ποτε ἔπαρχος ἐν ταῖς ἰδίαις κτήσεσιν ἐτύγχανεν πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου· [34] πάντες οὖν οἱ προειρημένοι κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν ἐκεῖνον ἐμμένειν συνεβούλευον τῇ πρὸς τοὺς Ῥωμαίους καὶ τὸν βασιλέα πίστει. Τῇ γνώμῃ δ᾽ οὐ συνηρέσκετο Πιστὸς παραγόμενος ὑπὸ Ἰούστου τοῦ παιδός· καὶ γὰρ ἦν φύσει πως ἐπιμανής. [35] Ἡ δευτέρα δὲ στάσις ἐξ ἀσημοτάτων συνεστηκυῖα πολεμεῖν ἔκρινεν. [36] Ἰοῦστος δ᾽ ὁ Πιστοῦ παῖς ὁ τῆς τρίτης μερίδος πρῶτος ὑπεκρίνετο μὲν ἐνδοιάζειν πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον, νεωτέρων δ᾽ ἐπεθύμει πραγμάτων ἐκ τῆς μεταβολῆς οἰόμενος δύναμιν ἑαυτῷ περιποιήσειν. [37] Παρελθὼν οὖν εἰς μέσους διδάσκειν ἐπειρᾶτο τὸ πλῆθος, ὡς ἡ πόλις ἀεὶ τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἄρξειεν ἐπί γε τῶν Ἡρώδου χρόνων τοῦ τετράρχου καὶ κτίστου γενομένου, βουληθέντος αὐτοῦ τὴν Σεπφωριτῶν πόλιν τῇ Τιβεριέων ὑπακούειν, ἀποβαλεῖν δὲ τὸ πρωτεῖον αὐτοὺς μηδὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ βασιλέως Ἀγρίππα τοῦ πατρὸς, διαμεῖναι δὲ καὶ μέχρι Φήλικος προεσταμένου τῆς Ἰουδαίας. [38] Νῦν δὲ ἔλεγεν αὐτοὺς ἠτυχηκέναι τῷ νεωτέρῳ δωρεὰν Ἀγρίππᾳ δοθέντας ὑπὸ Νέρωνος· ἄρξαι γὰρ εὐθὺς τὴν μὲν Σέπφωριν, ἐπειδὴ Ῥωμαίοις ὑπήκουσεν, τῆς Γαλιλαίας, καταλυθῆναι δὲ παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς τήν τε βασιλικὴν τράπεζαν καὶ τὰ ἀρχεῖα. [39] Ταῦτα καὶ πρὸς τούτοις ἕτερα πολλὰ κατὰ βασιλέως Ἀγρίππα λέγων ὑπὲρ τοῦ τὸν δῆμον εἰς τὴν ἀπόστασιν ἐρεθίσαι, προσετίθει νῦν εἶναι καιρὸν ἀραμένους ὅπλα καὶ Γαλιλαίους συμμάχους προσλαβόντας, ἄρξειν γὰρ αὐτῶν ἑκόντων διὰ τὸ πρὸς τοὺς Σεπφωρίτας μῖσος ὑπάρχειν αὐτοῖς, ὅτι τὴν πρὸς Ῥωμαίους πίστιν διαφυλάσσουσιν, μεγάλῃ χειρὶ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν τιμωρίαν τραπέσθαι. [40] Ταῦτα λέγων προετρέψατο τὸ πλῆθος· ἦν γὰρ ἱκανὸς δημαγωγεῖν καὶ τῶν ἀντιλεγόντων τὰ βελτίω περιεῖναι γοητείᾳ καὶ ἀπάτῃ τῇ διὰ λόγων· καὶ γὰρ οὐδ᾽ ἄπειρος ἦν παιδείας τῆς παρ᾽ Ἕλλησιν, ᾗ θαρρῶν ἐπεχείρησεν καὶ τὴν ἱστορίαν τῶν πραγμάτων τούτων ἀναγράφειν, ὡς τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ περιεσόμενος τῆς ἀληθείας. [41] Ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τούτου τοῦ ἀνδρός, ὡς φαῦλος τὸν βίον ἐγένετο καὶ ὡς σὺν τῷ ἀδελφῷ μικροῦ δεῖν καταστροφῆς αἴτιος ὑπῆρξεν, προϊόντος τοῦ λόγου δηλώσομεν. [42] Τότε δὲ πείσας ὁ Ἰοῦστος τοὺς πολίτας ἀναλαβεῖν τὰ ὅπλα πολλοὺς δὲ καὶ μὴ θελήσαντας ἀναγκάσας, ἐξελθὼν σὺν πᾶσιν τούτοις ἐμπίπρησιν τάς τε Γαδαρηνῶν καὶ Ἱππηνῶν κώμας, αἳ δὴ μεθόριοι τῆς Τιβεριάδος καὶ τῆς τῶν Σκυθοπολιτῶν γῆς ἐτύγχανον κείμεναι. 9. 032 In the city there were three factions; the first being respectable citizens, headed by Julius Capella. 033 He and all his friends, Herod the son of Miarus and Herod the son of Gamalus and Compsus the son of Compsus, and his brother Crispus, who had once been governor under the great king, who lived on his own land beyond the Jordan, 034 advised that the city should continue loyal to the Romans and to the king. But Pistus, urged by his son Justus, did not agree with that view, for he was of an impulsive nature. 035 The second faction consisted of the most ignoble persons and was decided for war. 036 Justus, the son of Pistus, who led the third faction, although he pretended to be doubtful about going to war, really was eager for revolution, expecting to gain power by the change of affairs. 037 Therefore he came forward and tried to tell the people that Tiberias had always been the capital of Galilee and that in the days of its builder, Herod the tetrarch, it had held the first place and that he had intended the city of Sepphoris to be subordinate to Tiberias; that they had not lost this preeminence even under Agrippa the elder, but had kept it until Felix became procurator of Judea. 038 But, he told them, now they had been so unfortunate as to be presented by Nero to Agrippa the younger; and when Sepphoris submitted to the Romans it had become the capital of Galilee and now the royal library and the archives were removed from them. 039 When he had said these things and much more against king Agrippa, he added, in order to provoke the people to revolt, that this was the time for them to take arms and join with the Galileans as their allies who would now willingly join them, from their hatred towards the Sepphorites for keeping faithful to the Romans 040 This speech stirred the people; for his abilities lay in demagoguery and in overcoming by his craftiness and fallacies those who opposed him, even when they advised what was more advantageous. He was not unskilled in the learning of the Greeks; and using that skill he undertook to write a history of these matters, aiming to disguise the truth in this way. 041 As my narrative progresses I shall tell about this man's wicked character and lifestyle and how he and his brother were the main authors of our destruction. 042 So when, at his persuasion, Justus got the citizens of Tiberias to take arms, and had even forced many to do so against their wills, he went out and set fire to the villages belonging to Gadara and Hippos, along the borders of Tiberias and of the region of Scythopolis.

Chapter 3. Factions among the Galilean rebels

[43] Καὶ Τιβεριὰς μὲν ἐν τοιούτοις ἦν. Τὰ περὶ Γίσχαλα δὲ εἶχε τὸν τρόπον τοῦτον· Ἰωάννης ὁ τοῦ Ληουεῖ τῶν πολιτῶν τινας ὁρῶν διὰ τὴν ἀποστασίαν τὴν ἀπὸ Ῥωμαίων μέγα φρονοῦντας κατέχειν αὐτοὺς ἐπειρᾶτο καὶ τὴν πίστιν ἠξίου διαφυλάττειν. [44] Οὐ μὴν ἠδυνήθη καίτοι πάνυ προθυμούμενος· τὰ γὰρ πέριξ ἔθνη, Γαδαρηνοὶ καὶ βαραγαναῖοι καὶ Τύριοι, πολλὴν ἀθροίσαντες δύναμιν καὶ τοῖς Γισχάλοις ἐπιπεσόντες λαμβάνουσι τὰ Γίσχαλα κατὰ κράτος, καὶ πυρπολήσαντες εἶτα δὲ προσκατασκάψαντες εἰς τὴν οἰκείαν ἀνέζευξαν. [45] Ἰωάννης δὲ ἐπὶ τούτῳ παροξυνθεὶς ὁπλίζει πάντας τοὺς μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ καὶ συμβαλὼν τοῖς προειρημένοις ἔθνεσιν τά τε Γίσχαλα κρείττονα πάλιν ἀνακτίσας τείχεσιν ὑπὲρ ἀσφαλείας τῆς εἰς ὕστερον ὠχύρωσεν. 10. 043 Such was the situation in Tiberias. At Gischala, matters were as follows: When John, the son of Levi, saw some of the citizens exulting at their revolt from the Romans, he tried to restrain them and implored them to maintain their allegiance to them. 044 But he could not achieve this, although he tried his utmost; for the neighbouring people of Gadara, Gabara and Sogana, and the Tyrians, mustered a great force and stormed and took Gischala and set it on fire; and when they had entirely demolished it, they returned home. 045 At this John was so enraged that he armed all his men and attacked those people; he rebuilt Gischala better than before and fortified it with walls for its future security.
[46] Γάμαλα δὲ πίστει τῇ πρὸς Ῥωμαίους ἐνέμεινε δι᾽ αἰτίαν τοιαύτην· Φίλιππος ὁ Ἰακείμου παῖς ἔπαρχος δὲ τοῦ βασιλέως Ἀγρίππα, σωθεὶς παρὰ δόξαν ἐκ τῆς ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις βασιλικῆς αὐλῆς πολιορκουμένης καὶ διαφυγών, εἰς ἕτερον ἐνέπεσε κίνδυνον, ὥστε ὑπὸ Μαναήμου καὶ τῶν σὺν αὐτῷ λῃστῶν ἀναιρεθῆναι. [47] Διεκώλυσαν δὲ Βαβυλώνιοί τινες συγγενεῖς αὐτοῦ ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις ὄντες πρᾶξαι τοὺς λῃστὰς τὸ ἔργον. Ἐπιμείνας οὖν ἡμέρας τέσσαρας ὁ Φίλιππος ἐκεῖ τῇ πέμπτῃ φεύγει περιθετῇ χρησάμενος κόμῃ τοῦ μὴ κατάδηλος γενέσθαι, καὶ παραγενόμενος εἴς τινα τῶν ἑαυτοῦ κωμῶν κατὰ τοὺς ὅρους Γάμαλα τοῦ φρουρίου κειμένην πέμπει πρός τινας τῶν ὑπ᾽ αὐτὸν προστάσσων ὡς αὐτὸν ἀφικέσθαι τὴν Φιλίππου. [48] Ταῦτα δ᾽ αὐτὸν ἐννοούμενον ἐμποδίζει τὸ θεῖον ἐπὶ συμφέροντι· μὴ γὰρ τούτου γενομένου πάντως ἂν ἀπωλώλει· πυρετοῦ δὴ κατασχόντος αὐτὸν ἐξαίφνης γράψας ἐπιστολὰς τοῖς παισὶν Ἀγρίππᾳ καὶ Βερενίκῃ δίδωσιν τῶν ἐξελευθέρων τινὶ κομίζειν πρὸς Οὔαρον. [49] Ἦν δ᾽ οὗτος κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν ἐκεῖνον ὁ τὴν βασιλείαν διοικῶν καταστησάντων αὐτὸν τῶν βασιλέων· αὐτοὶ γὰρ εἰς Βηρυτὸν ἀφικνοῦντο ὑπαντῆσαι βουλόμενοι Κεστίῳ. [50] Λαβὼν οὖν Οὔαρος τὰ παρὰ Φιλίππου γράμματα καὶ πυθόμενος αὐτὸν διασεσῶσθαι βαρέως ἤνεγκεν, ἀχρεῖος τὸ λοιπὸν αὐτὸς νομίζων φανεῖσθαι τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν ἀφικομένου τοῦ Φιλίππου. Προαγαγὼν οὖν εἰς τὸ πλῆθος τὸν τὰς ἐπιστολὰς κομίζοντα καὶ πλαστογραφίαν ἐπικαλέσας ψεύδεσθαί τε φήσας αὐτὸν ἀπαγγείλαντα Φίλιππον ἐν τοῖς Ἱεροσολύμοις μετὰ τῶν Ἰουδαίων Ῥωμαίοις πολεμεῖν ἀπέκτεινεν. [51] Μὴ ὑποστρέψαντος δὴ τοῦ ἐξελευθέρου Φίλιππος ἀπορῶν τὴν αἰτίαν δεύτερον ἐκπέμπει μετ᾽ ἐπιστολῶν πάλιν τὸν ἀπαγγελοῦντα πρὸς αὐτόν, τί τὸ συμβεβηκὸς εἴη τῷ ἀποσταλέντι, δι᾽ ὃ βραδύνειεν. [52] Καὶ τοῦτον δὲ παραγενόμενον ὁ Οὔαρος συκοφαντήσας ἀνεῖλεν· καὶ γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν ἐν Καισαρείᾳ Σύρων ἐπῆρτο μέγα φρονεῖν, ἀναιρεθήσεσθαι μὲν λεγόντων ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίων τὸν Ἀγρίππαν διὰ τὰς ὑπὸ Ἰουδαίων ἁμαρτίας, λήψεσθαι δ᾽ αὐτὸν τὴν ἀρχὴν ἐκ βασιλέων ὄντα· καὶ γὰρ ἦν ὁμολογουμένως ὁ Οὔαρος βασιλικοῦ γένους ἔγγονος Σοέμου τοῦ περὶ τὸν Λίβανον τετραρχοῦντος. [53] Διὰ τοῦτ᾽ οὖν ὁ Οὔαρος τυφούμενος τὰς μὲν ἐπιστολὰς παρ᾽ ἑαυτῷ κατέσχεν μηχανώμενος μὴ ἐντυχεῖν τοῖς γράμμασι τὸν βασιλέα, τὰς ἐξόδους δὲ πάσας ἐφρούρει, μὴ διαδράς τις ἀπαγγείλειε τῷ βασιλεῖ τὰ πραττόμενα. Καὶ δὴ χαριζόμενος τοῖς κατὰ τὴν Καισάρειαν Σύροις πολλοὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων ἀπέκτεινεν.
[54] Ἐβουλήθη δὲ καὶ μετὰ τῶν ἐν Βατανέᾳ Τραχωνιτῶν ἀναλαβὼν τὰ ὅπλα ἐπὶ τοὺς ἐν Ἐκβατάνοις Βαβυλωνίους Ἰουδαίους, ταύτην γὰρ τὴν προσηγορίαν ἔχουσιν, ὁρμῆσαι. [55] Καλέσας οὖν τῶν κατὰ τὴν Καισάρειαν Ἰουδαίων δώδεκα τοὺς δοκιμωτάτους προσέτασσεν αὐτοῖς ἀφικομένοις εἰς Ἐκβάτανα πρὸς τοὺς ἐκεῖ κατοικοῦντας αὐτῶν ὁμοφύλους εἰπεῖν, ὅτι Οὔαρος ἀκούσας ὑμᾶς ἐπὶ βασιλέα μέλλειν ὁρμᾶν καὶ μὴ πιστεύσας πέπομφεν ἡμᾶς πείσοντας ὑμᾶς τὰ ὅπλα καταθέσθαι· τοῦτο γὰρ αὐτῷ τεκμήριον ἔσεσθαι καὶ τοῦ καλῶς μὴ πιστεῦσαι τοῖς περὶ ὑμῶν λέγουσιν. [56] Ἐκέλευε δὲ καὶ τοὺς πρώτους αὐτῶν ἄνδρας ἑβδομήκοντα πέμπειν ἀπολογησομένους περὶ τῆς ἐπενηνεγμένης αἰτίας. Ἐλθόντες οὖν οἱ δώδεκα πρὸς τοὺς ἐν Ἐκβατάνοις ὁμοφύλους καὶ καταλαβόντες αὐτοὺς μηδὲν ἐπὶ νεωτερισμῷ φρονοῦντας ἔπεισαν καὶ τοὺς ἑβδομήκοντα πέμπειν. [57] Οἱ δὲ μηδὲν ὑποπτεύσαντες τοιοῦτον οἷον ἔμελλεν ἀποβήσεσθαι ἐξαπέστειλαν. Καταβαίνουσιν δ᾽ οὗτοι μετὰ τῶν δώδεκα πρέσβεων εἰς τὴν Καισάρειαν. Ὑπαντήσας οὖν ὁ Οὔαρος μετὰ τῆς βασιλικῆς δυνάμεως σὺν τοῖς πρέσβεσιν πάντας ἀπέκτεινεν καὶ τὴν πορείαν ἐπὶ τοὺς ἐν Ἐκβατάνοις Ἰουδαίους ἐποιεῖτο. [58] Φθάσας δέ τις ἐκ τῶν ἑβδομήκοντα σωθεὶς ἀπήγγειλεν αὐτοῖς, κἀκεῖνοι τὰ ὅπλα λαβόντες σὺν γυναιξὶ καὶ τέκνοις εἰς Γάμαλα τὸ φρούριον ὑπεχώρησαν, καταλιπόντες τὰς κώμας πολλῶν ἀγαθῶν πλήρεις καὶ βοσκημάτων πολλὰς μυριάδας ἐχούσας. [59] Φίλιππος δὲ πυθόμενος ταῦτα καὶ αὐτὸς εἰς Γάμαλα τὸ φρούριον ἧκεν. Παραγενομένου δὲ κατεβόα τὸ πλῆθος, ἄρχειν αὐτὸν παρακαλοῦντες καὶ πολεμεῖν πρὸς Οὔαρον καὶ τοὺς ἐν τῇ Καισαρείᾳ Σύρους. Διαδέδοκτο γὰρ ὑπὸ τούτων τὸν βασιλέα τεθνάναι. [60] Φίλιππος δ᾽ αὐτῶν κατεῖχε τὰς ὁρμὰς ὑπομιμνήσκων τῶν τε τοῦ βασιλέως εἰς αὐτοὺς εὐεργεσιῶν, καὶ τὴν Ῥωμαίων διηγούμενος ὅση τίς ἐστι δύναμις συμφέρειν οὐκ ἔλεγεν ἄρασθαι πρὸς τούτους πόλεμον, καὶ τέλος ἔπεισεν. [61] Ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς πυθόμενος, ὅτι Οὔαρος μέλλει τοὺς ἐπὶ τῆς Καισαρείας Ἰουδαίους σὺν γυναιξὶ καὶ τέκνοις πολλὰς ὄντας μυριάδας ἀναιρεῖν ἡμέρᾳ μιᾷ, μεταπέμπεται πρὸς αὐτὸν Αἴκουον Μονόδιον πέμψας αὐτῷ διάδοχον, ὡς ἐν ἄλλοις ἐδηλώσαμεν. Ὁ δὲ Φίλιππος Γάμαλα τὸ φρούριον κατέσχεν καὶ τὴν πέριξ χώραν πίστει τῇ πρὸς Ῥωμαίους ἐμμένουσαν.
11. 046 But Gamala persevered in its allegiance to the Romans, for this reason: Philip, the son of Jacimus, who was their governor under king Agrippa, had miraculously survived when the royal palace at Jerusalem was besieged; but as he fled away, he also ran the risk of being killed by Manahem and his brigands. However, these were prevented from this by some Babylonians, relatives of his who were then in Jerusalem. So Philip stayed there four days and fled on the fifth, wearing a wig so as not be recognised. when he reached one of his villages near the Gamala fortress, he sent to some of those under his command, ordering them to come to him. 048 Fortunately for him, providence blocked that intention of his and if this had not happened, he would certainly have died. perished. For suffering a sudden attack of fever, he wrote letters to the younger Agrippa and Berenice and gave them to one of his freedmen to convey to Varus, 049 who at this time was administering the kingdom, which the king and his sister had entrusted him, while they had gone to Berytus intending to wait upon Cestius. 050 When Varus received these letters of Philip and learned of his escape, he was irritated, thinking that at Philip's coming their majestions would have no further use for him. So he brought the carrier of the letters before the people and accused him of forging them, alleging that he spoke falsely when he reported that Philip was at Jerusalem, fighting with the Jews against the Romans. So he killed him. 051 When Philip, puzzled that this freedman did not return again, sent another with letters, to bring him word what had happened the other and why he delayed so long. 052 Varus also killed him when he came, on some baseless charge. For he had been filled with great expectations by the Syrians in Caesarea, who said that the Romans would execute Agrippa for the crimes alleged by the Jews and that he himself, being descended from their kings, would take over as ruler. All acknowledged that Varus was of royal blood, being a descendant of Sohemus, who had been tetrarch in the area of Libanus. 053 For this reason he was puffed up and kept the letters from the king; and he guarded all the town exits, so that no one could escape and tell the king what he had done. Moreover he killed many of the Jews, in order to gratify the Syrians of Caesarea.
054 He had another plan to join with the Trachonites in Batanea and take up arms and attack the Babylonian Jews" in Ecbatana, as they were called. 055 Therefore he called twelve of the most distinguished Caesarean Jews and told them to go to Ecbatana to say to their countrymen there: Varus has heard that you intend to march against the king, but not believing it, has sent us to persuade you to lay down your arms; this compliance will be a sign that he was right not to believe what was said about you. 056 He also required them to send seventy of their leading men to answer the accusation made against them. When the twelve came and found that their countrymen in Ecbatana had no rebellious plans, they persuaded them to send the seventy men. 057 Not at all suspecting the fate awaiting them, these sent them off, and these seventy went down with the twelve envoys to Caesarea, where Varus met them with the king's forces and killed them all, including the envoys, and proceeded to march against the Jews of Ecbatana. 058 One of the seventy, however, escaped and hurried to tell them; so they took their arms, with their wives and children, and retreated to the citadel at Gamala, leaving their villages full of all sorts of goods with many thousand heads of cattle. 059 When Philip learned this, he also came to the Gamala fortress; and when he arrived the people called loudly for him to command them again, and to make an expedition against Varus and the Syrians of Caesarea; for it was reported that they had killed the king. 060 But Philip restrained their eagerness, reminding them of the benefits the king had bestowed upon them; and he explained about the power of the Romans and how inopportune it was to make war with them; and finally he won them over. 061 When the king knew of Varus's plan to massacre in a single day the Jews of Caesarea, who were many thousands, along with their wives and children, he recalled him and sent Aequus Modius as his successor, as we have elsewhere reported. But Philip still kept possession of the Gamala fortress and the country adjoining it, which continued in allegiance to the Romans.
[62] Ἐπεὶ δ᾽ εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν ἀφικόμην ἐγὼ καὶ ταῦτα παρὰ τῶν ἀπαγγειλάντων ἔμαθον, γράφω τῷ συνεδρίῳ τῶν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν περὶ τούτων καὶ τί με πράττειν κελεύουσιν ἐρωτῶ. Οἱ δὲ προσμεῖναι παρεκάλεσαν καὶ τοὺς συμπρέσβεις. Εἰ θέλοιεν, κατασχόντα πρόνοιαν ποιήσασθαι τῆς Γαλιλαίας. [63] Οἱ δὲ συμπρέσβεις εὐπορήσαντες πολλῶν χρημάτων ἐκ τῶν διδομένων αὐτοῖς δεκατῶν, ἃς ὄντες ἱερεῖς ὀφειλομένας ἀπελάμβανον, εἰς τὴν οἰκείαν ὑποστρέφειν ἔκριναν. Ἐμοῦ δ᾽ αὐτοὺς προσμεῖναι παρακαλέσαντος ἕως οὗ τὰ πράγματα καταστήσωμεν, πείθονται. [64] Ἄρας οὖν μετ᾽ αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τῆς Σεπφωριτῶν πόλεως εἰς κώμην τινὰ Βηθμαοῦς λεγομένην ἀπέχουσαν Τιβεριάδος στάδια τέσσαρα παραγίνομαι, καὶ πέμψας ἐντεῦθεν πρὸς τὴν Τιβεριέων βουλὴν καὶ τοὺς πρώτους τοῦ δήμου παρεκάλουν ἀφικέσθαι πρός με. [65] Καὶ παραγενομένων, ἐληλύθει δὲ σὺν αὐτοῖς καὶ Ιοῦστος, ἔλεγον ὑπὸ τοῦ κοινοῦ τῶν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν πρεσβεύσων μετὰ τούτων πεπόμφθαι πρὸς αὐτούς, πείσων καθαιρεθῆναι τὸν οἶκον τὸν ὑπὸ Ἡρώδου τοῦ τετράρχου κατασκευασθέντα ζῴων μορφὰς ἔχοντα τῶν νόμων οὕτως τι κατασκευάζειν ἀπαγορευόντων, καὶ παρεκάλουν αὐτοὺς ἐᾶν ἡμᾶς ᾗ τάχος τοῦτο πράττειν. [66] Ἐπὶ πολὺ μὲν οὖν οἱ περὶ τὸν Καπέλλαν καὶ τοὺς πρώτους αὐτῶν ἐπιτρέπειν οὐκ ἤθελον, βιαζόμενοι δ᾽ ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν συγκατατίθενται. Φθάνει δ᾽ Ἰησοῦς ὁ τοῦ Σαπφία παῖς, ὃν τῆς τῶν ναυτῶν καὶ τῶν ἀπόρων στάσεως πρῶτον ἔφαμεν ἄρξαι, παραλαβών τινας Γαλιλαίους καὶ τὴν πᾶσαν αὐλὴν ἐμπρήσας, πολλῶν οἰόμενος εὐπορήσειν ἐξ αὐτῆς χρημάτων, ἐπειδή τινας οἴκων ὀροφὰς κεχρυσωμένας εἶδεν. [67] Καὶ διήρπασαν πολλὰ παρὰ γνώμην τὴν ἡμετέραν πράξαντες· ἡμεῖς γὰρ μετὰ τὴν πρὸς Καπέλλαν καὶ τοὺς πρώτους Τιβεριέων ὁμιλίαν εἰς τὴν ἄνω Γαλιλαίαν ἀπὸ Βηθμαῶν ἀνεχωρήσαμεν. Ἀναιροῦσιν δ᾽ οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰησοῦν πάντας τοὺς ἐνοικοῦντας Ἕλληνας ὅσοι τε πρὸ τοῦ πολέμου γεγόνεισαν αὐτῶν ἐχθροί. 12. 062 When I arrived in Galilee and learned these things from informants, I wrote about them to the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem, asking what they wanted me to do. Their direction was to stay there and if my fellow legates were willing, join with them in caring for Galilee. 063 My colleagues, who had become very rich from the tithes which they got as their priestly due, decided to return home, but I persuaded them to stay on until we had restored things to order. 064 So with them I moved from the city of Sepphoris to a village called Bethmaus, four furlongs from Tiberias; and from there sent messengers to the council of Tiberias and leading men of the city asking them to come to me. 065 When they arrived, and Justus himself along with them, I told them that I and my colleagues were sent to them by the council of Jerusalem, to persuade them to demolish that house built there by Herod the tetrarch, which contained representations of living creatures, such as our laws forbade us to make; and I asked them to let us do so immediately. 066 For a good while Capella and the leading men of the city did not want to let us, but at last were entirely won over and agreed with us. But Jesus the son of Sapphias, whom we have already mentioned as the leader of a faction of mariners and poor people, anticipated us and along with certain Galileans he set the entire palace on fire, expecting a large amount of loot from it, as he had seen some of the roofs inlaid with gold. 067 They also plundered much of the furniture, contrary to our wishes; for after our talks with Capella and the leading men of the city we had left Bethmaus and gone into Upper Galilee. But Jesus and his party killed all the Greeks living in Tiberias and many others who were their enemies before the war began.
[68] Πυθόμενος δ᾽ ἐγὼ ταῦτα παρωξύνθην σφόδρα, καὶ καταβὰς εἰς Τιβεριάδα πρόνοιαν εἰσηνεγκάμην τῶν βασιλικῶν σκευῶν ὅσα δυνατὸν ἦν τοὺς ἁρπάσαντας ἀφελέσθαι· λυχνίαι δ᾽ ἦσαν Κορίνθιαι ταῦτα καὶ τράπεζαι τῶν βασιλικῶν καὶ ἀσήμου ἀργυρίου σταθμὸς ἱκανός· πάντα δ᾽, ὅσα παρέλαβον, φυλάσσειν ἔκρινα τῷ βασιλεῖ. [69] Μεταπεμψάμενος οὖν τοὺς τῆς βουλῆς πρώτους δέκα καὶ Καπέλλαν τὸν Ἀντύλλου τὰ σκεύη παρέδωκα, μηδενὶ παραγγείλας ἑτέρῳ πλὴν ἐμοῦ δοῦναι. [70] Κἀκεῖθεν εἰς τὰ Γίσχαλα πρὸς τὸν Ἰωάννην μετὰ τῶν συμπρέσβεων ἀφικόμην βουλόμενος γνῶναι, τί ποτε φρονεῖ. Κατεῖδον δ᾽ αὐτὸν ταχέως νεωτέρων ὀρεγόμενον πραγμάτων καὶ τῆς ἀρχῆς ἐπιθυμίαν ἔχοντα· [71] παρεκάλει γάρ με τὸν Καίσαρος σῖτον κείμενον ἐν ταῖς τῆς ἄνωθεν Γαλιλαίας κώμαις ἐξουσίαν αὐτῷ δοῦναι ἐκφορῆσαι· θέλειν γὰρ ἔφασκεν εἰς ἐπισκευὴν τῶν τῆς πατρίδος τειχῶν αὐτὸν ἀναλῶσαι. [72] Κατανοήσας δὲ ἐγὼ τὴν ἐπιχείρησιν αὐτοῦ καὶ τί διανοοῖτο πράσσειν, οὐκ ἔφην αὐτῷ συγχωρεῖν· ἢ γὰρ Ῥωμαίοις αὐτὸν ἐνενοούμην φυλάττειν ἢ 'μαυτῷ διὰ τὸ καὶ τὴν ἐξουσίαν τῶν ἐκεῖ πραγμάτων αὐτὸς παρὰ τοῦ κοινοῦ τῶν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν πεπιστεῦσθαι. [73] Μὴ πείθων δὲ περὶ τούτων ἐπὶ τοὺς συμπρέσβεις ἐτράπετο· καὶ γὰρ ἦσαν ἀπρονόητοι τῶν ἐσομένων καὶ λαβεῖν ἑτοιμότατοι· φθείρει δὲ χρήμασιν αὐτοὺς ψηφίσασθαι πάντα τὸν σῖτον αὐτῷ παραδοθῆναι τὸν ἐν τῇ αὐτοῦ ἐπαρχίᾳ κείμενον. [74] Κἀγὼ μόνος ἡττώμενος ὑποδὺς τὴν ἡσυχίαν ἤγαγον. Καὶ δευτέραν Ἰωάννης ἐπεισέφερεν πανουργίαν· ἔφη γὰρ Ἰουδαίους τοὺς τὴν Φιλίππου Καισάρειαν κατοικοῦντας συγκεκλεισμένους κατὰ προσταγὴν τοῦ βασιλέως ὑποδίκου τοῦ τὴν δυναστείαν διοικοῦντος πεπομφέναι πρὸς αὐτὸν παρακαλοῦντας, ἐπειδὴ οὐκ ἔχουσιν ἔλαιον ᾧ χρήσονται καθαρόν, ποιησάμενον πρόνοιαν εὐπορίαν αὐτοῖς τούτου παρασχεῖν, μὴ δι᾽ ἀνάγκην Ἑλληνικῷ χρώμενοι τὰ νόμιμα παραβαίνωσιν. [75] Ταῦτα δ᾽ οὐχ ὑπ᾽ εὐσεβείας ἔλεγεν Ἰωάννης, δι᾽ αἰσχροκέρδειαν δὲ φανερωτάτην· γινώσκων γὰρ παρὰ μὲν ἐκείνοις κατὰ τὴν Καισάρειαν τοὺς δύο ξέστας δραχμῆς μιᾶς πωλουμένους, ἐν δὲ τοῖς Γισχάλοις τοὺς ὀγδοήκοντα ξέστας δραχμῶν τεσσάρων, πᾶν τὸ ἔλαιον ὅσον ἦν ἐκεῖ διεπέμψατο λαβὼν ἐξουσίαν καὶ παρ᾽ ἐμοῦ τὸ δοκεῖν· [76] οὐ γὰρ ἑκὼν ἐπέτρεπον, ἀλλὰ διὰ φόβον τὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ πλήθους, μὴ κωλύων καταλευσθείην ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν. Συγχωρήσαντος οὖν μου πλείστων χρημάτων ὁ Ἰωάννης ἐκ τῆς κακουργίας ταύτης εὐπόρησε. 13. 068 When I learned of this, I was highly indignant and went down to Tiberias and took what care I could of the royal furniture, recovering whatever I could from those who had plundered it. There were candlesticks of Corinthian brass and royal tables and a large amount of uncoined silver; and I resolved to keep for the king whatever I received. 069 So I sent for ten of the leading men of the council and for Capella the son of Antyllus and committed the furniture to them, with instructions to deliver it to nobody but myself. 070 From there I and my fellow legates went to Gichala, to John, wanting to know his intentions, and soon saw that he was for revolution and wished to rule the place. 071 He asked me for authority to seize the imperial corn stored in the villages of Upper Galilee, wishing to spend the proceeds of it in restoring the ramparts of his own town. 072 But perceiving his scheme and what he planned to do, I did not give consent, since, entrusted by the Jerusalem council with that whole area, I intended to reserve it either for the Romans or for my own use. 073 When he failed to persuade me, he turned to my fellow legates, who showed no foresight of coming events and were very ready to accept money. These he bribed to vote that all that corn stored within his province should be handed over to him; while I, on my own, was outvoted by the other two and held my tongue. 074 Then John introduced another cunning plan. He said that the Jews living in Caesarea Philippi who were shut in there by Modius, the king's deputy, had sent to him requesting that, having no pure oil for their use, he provide them with a sufficient extent of such oil, lest they be forced to transgress their own laws by using Greek oil. 075 This was said by John, not for the sake of religion, from outright profiteering; for he knew that two pints were sold in Caesarea for one drachma, while at Gischala eighty pints cost four drachmas. So he sent off all the oil from the place, claiming my permission for doing so. 076 However I did not allow this willingly, but only out of fear that if I had forbidden it, the mob would have stoned me. When I had allowed this, John made vast sums of money by his trickery.

Chapter 4. Josephus as peaceful defender of Galilee [77-100

[77] Τοὺς δὲ συμπρέσβεις ἀπὸ τῶν Γισχάλων ἀπολύσας εἰς τὰ Ἱεροσόλυμα πρόνοιαν ἐποιούμην ὅπλων τε κατασκευῆς καὶ πόλεων ἐχυρότητος. Μεταπεμψάμενος δὲ τῶν λῃστῶν τοὺς ἀνδρειοτάτους ἀφελέσθαι μὲν αὐτῶν τὰ ὅπλα οὐχ οἷόν τε ὂν ἑώρων, ἔπεισα δὲ τὸ πλῆθος μισθοφορὰν αὐτοῖς παρέχειν, ἄμεινον εἶναι λέγων ἑκόντας ὀλίγα διδόναι μᾶλλον ἢ τὰς κτήσεις διαρπαζομένας ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν περιορᾶν. [78] Καὶ λαβὼν παρ᾽ αὐτῶν ὅρκους μὴ ἀφίξεσθαι πρότερον εἰς τὴν χώραν, ἐὰν μὴ μετακληθῶσιν ἢ ὅταν τὸν μισθὸν μὴ λάβωσιν, ἀπέλυσα παραγγείλας μήτε Ῥωμαίοις πολεμεῖν μήτε τοῖς περιοίκοις· εἰρηνεύεσθαι γὰρ πρὸ πάντων τὴν Γαλιλαίαν ἐφρόντιζον. [79] Τοὺς δ᾽ ἐν τέλει τῶν Γαλιλαίων ὅσον ἑβδομήκοντα πάντας βουλόμενος ἐν προφάσει φιλίας καθάπερ ὅμηρα τῆς πίστεως ἔχειν φίλους τε καὶ συνεκδήμους ἐποιησάμην ἐπί τε κρίσεις παρελάμβανον καὶ μετὰ γνώμης τῆς ἐκείνων τὰς ἀποφάσεις ἐποιούμην, μήτε προπετείᾳ πειρώμενος τοῦ δικαίου διαμαρτάνειν καθαρεύειν τε παντὸς ἐπ᾽ αὐταῖς λήμματος. 14. 077 After letting my fellow legates return from Gischala to Jerusalem, I took care about providing arms and having the cities fortified. Then, sending for the hardiest of the brigands and seeing that I could not disarm them, I persuaded the people to pay them as mercenaries, saying that it was better to pay them a little willingly, rather than to look on and see their goods plundered. 078 Then, obliging them under oath not to enter the district except by invitation, or when their pay was in arrears, I dismissed them with instructions to attack neither the Romans or their neighbours; for my first care was keeping the peace in Galilee. 079 Under the guise of friendship, I had as my travelling companions seventy leading Galileans, holding them hostage for the fidelity of their district. I set them to judge cases; and it was with their approval that I gave my sentences, trying to avoid over-hasty judgments and in these matters to keep my hands clear of all bribery.
[80] Περὶ τριακοστὸν γοῦν ἔτος ὑπάρχων, ἐν ᾧ χρόνῳ, κἂν ἀπέχηταί τις τῶν παρανόμων ἐπιθυμιῶν, δύσκολον τὰς ἐκ τοῦ φθόνου διαβολὰς φεύγειν ἄλλως τε καὶ ἐξουσίας ὄντα μεγάλης, γυναῖκα μὲν πᾶσαν ἀνύβριστον ἐφύλαξα, πάντων δὲ τῶν διδομένων ὡς μὴ χρῄζων κατεφρόνησα, ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ τὰς ὀφειλομένας μοι ὡς ἱερεῖ δεκάτας ἀπελάμβανον παρὰ τῶν κομιζόντων· [81] ἐκ μέντοι τῶν λαφύρων μέρος τοὺς Σύρους τοὺς τὰς πέριξ πόλεις κατοικοῦντας νικήσας ἔλαβον, ἃ καὶ εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα τοῖς συγγενέσιν ὁμολογῶ πεπομφέναι. [82] Καὶ δὶς μὲν κατὰ κράτος ἑλὼν Σεπφωρίτας, Τιβεριεῖς τετράκις, Γαδαρεῖς δ᾽ ἅπαξ, καὶ τὸν Ἰωάννην πολλάκις ἐπιβουλεύσαντά μοι λαβὼν ὑποχείριον οὔτ᾽ αὐτὸν οὔτε τινὰς τῶν προειρημένων ἐθνῶν ἐτιμωρησάμην, ὡς προϊὼν ὁ λόγος παραστήσει. [83] Διὰ τοῦτ᾽ οἶμαι καὶ τὸν θεόν, οὐ γὰρ λελήθασιν αὐτὸν οἱ τὰ δέοντα πράττοντες, καὶ ἐκ τῆς ἐκείνων ῥύσασθαί με χειρὸς καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα πολλοῖς περιπεσόντα κινδύνοις διαφυλάξαι, περὶ ὧν ὕστερον ἀπαγγελοῦμεν. 15. 080 I was now about thirty years of age, an age at which, it is hard for anyone, especially if he holds high office and even if he refrains from lawless passions, to avoid the calumny of the envious. Yet I protected every woman's honour, and refused to accept any gifts that were offered to me; I would not even accept from those who offerred them the tithes due to me as a priest. 081 However, I did take a part of the spoils after defeating the Syrian inhabitants of the adjoining cities and sent them to my relatives in Jerusalem. 082 But though I twice took Sepphoris by storm and Tiberias four times and Gadara once, and though I had John at my mercy, who so often conspired against me, I did not execute either him or any of the other people, as this account will go on to show. 083 This, I believe, is why God, who never forgets those who do their duty, saved me from their hands and subsequently saved me amid the many dangers which I shall later relate.
[84] Τοσαύτη δ᾽ ἦν ἡ πρός με τοῦ πλήθους τῶν Γαλιλαίων εὔνοια καὶ πίστις, ὥστε ληφθεισῶν αὐτῶν κατὰ κράτος τῶν πόλεων, γυναικῶν δὲ καὶ τέκνων ἀνδραποδισθέντων, οὐχ οὕτως ταῖς ἑαυτῶν ἐπεστέναξαν συμφοραῖς, ὥσπερ τῆς ἐμῆς ἐφρόντισαν σωτηρίας. [85] Ταῦτα δ᾽ ὁρῶν Ἰωάννης ἐφθόνησε, καὶ γράφει πρός με παρακαλῶν ἐπιτρέψαι καταβάντι χρήσασθαι τοῖς ἐν Τιβεριάδι θερμοῖς ὕδασι τῆς τοῦ σώματος ἕνεκα θεραπείας. [86] Κἀγὼ μηδὲν ὑποπτεύσας πράξειν αὐτὸν πονηρὸν οὐκ ἐκώλυσα· πρὸς δὲ καὶ τοῖς τῆς Τιβεριάδος τὴν διοίκησιν ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ πεπιστευμένοις κατ᾽ ὄνομα γράφω κατάλυσιν ἑτοιμάσαι τῷ Ἰωάννῃ καὶ τοῖς ἀφιξομένοις σὺν αὐτῷ πάντων τε [τῶν ἐπιτηδείων] ἀφθονίαν παρασχεῖν. Διέτριβον δὲ κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν ἐκεῖνον ἐν κώμῃ τῆς Γαλιλαίας, ἣ προσαγορεύεται Κανά. 16. 084 The ordinary Galilean people showed me such great kindness and fidelity that when their cities were taken by storm and their wives and children brought into slavery, they were concerned not only for their own misfortunes but for my preservation. 085 Seeing this, John envied me and wrote to me, asking my permission to come down and use the hot-baths of Tiberias for the good of his health. 086 Suspecting no bad intention, I did not hinder him, but wrote personally to those to whom I had entrusted the administration of Tiberias, to provide a lodging for John and whoever might accompany him and provide him with whatever he needed. At this time I was staying at a village of Galilee, called Cana.
[87] Ὁ δ᾽ Ἰωάννης ἀφικόμενος εἰς τὴν Τιβεριέων πόλιν ἔπειθε τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἀποστάντας τῆς πρός με πίστεως προστίθεσθαι αὐτῷ. Καὶ πολλοὶ τὴν παράκλησιν ἡδέως ἐδέξαντο νεωτέρων ἐπιθυμοῦντες αἰεὶ πραγμάτων καὶ φύσει πρὸς μεταβολὰς ἐπιτηδείως ἔχοντες καὶ στάσεσι χαίροντες. [88] Μάλιστα δὲ Ἰοῦστος καὶ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ Πιστὸς ὡρμήκεσαν ἀποστάντες ἐμοῦ προσθέσθαι τῷ Ἰωάννῃ. [89] Διεκώλυσα δ᾽ αὐτοὺς φθάσας· ἧκεν γὰρ ἄγγελός μοι παρὰ Σίλα, ὃν ἐγὼ καθεστάκειν τῆς Τιβεριάδος στρατηγόν, ὡς προεῖπον, τὴν τῶν Τιβεριέων γνώμην ἀπαγγέλλων κἀμὲ σπεύδειν παρακαλῶν· βραδύναντος γὰρ ὑπὸ τὴν ἑτέρων ἐξουσίαν γενέσθαι τὴν πόλιν. [90] Ἐντυχὼν οὖν τοῖς γράμμασι τοῦ Σίλα καὶ διακοσίους ἀναλαβὼν ἄνδρας δι᾽ ὅλης τῆς νυκτὸς τὴν πορείαν ἐποιούμην, προπέμψας ἄγγελον τὸν τὴν ἐμὴν παρουσίαν τοῖς ἐν τῇ Τιβεριάδι σημανοῦντα. [91] Πρωῒ δὲ πλησιάζοντος ἐμοῦ τῇ πόλει τὸ πλῆθος ὑπηντίαζεν καὶ Ἰωάννης σὺν αὐτοῖς, καὶ πάνυ με τεταραγμένως ἀσπασάμενος, δείσας μὴ εἰς ἔλεγχον αὐτοῦ τῆς πράξεως ἀφικομένης ἀπολέσθαι κινδυνεύσῃ, ὑπεχώρησε μετὰ σπουδῆς εἰς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ κατάλυσιν. [92] Κἀγὼ δὲ γενόμενος κατὰ τὸ στάδιον τοὺς περὶ ἐμὲ σωματοφύλακας ἀπολύσας πλὴν ἑνὸς καὶ μετὰ τούτου κατασχὼν δέκα τῶν ὁπλιτῶν δημηγορεῖν ἐπειρώμην τῷ πλήθει τῶν Τιβεριέων στὰς ἐπὶ τριγχοῦ τινος ὑψηλοῦ, παρεκάλουν τε μὴ οὕτως αὐτοὺς ταχέως ἀφίστασθαι· [93] κατάγνωσιν γὰρ αὐτοῖς οἴσειν τὴν μεταβολήν, καὶ τῷ μετὰ ταῦτα προϊσταμένῳ δι᾽ ὑποψίας γενήσεσθαι δικαίας, ὡς μηδὲ τὴν πρὸς ἐκεῖνον πίστιν φυλαξόντων. 17. 087 But when John reached Tiberias, he persuaded the population to abandon their fidelity to me and come over to him; and many of them gladly accepted his invitation, as they were ever addicted to novelty and by nature attracted to change. 088 In particular, Justus and his father Pistus were quick to desert me go over to him; but my speedy coming thwarted them. 089 A messenger came to me from Silas, whom as I have said I had made governor of Tiberias, telling me of the mood of the Tiberians and advising me to hurry there, since if I delayed, the city would come under the power of others. 090 Having read this letter of Silas, I took two hundred men with me and travelled all night, sending before me a messenger to tell the Tiberians that I was coming. 091 At dawn, as I approached the city, the people came out to meet me, including John who greeted me in some confusion and, fearing that my coming was to call him to account for what I knew he was doing, hurried back to his lodging. 092 Reaching the stadium, I dismissed my bodyguards except one, and bringing along ten soldiers, standing on a platform I attempted to make a speech to the ordinary people of Tiberias, imploring them not to be so hasty in their revolt. 093 I told them such a change would lower their reputation and rightly make them suspected by their future governor, as unlikely to be faithful to him either.
[94] Οὔπω δέ μοι πάντα λελάλητο, καί τινος ἐξήκουσα τῶν οἰκείων καταβαίνειν κελεύοντος· οὐ γάρ μοι καιρὸν εἶναι φροντίζειν τῆς παρὰ Τιβεριέων εὐνοίας, ἀλλὰ περὶ τῆς ἰδίας σωτηρίας καὶ πῶς τοὺς ἐχθροὺς φύγω. [95] Πεπόμφει δ᾽ ὁ Ἰωάννης τῶν περὶ αὐτὸν ὁπλιτῶν ἐπιλέξας τοὺς πιστοτάτους ἐκ τῶν χιλίων, οἵπερ ἦσαν αὐτῷ, καὶ προσέταξεν τοῖς πεμφθεῖσιν ἀνελεῖν με πεπυσμένος ὡς εἴην μετὰ τῶν οἰκείων μεμονωμένος. [96] Ἧκον δ᾽ οἱ πεμφθέντες, κἂν ἐπεπράχεισαν, εἰ μὴ τοῦ τριγχοῦ θᾶττον ἀφαλόμενος ἐγὼ μετὰ τοῦ σωματοφύλακος Ἰακώβου καὶ ὑπό τινος Τιβεριέως Ἡρώδου προσανακουφισθείς, ὁδηγηθεὶς ὑπὸ τούτου ἐπὶ τὴν λίμνην καὶ πλοίου λαβόμενος καὶ ἐπιβὰς παρὰ δόξαν τοὺς ἐχθροὺς διαφυγὼν εἰς Ταριχέας ἀφικόμην. 18. 094 Before I had finished speaking, I heard one of my own men bidding me come down, as it was no time to be worrying about the good-will of the Tiberians, but about my own safety and how to escape from my enemies. 095 For John, having learned that I was alone apart from a few personal attendants, had chosen the most trusty of the thousand soldiers at his disposal, and sent them with orders to kill me. 096 They arrived as ordered and would have done their job if I had not jumped down from the platform and, along with James my guard, was helped by one Herod of Tiberias and had him guide me down to the lake, where I seized a boat and embarked, and after surprisingly escaping my enemies, reached Tarichea.
[97] Οἱ δὲ τὴν πόλιν ταύτην κατοικοῦντες ὡς ἐπύθοντο τὴν τῶν Τιβεριέων ἀπιστίαν, σφόδρα παρωξύνθησαν. Ἁρπάσαντες οὖν τὰ ὅπλα παρεκάλουν σφᾶς ἄγειν ἐπ᾽ αὐτούς· θέλειν γὰρ ἔφασκον ὑπὲρ τοῦ στρατηγοῦ δίκας λαβεῖν παρ᾽ αὐτῶν. [98] Διήγγελλον δὲ τὰ γεγονότα καὶ τοῖς κατὰ τὴν Γαλιλαίαν πᾶσαν ἐρεθίσαι καὶ τούτους κατὰ τῶν Τιβεριέων διὰ σπουδῆς ἔχοντες, παρεκάλουν τε πλείστους συναχθέντας ἀφικέσθαι πρὸς αὐτούς, ἵνα μετὰ γνώμης τοῦ στρατηγοῦ πράττωσιν τὸ δόξαν. [99] Ἧκον οὖν οἱ Γαλιλαῖοι πολλοὶ πανταχόθεν μεθ᾽ ὅπλων καὶ παρεκελεύοντό μοι προσβαλεῖν τῇ Τιβεριάδι καὶ κατὰ κράτος αὐτὴν ἐξελεῖν καὶ πᾶσαν ἔδαφος ποιήσαντα τοὺς ἐνοίκους σὺν γυναιξὶ καὶ τέκνοις ἀνδραποδίσασθαι. Συνεβούλευον δὲ ταῦτα καὶ τῶν φίλων οἱ ἐκ τῆς Τιβεριάδος διασωθέντες. [100] Ἐγὼ δὲ οὐ συνεπένευον δεινὸν ἡγούμενος ἐμφυλίου πολέμου κατάρχειν· μέχρι λόγων γὰρ ᾤμην εἶναι δεῖν τὴν φιλονεικίαν. Καὶ μὴν οὐδ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἔφασκον συμφέρειν τοῦτο πρᾶξαι Ῥωμαίων ταῖς πρὸς ἀλλήλους στάσεσιν αὐτοὺς ἀπολέσθαι προσδοκώντων. Ταῦτα δὲ λέγων ἔπαυσα τῆς ὀργῆς τοὺς Γαλιλαίους.
19. 097 The people of that city, hearing of the treachery of the Tiberians, were highly indignant. So they took up arms and asked me to lead an attack on them, wishing to avenge their general. 098 They also reported to all the Galileans what had been done to me and eagerly sought to stir them against the Tiberians, wanting a large number to join them, that they should decide with their general what should be done. 099 So from all parts the Galileans came to me, armed and in large numbers, and begged me to attack Tiberias, to take it by force and demolish it to the ground, and reduce its inhabitants, with their wives and children, to slavery; my own friends who had escaped from Tiberias, also gave the same advice. 100 But I did not agree, horrified at the prospect of beginning a civil war; for I thought that this quarrel should go no further than words. I said it was not expedient to do what they proposed, as the Romans were only waiting for us to destroy each other by our mutual revolts. With these words, I calmed the anger of the Galileans.

Chapter 5. Risks run by Josephus, for the sake of justice

[101] Ὁ δὲ Ἰωάννης ἀπράκτου τῆς ἐπιβουλῆς αὐτῷ γενομένης ἔδεισε περὶ ἑαυτοῦ, καὶ τοὺς περὶ αὐτὸν ὁπλίτας ἀναλαβὼν ἀπῆρεν ἐκ τῆς Τιβεριάδος εἰς τὰ Γίσχαλα, καὶ γράφει πρός με περὶ τῶν πεπραγμένων ἀπολογούμενος ὡς μὴ κατὰ γνώμην τὴν αὐτοῦ γενομένων, παρακαλεῖ τε μηδὲν ὑπονοεῖν κατ᾽ αὐτοῦ προστιθεὶς ὅρκους καὶ δεινάς τινας ἀράς, δι᾽ ὧν ᾤετο πιστευθήσεσθαι περὶ ὧν ἐπέστειλεν. 20. 101 John was now afraid for himself, since his treachery had failed, so he took his soldiers and moved from Tiberias to Gischala and wrote to me in apology, as if what had been done had been without his approval and asking me not to think badly of him. He ended with oaths and horrible curses, to confirm the contents of his letter.
[102] Οἱ δὲ Γαλιλαῖοι, πολλοὶ γὰρ ἕτεροι πάλιν ἐκ τῆς χώρας πάσης ἀνήχθησαν μεθ᾽ ὅπλων, εἰδότες τὸν ἄνθρωπον ὡς πονηρός ἐστιν καὶ ἐπίορκος, παρεκάλουν ἀγαγεῖν σφᾶς ἐπ᾽ αὐτόν, ἄρδην ἀφανίσειν ἐπαγγελλόμενοι σὺν αὐτῷ καὶ τὰ Γίσχαλα. [103] Χάριν μὲν οὖν ἔχειν αὐτῶν ταῖς προθυμίαις ὡμολόγουν ἐγὼ καὶ νικήσειν αὐτῶν τὴν εὔνοιαν ἐπηγγελλόμην, παρεκάλουν δ᾽ ὅμως ἐπισχεῖν αὐτοὺς ἀξιῶν καὶ συγγινώσκειν μοι δεόμενος προῃρημένῳ τὰς ταραχὰς χωρὶς φόνων καταστέλλειν. Καὶ πείσας τὸ πλῆθος τῶν Γαλιλαίων εἰς τὴν Σέπφωριν ἀφικνούμην. 21. 102 The Galileans, since many more from the whole region had gathered in arms, knowing the man as a villain and a perjurer, asked me to lead them against him, to exterminate both him and Gischala. 103 I expressed gratitude to them for their readiness to serve me and promised to more than repay their good-will; but implored them to refrain and allow me do what I intended, which was to put an end to these troubles without bloodshed; and when I had prevailed on the Galileans to let me do so, I came to Sepphoris.
[104] Οἱ δὲ τὴν πόλιν ταύτην κατοικοῦντες ἄνδρες κεκρικότες τῇ πρὸς Ῥωμαίους ἐμμεῖναι πίστει, δεδιότες δὲ τὴν ἐμὴν ἄφιξιν, ἐπειράθησαν ἑτέρᾳ με πράξει περισπάσαντες ἀδεεῖς εἶναι περὶ ἑαυτῶν. [105] Καὶ δὴ πέμψαντες πρὸς Ἰησοῦν τὸν ἀρχιλῃστὴν εἰς τὴν Πτολεμαΐδος μεθορίαν ὑπέσχοντο δώσειν πολλὰ χρήματα θελήσαντι μετὰ τῆς σὺν αὐτῷ δυνάμεως, ἦσαν δ᾽ ὀκτακόσιοι τὸν ἀριθμόν, πόλεμον ἐξάψαι πρὸς ἡμᾶς. [106] Ὁ δ᾽ ὑπακούσας αὐτῶν ταῖς ὑποσχέσεσιν ἠθέλησεν ἐπιπεσεῖν ἡμῖν ἀνετοίμοις καὶ μηδὲν προγινώσκουσιν. Πέμψας γοῦν πρός με παρεκάλει λαβεῖν ἐξουσίαν ἀσπασόμενον ἀφικέσθαι. Συγχωρήσαντος δέ μου, τῆς γὰρ ἐπιβουλῆς οὐδὲν προηπιστάμην, ἀναλαβὼν τὸ σύνταγμα τῶν λῃστῶν ἔσπευδεν ἐπ᾽ ἐμέ. [107] Οὐ μὴν ἔφθασεν αὐτοῦ τέλος λαβεῖν ἡ κακουργία· πλησιάζοντος γὰρ ἤδη τῶν σὺν αὐτῷ τις αὐτομολήσας ἧκεν πρός με τὴν ἐπιχείρησιν αὐτοῦ φράζων, κἀγὼ πυθόμενος ταῦτα προῆλθον εἰς τὴν ἀγορὰν σκηψάμενος ἀγνοεῖν τὴν ἐπιβουλήν· ἐπηγόμην δὲ πολλοὺς ὁπλίτας Γαλιλαίους, τινὰς δὲ καὶ Τιβεριέων. [108] Εἶτα προστάξας τὰς ὁδοὺς πάσας ἀσφαλέστατα φρουρεῖσθαι παρήγγειλα τοῖς ἐπὶ τῶν πυλῶν μόνον Ἰησοῦν, ἐπειδὰν παραγένηται, μετὰ τῶν πρώτων εἰσελθεῖν ἐᾶσαι, ἀποκλεῖσαι δὲ τοὺς ἄλλους, βιαζομένους δὲ τύπτειν. [109] Τῶν δὲ τὸ προσταχθὲν ποιησάντων εἰσῆλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς μετ᾽ ὀλίγων. Καὶ κελεύσαντος ἐμοῦ ῥῖψαι τὰ ὅπλα θᾶττον, εἰ γὰρ ἀπειθοίη τεθνήξεσθαι, περιεστῶτας ἰδὼν πανταχόθεν αὐτῷ τοὺς ὁπλίτας φοβηθεὶς ὑπήκουσεν· οἱ δ᾽ ἀποκλεισθέντες τῶν ἐπακολουθούντων αὐτῷ πυθόμενοι τὴν σύλληψιν ἔφυγον. [110] Κἀγὼ τὸν Ἰησοῦν προσκαλεσάμενος κατ᾽ ἰδίαν οὐκ ἀγνοεῖν ἔφην τὴν ἐπ᾽ ἐμὲ συσκευασθεῖσαν ἐπιβουλὴν οὐδ᾽ ὑπὸ τίνων πεμφθείη, συγγνώσεσθαι δ᾽ ὅμως αὐτῷ τῶν πεπραγμένων, εἰ μέλλοι μετανοήσειν καὶ πιστὸς ἐμοὶ γενήσεσθαι. [111] Ὑπισχνουμένου δὲ πάντα ποιήσειν ἐκείνου ἀπέλυσα συγχωρήσας αὐτῷ συναγαγεῖν πάλιν οὓς πρότερον εἶχεν. Σεπφωρίταις δ᾽ ἠπείλησα, εἰ μὴ παύσαιντο τῆς ἀγνωμοσύνης, λήψεσθαι παρ᾽ αὐτῶν δίκας. 22. 104 The people of this city having decided to continue faithful to the Romans, were afraid of my arrival and sought security for themselves by diverting my attention elsewhere. 105 They sent to Jesus, the warlord of the brigands in the borders of Ptolemais, promising him a large amount of money, if he would come and make war on us with his troop, which numbered eight hundred. 106 Complying with their offer, he wished to attack us when we were unprepared and knew nothing of his plans. So he sent to me asking for leave to come and pay his respects. When I had agreed, without the knowing anything of his treacherous intentions, he brought his gang of brigands and hurried to come to me. 107 Still in the end his knavery did not succeed; for as he approached, one of his men deserted him and came to me and told me what he had undertaken to do. Learning this, I went into the public square and pretending to know nothing of his treacherous purpose, took with me many armed Galileans, and also some Tiberians. 108 I ordered all the roads to be carefully guarded, and charged the gatekeepers to admit nobody but Jesus and his leaders on their arrival, and to exclude the rest; and if they tried to force their way in, to repel them with blows. 109 They did as they were bidden and Jesus came in with a few others. When I told him to throw down his arms on the spot, and that if he refused he was a dead man, seeing soldiers all round him, he was terrified and complied; and hearing of his capture, those of his followers who were locked out ran away. 110 I then called Jesus aside and told him I was not unaware of his treacherous design against me, and by whom he had been sent, but that I would forgive what he had done if he repented of it and would later be faithful to me. 111 When he promised all this, I let him go and allowed him reassemble his former troop. But I threatened to punish the Sepphorites, if they did not give up their disgraceful behaviour.
[112] Κατὰ τοῦτον τὸν καιρὸν ἀφικνοῦνται πρός με δύο μεγιστᾶνες τῶν ὑπὸ τὴν ἐξουσίαν τοῦ βασιλέως ἐκ τῆς τῶν Τραχωνιτῶν χώρας ἐπαγόμενοι τοὺς ἑαυτῶν ἵππους καὶ ὅπλα, χρήματα δ᾽ ὑποκομίζοντες. [113] Τούτους περιτέμνεσθαι τῶν Ἰουδαίων ἀναγκαζόντων, εἰ θέλουσιν εἶναι παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς, οὐκ εἴασα βιασθῆναι, φάσκων δεῖν ἕκαστον κατὰ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ προαίρεσιν τὸν θεὸν εὐσεβεῖν, ἀλλὰ μὴ μετὰ βίας, χρῆναι δὲ τούτους δι᾽ ἀσφάλειαν πρὸς ἡμᾶς καταφυγόντας μὴ μετανοεῖν. Πεισθέντος δὲ τοῦ πλήθους τοῖς ἥκουσιν ἀνδράσιν τὰ πρὸς τὴν συνήθη δίαιταν ἅπαντα παρεῖχον δαψιλῶς. 23. 112 At this time two prominent men, subjects of the king [Agrippa , came to me from the region of Trachonitis, with their horses and armour and with money they had smuggled out. 113 The Jews would have forced them to be circumcised, if they wanted to stay among them, but I would not let them be compelled and said that each should worship God according to his own preference and not to be forced; and that these men should not be so treated as to regret having fled to us for safety." When I had persuaded the people, I provided the men who had come to us with all they needed for their way of living.
[114] Πέμπει δ᾽ ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἀγρίππας δύναμιν καὶ στρατηγὸν ἐπ᾽ αὐτῆς Αἴκουον Μόδιον Γάμαλα τὸ φρούριον ἐξαιρήσοντας. Οἱ δὲ πεμφθέντες κυκλώσασθαι μὲν τὸ φρούριον οὐκ ἤρκεσαν, ἐν δὲ τοῖς φανεροῖς τῶν τόπων ἐφεδρεύοντες ἐπολιόρκουν τὰ Γάμαλα. [115] Αἰβούτιος δὲ ὁ δεκάδαρχος, ὁ τοῦ μεγάλου πεδίου τὴν προστασίαν πεπιστευμένος, ἀκούσας ὅτι παρείην εἰς Σιμωνιάδα κώμην ἐν μεθορίοις κειμένην τῆς Γαλιλαίας, αὐτοῦ δ᾽ ἀπέχουσαν ἑξήκοντα σταδίους, νυκτὸς ἀναλαβὼν τοὺς ἑκατὸν ἱππεῖς, οὓς εἶχεν σὺν αὐτῷ, καί τινας πεζοὺς περὶ διακοσίους, καὶ τοὺς ἐν Γάβα πόλει κατοικοῦντας ἐπαγόμενος συμμάχους, νυκτὸς ὁδεύσας ἧκεν εἰς τὴν κώμην, ἐν ᾗ διέτριβον. [116] Ἀντιπαραταξαμένου δὲ κἀμοῦ μετὰ δυνάμεως πολλῆς ὁ μὲν Αἰβούτιος εἰς τὸ πεδίον ὑπάγειν ἡμᾶς ἐπειρᾶτο· σφόδρα γὰρ τοῖς ἱππεῦσιν ἐπεποίθει. Οὐ μὴν ὑπηκούσαμεν· ἐγὼ γὰρ τὸ πλεονέκτημα συνιδὼν τὸ γενησόμενον τοῖς ἱππεῦσιν, εἰ καταβαίημεν εἰς τὸ πεδίον, πεζοὶ γὰρ ἡμεῖς σύμπαντες ἦμεν, ἔγνων αὐτοῦ τοῖς πολεμίοις συνάπτειν. [117] Καὶ μέχρι μέν τινος γενναίως ἀντέσχεν σὺν τοῖς περὶ αὐτὸν ὁ Αἰβούτιος, ἀχρεῖον δ᾽ ὁρῶν κατὰ τὸν τόπον τοῦτον οὖσαι αὐτῷ τὴν ἱππικὴν δύναμιν ἀναζεύγνυσιν ἄπρακτος εἰς Γάβαν πόλιν, τρεῖς ἄνδρας ἀποβαλὼν κατὰ τὴν μάχην. [118] Εἱπόμην δὲ κατὰ πόδας ἐγὼ δισχιλίους ἐπαγόμενος ὁπλίτας, καὶ περὶ Βήσαραν πόλιν γενόμενος ἐν μεθορίῳ μὲν τῆς Πτολεμαΐδος κειμένην, εἴκοσι δ᾽ ἀπέχουσαν στάδια τῆς Γάβας, ἔνθα διέτριβεν Αἰβούτιος, στήσας τοὺς ὁπλίτας ἔξωθεν τῆς κώμης καὶ φρουρεῖν αὐτοῖς ἀσφαλῶς τὰς ὁδοὺς προστάξας ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ ἐνοχλῆσαι τοὺς πολεμίους ἡμῖν ἕως τὸν σῖτον ἐκφορήσομεν, [119] πολὺς γὰρ ἀπέκειτο Βερενίκης τῆς βασιλίδος ἐκ τῶν πέριξ κωμῶν εἰς τὴν Βήσαραν συλλεγόμενος, πληρώσας τὰς καμήλους καὶ τοὺς ὄνους, πολλοὺς ἐπηγόμην, διέπεμψα τὸν σῖτον εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν. [120] Τοῦτο δὲ πράξας προεκαλούμην εἰς μάχην τὸν Αἰβούτιον, οὐχ ὑπακούσαντος δ᾽ ἐκείνου, κατεπέπληκτο γὰρ τὴν [ἡμετέραν] ἑτοιμότητα καὶ τὸ θράσος, ἐπὶ Νεοπολιτανὸν ἐτραπόμην τὴν Τιβεριέων χώραν ἀκούσας ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ λεηλατεῖσθαι. [121] Ἦν δὲ Νεοπολιτανὸς ἴλης μὲν ἔπαρχος, παρειλήφει δὲ τὴν Σκυθόπολιν εἰς φυλακὴν τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν πολεμίων. Τοῦτον οὖν κωλύσας ἐπὶ πλέον τὴν Τιβεριέων κακοῦν περὶ τὴν τῆς Γαλιλαίας πρόνοιαν ἐγινόμην.
24. 114 King Agrippa sent an army under Aequus Modius to destroy the Gamala fortress. However, those sent were not enough to fully surround the citadel but camped in front of it in the open ground and tried to besiege it. 115 When Ebutius the decurion, who was entrusted with ruling the great plain, heard that I was at Simonias, a village on the borders of Galilee and sixty furlongs away, by night he took a hundred horsemen with him and about two hundred infantry, and brought the people of the city of Gaba with him as allies and marched at night and came to the village where I was quartered. 116 I ranged my considerable forces opposite him, but Ebutius tried to draw us down into the plain, depending greatly upon his horsemen; but we would not come down, for I saw the advantage his horse would have if we came down into the plain, while we were all infantry; I resolved to fight the enemy on my own ground. 117 Ebutius and his party made a courageous stand for some time; but seing that his horse were useless to him in that place, he went back to the city of Gaba, having lost three men in the fight. 118 I pursued him directly with two thousand infantry; and when I was near the town of Besara, on the borders of Ptolemais, twenty furlongs from Gaba, where Ebutius was, I placed my men outside the village with orders to carefully guard the passes so that the enemy might not disturb us while we were removing the corn. 119 There was a large extent of it belonging to queen Berenice that had been collected from the neighbouring villages into Besara; so I loaded the many camels and donkeys I had brought along with me and sent the corn into Galilee. 120 Having done this, I called Ebutius to battle; but when he declined, awed by our spirit and courage, I turned against Neopolitanus, having heard that he was ravaging the country about Tiberias. 121 Neopolitanus was captain of a troop of horse, commissioned to guard Scythopolis entrusted from the enemy; when I had prevented him doing any further harm to Tiberias, I set myself to caring for Galilee.
[122] Ὁ δὲ τοῦ Λευεῖ παῖς Ἰωάννης, ὃν ἔφαμεν ἐν τοῖς Γισχάλοις διατρίβειν, πυθόμενος πάντα κατὰ νοῦν μοι προχωρεῖν, καὶ δι᾽ εὐνοίας μὲν εἶναί με τοῖς ὑπηκόοις, τοῖς πολεμίοις δὲ δι᾽ ἐκπλήξεως, οὐκ εὖ τὴν γνώμην ἐτέθη, κατάλυσιν δ᾽ αὐτῷ τὴν ἐμὴν εὐπραγίαν φέρειν νομίζων εἰς φθόνον ἐξώκειλεν οὔτι μέτριον. [123] Καὶ παύσειν με τῆς εὐτυχίας ἐλπίσας, εἰ παρὰ τῶν ὑπηκόων μῖσος ἐξάψειεν, ἔπειθεν τοὺς τὴν Τιβεριάδα κατοικοῦντας καὶ τοὺς τὴν Σέπφωριν [νομίζων] πρὸς τούτοις δὲ καὶ τοὺς Γάβαρα, πόλεις δ᾽ εἰσὶν αὗται τῶν κατὰ τὴν Γαλιλαίαν αἱ μέγισται, τῆς πρός με πίστεως ἀποστάντας αὐτῷ προστίθεσθαι· κρεῖττον γὰρ ἐμοῦ στρατηγήσειν αὐτῶν ἔφασκεν. [124] Καὶ Σεπφωρεῖς μέν, οὐδετέρῳ γὰρ ἡμῶν προσεῖχον διὰ τὸ Ῥωμαίους ᾑρῆσθαι δεσπότας, οὐκ ἐπένευον αὐτῷ, Τιβεριεῖς δὲ τὴν μὲν ἀπόστασιν οὐκ ἐδέχοντο, αὐτοῦ δὲ συγκατένευον γενέσθαι φίλοι, οἱ δὲ Γάβαρα κατοικοῦντες προστίθενται τῷ Ἰωάννῃ· Σίμων δ᾽ ἦν ὁ παρακαλῶν αὐτούς, πρωτεύων μὲν τῆς πόλεως, ὡς φίλῳ δὲ καὶ ἑταίρῳ τῷ Ἰωάννῃ χρώμενος. [125] Ἐκ μὲν οὖν τοῦ φανεροῦ τὴν ἀπόστασιν οὐχ ὡμολόγουν· σφόδρα γὰρ ἐδεδοίκεσαν τοὺς Γαλιλαίους ἅτε δὴ πεῖραν αὐτῶν τῆς πρὸς ἡμᾶς πολλάκις εὐνοίας λαβόντες· ἐκ τοῦ λεληθότος δὲ καιρὸν παραφυλάσσοντες ἐπιτήδειον ἐπεβούλευον, καὶ δὴ ἀφικόμην εἰς κίνδυνον τὸν μέγιστον διὰ τοιαύτην αἰτίαν. 25. 122 But when John, son of Levi, who was at Gischala as I have said, learned how all things were succeeding for me and that I was popular with my subjects, and feared by the enemy, he was not pleased, seeing my prosperity as tending to his ruin, so he was full of bitter envy. 123 Hoping that if he could stir up my subjects to hate me, he could end my prosperity, he tried to persuade the Tiberians and Sepphoris and Gabara, the greatest cities of Galilee, to revolt from their subjection to me and come to him, assuring them that he would be a better commander than I was. 124 Sepphoris belonged to neither of us, as they had chosen allegiance to the Romans, paid no heed to him; Tiberias, while declining to revolt, aligned themselves as his friends; while Gabara did go over to John, at the persuasion of Simon, a leading man in the city and a particular friend and companion of John. 125 The people of Gabara did not openly admit their revolt, fearing the Galileans, as they had frequently seen their good-will towards me; still they secretly sought opportunity to lay snares for me, and I was in the greatest danger, for the following reason..

Chapter 6. Josephus's intentions are misunderstood

[126] Νεανίσκοι τινὲς θρασεῖς Δαβαριττηνοὶ γένος ἐπιτηρήσαντες τὴν Πτολεμαίου γυναῖκα τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπιτρόπου μετὰ πολλῆς παρασκευῆς καί τινων ἱππέων ἀσφαλείας χάριν ἑπομένων διὰ τοῦ μεγάλου πεδίου τὴν πορείαν ποιουμένην ἐκ τῆς τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν ὑποτελοῦς χώρας εἰς τὴν Ῥωμαίων ἐπικράτειαν, ἐπιπίπτουσιν αὐτοῖς ἄφνω. [127] Καὶ τὴν μὲν γυναῖκα φυγεῖν ἠνάγκασαν, ὅσα δ᾽ ἐπεφέρετο πάντα διήρπασαν, καὶ ἧκον εἰς Ταριχέας πρός με τέσσαρας ἡμιόνους καταφόρτους ἄγοντες ἐσθῆτος καὶ σκευῶν· ἦν δὲ καὶ ἀργυρίου σταθμὸς οὐκ ὀλίγος καὶ χρυσοῖ πεντακόσιοι. [128] Ταῦτ᾽ ἐγὼ βουλόμενος διαφυλάξαι τῷ Πτολεμαίῳ, καὶ γὰρ ἦν ὁμόφυλος, ἀπηγόρευται δ᾽ ἡμῖν ὑπὸ τῶν νόμων μηδὲ τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ἀποστερεῖν, πρὸς μὲν τοὺς κομίσαντας ἔφην φυλάττειν αὐτὰ δεῖν, ἵν᾽ ἐκ τῆς πράσεως αὐτῶν ἐπισκευασθῇ τὰ τείχη τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων, [129] οἱ δὲ νεανίαι χαλεπῶς ἔσχον οὐ λαβόντες μοῖραν ἐκ τῶν λαφύρων, καθάπερ προσεδόκησαν, καὶ πορευθέντες εἰς τὰς πέριξ τῆς Τιβεριάδος κώμας προδιδόναι μέλλειν με Ῥωμαίοις τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν ἔλεγον· [130] κεχρῆσθαι γὰρ σοφίσματι πρὸς αὐτοὺς λέγοντα τὰ ἐκ τῆς ἁρπαγῆς κομισθέντα φυλάττειν εἰς τὴν ἐπισκευὴν τῶν τειχῶν τῆς Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν πόλεως, ἐγνωκέναι δὲ πάλιν τῷ δεσπότῃ ἀποδοῦναι [τὰ ἡρπασμένα]. [131] Καὶ κατὰ τοῦτό γε τῆς ἐμῆς γνώμης οὐ διήμαρτον· ἀπαλλαγέντων γὰρ αὐτῶν μεταπεμψάμενος δύο τοὺς πρώτους Δασσίωνα καὶ Ἰανναῖον τὸν τοῦ Ληουῖ, φίλους ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα τοῦ βασιλέως καθεστῶτας, τὰ ἐκ τῆς ἁρπαγῆς σκεύη λαβόντας διαπέμψασθαι πρὸς ἐκεῖνον ἐκέλευον, θάνατον ἀπειλήσας αὐτοῖς τὴν ζημίαν, εἰ πρὸς ἕτερον ταῦτα ἀπαγγελοῦσιν. 126 Some daring young men of the village of Dabaritta laid an ambush for the wife of the king's procurator Ptolemy, who, with a mighty attendance and some horsemen as an escort, was travelling over the great plain from territory subject to royal authority into the jurisdiction of the Romans. 127 They fell upon them suddenly and forced Ptolemy's wife to flee and plundered all her things. They came to me to Tarichea, with four mules' loaded with clothing and other items and a large amount of silver and five hundred pieces of gold. 128 I wished to keep these spoils for Ptolemy, who was my countryman and our laws forbid us even to spoil our enemies; so I told those who brought these spoils, that they should be kept, in order to rebuild the ramparts of Jerusalem with them when they came to be sold. 129 But the young men were irritated not to receive a part of those spoils for themselves, as they expected; so they went among the villages around Tiberias and told the people that I was going to betray their country to the Romans. 130 They said I had deceived them, when I said that what had been taken by their raid should be kept for rebuilding the ramparts of Jerusalem but really intended to restore these spoils again to their former owner. 131 Indeed they were not mistaken in this; for when I had gotten clear of them, I sent for two of the leading men, Dassion and Janneus the son of Levi, friends of the king, with orders to take the furniture that had been plundered and to send it to him; and I threatened to punish them with death if they reported this to anyone.
[132] Ἐπισχούσης δὲ φήμης τὴν Γαλιλαίαν ἅπασαν, ὡς τῆς χώρας αὐτῶν μελλούσης ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις προδίδοσθαι καὶ πάντων παροξυνθέντων ἐπὶ τὴν ἐμὴν τιμωρίαν, οἱ τὰς Ταριχέας κατοικοῦντες καὶ αὐτοὶ τοὺς νεανίσκους ἀληθεύειν ὑπολαβόντες πείθουσι τοὺς σωματοφύλακας καὶ τοὺς ὁπλίτας κοιμώμενόν με καταλιπόντας παραγενέσθαι θᾶττον εἰς ἱππόδρομον, ὡς ἐκεῖ βουλευσομένους μετὰ πάντων περὶ τοῦ στρατηγοῦ. [133] Πειθομένων δὲ τούτων καὶ συνελθόντων πολὺς ὄχλος ἤδη προσυνήθροιστο, μίαν τε πάντες ἐποιοῦντο φωνήν, κολάζειν τὸν προδότην πονηρὸν περὶ αὐτοὺς γεγενημένον. [134] Μάλιστα δ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἐξέκαιεν ὁ τοῦ Σαπίθα παῖς Ἰησοῦς ἄρχων τότε τῆς Τιβεριάδος, πονηρὸς ἄνθρωπος καὶ ταράξαι μεγάλα πράγματα φύσιν ἔχων στασιοποιός τε καὶ νεωτεριστὴς ὡς οὐχ ἕτερος, καὶ δὴ τότε λαβὼν εἰς χεῖρας τοὺς Μωυσέως νόμους καὶ προελθὼν εἰς μέσον, [135] "Εἰ μὴ καὶ ὑπὲρ αὑτῶν, ἔφη, πολῖται, μισεῖν δύνασθε Ἰώσηπον, εἰς τοὺς πατρίους ἀποβλέψαντες νόμους, ὧν ὁ πρῶτος ὑμῶν στρατηγὸς προδότης ἔμελλε γίνεσθαι, καὶ μισοπονηρήσαντες ὑπὲρ τούτων τιμωρήσασθε τὸν τοιαῦτα τολμήσαντα." 27. 132 When the rumour went round Galilee that I was about to betray their land to the Romans, all were outraged and quick to demand my punishment, with even the Taricheans crediting the young men's accusation. 133 They persuaded my bodyguards and soldiers to leave me when I was asleep and to hurry to the hippodrome, to discuss how to deal with their commander. 133 When they had convinced them and they went there, they found a large group gathered, who were unanimously calling for punishment of one who was so base a traitor. 134 The main instigator was Jesus, the son of Sapphias, a ruler in Tiberias, an evil man naturally drawn to trouble-making in major matters, an uncommon rabble-rouser and revolutionary. Taking the law of Moses into his hands he came among the people and said, 135 "Fellow citizens, even if you cannot bring yourselves to hate Josephus, look to these laws of your country, which your highest commander is going to betray, and on their account hate and punish so insolent a criminal."
[136] Ταῦτ᾽ εἰπὼν καὶ τοῦ πλήθους ἐπιβοήσαντος ἀναλαβών τινας ὁπλίτας ἐπὶ τὴν οἰκίαν, ἐν ᾗ κατηγόμην, ἔσπευδεν ὡς ἀναιρήσων. Ἐγὼ δ᾽ οὐδὲν προαισθόμενος διὰ κόπον πρὸ τῆς ταραχῆς κατεσχήμην. [137] Σίμων δ᾽ ὁ τοῦ σώματός μου τὴν φυλακὴν πεπιστευμένος, ὁ καὶ μόνος παραμείνας, ἰδὼν τὴν ἐπιδρομὴν τῶν πολιτῶν διήγειρέ με καὶ τὸν ἐφεστῶτά μοι κίνδυνον ἐξήγγειλεν, ἠξίου τε γενναίως θνήσκειν ὡς στρατηγὸν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ πρὶν δὴ ἐλθεῖν τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ἀναγκάσοντας ἢ κτενοῦντας. [138] Ὁ μὲν ταῦτα ἔλεγεν, ἐγὼ δὲ τῷ θεῷ τὰ κατ᾽ ἐμαυτὸν ἐπιτρέψας εἰς τὸ πλῆθος ὡρμήθην προελθεῖν. Μετενδὺς οὖν μέλαιναν ἐσθῆτα καὶ τὸ ξίφος ἀπαρτησάμενος ἐκ τοῦ αὐχένος καθ᾽ ὁδὸν ἑτέραν, ᾗ μηδένα μοι τῶν πολεμίων ὑπαντιάσειν ᾤμην, ᾔειν εἰς τὸν ἱππόδρομον, ἄφνω τε φανεὶς καὶ πρηνὴς πεσὼν καὶ τὴν γῆν δάκρυσιν φύρων ἐλεεινὸς ἔδοξα πᾶσιν. [139] Συνεὶς δὲ τοῦ πλήθους τὴν μεταβολὴν διιστάναι τὰς γνώμας αὐτῶν ἐπειρώμην πρὸ τοῦ τοὺς ὁπλίτας ἀπὸ τῆς οἰκίας ὑποστρέψαι. Καὶ συνεχώρουν μὲν ἀδικεῖν, ὡς αὐτοὶ νομίζουσιν, ἐδεόμην δὲ διδάξαι πρότερον, εἰς τίνα χρείαν ἐφύλαττον τὰ ἐκ τῆς ἁρπαγῆς κομισθέντα χρήματα καὶ τότε θνήσκειν, εἰ κελεύοιεν. [140] Τοῦ δὲ πλήθους λέγειν κελεύοντος ἐπῆλθον οἱ ὁπλῖται καὶ θεασάμενοί με προσέτρεχον ὡς κτενοῦντες.῾Ἐπισχεῖν δὲ τοῦ πλήθους κελεύοντος ἐπείσθησαν προσδοκῶντες, ἐπειδὰν ὁμολογήσω πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὰ χρήματα τῷ βασιλεῖ τετηρηκέναι, ὡς ὡμολογηκότα τὴν προδοσίαν ἀναιρήσειν.
28. 136 When his speech was openly applauded, he hurried with some of the soldiers to the house where I lodged, to kill me. Completely unaware of this, and weary from my efforts, I had fallen asleep. 137 But my bodyguard, Simon, who alone was with me, seeing the onrush of the citizens towards me, woke me and told me of my imminent danger and asked me to die bravely, by my own hand, like a commander, before my enemies arrived and compelled me, or killed me themselves. 138 That is what he said; but I committed my life to God and made haste to go out to the people. Changing into a black robe and hanging my sword from my neck, I went to the hippodrome by a different road, where I expected none of my enemies to meet me; then appearing among them suddenly, I fell down prone and wet the ground with my tears, seeming pitiful to them all. 139 Perceiving the change this made in the people, I tried to divide their opinions before the soldiers returned from my house. I implored them that, even if I were as wicked as they supposed, they first let me tell them the reason I had reserved the money arising from the raid, and afterward they might kill me if they pleased. 140 Just as the people were telling me to speak, the soldiers arrived and seeing me, rushed to kill me; but at the people's bidding, they held off, expecting that when I admitted to having kept the money for the king, I would be killed as having confessed to treason.
[141] Σιγῆς οὖν παρὰ πάντων γενομένης, "ἄνδρες, εἶπον, ὁμόφυλοι, θανεῖν μέν, εἰ δίκαιόν ἐστιν, οὐ παραιτοῦμαι. Βούλομαι δ᾽ ὅμως πρὸ τοῦ τελευτῆσαι τὴν ἀλήθειαν φράσαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς· [142] τὴν γὰρ πόλιν ταύτην φιλοξενωτάτην οὖσαν ἐπιστάμενος πληθύουσάν τε προθύμως τοσούτων ἀνδρῶν, οἳ τὰς ἑαυτῶν πατρίδας καταλιπόντες ἀφίκοντο κοινωνοὶ τῆς ἡμετέρας γενόμενοι τύχης, ἐβουλήθην τείχη κατασκευάσαι ἐκ τῶν χρημάτων, περὶ ὧν ἡ παρ᾽ ὑμῶν ἐστιν ὀργή, [143] δαπανωμένων εἰς τὴν οἰκοδομίαν αὐτῶν." Πρὸς ταῦτα παρὰ μὲν τῶν Ταριχεωτῶν καὶ ξένων ἐγείρεται φωνὴ χάριν ἔχειν ὁμολογούντων καὶ θαρρεῖν προτρεπομένων, Γαλιλαῖοι δὲ καὶ Τιβεριεῖς τοῖς θυμοῖς ἐπέμενον, καὶ γίνεται στάσις πρὸς ἀλλήλους τῶν μὲν κολάσειν ἀπειλούντων με τῶν δὲ καταφρονεῖν. [144] Ἐπεὶ δ᾽ ἐπηγγειλάμην καὶ Τιβεριάδι κατασκευάσειν τείχη καὶ ταῖς ἄλλαις πόλεσιν αὐτῶν ταῖς ἀναγκαίαις, πιστεύσαντες ὑπεχώρουν ἕκαστος εἰς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ. Κἀγὼ παρὰ πᾶσαν ἐλπίδα διαφυγὼν τὸν προειρημένον κίνδυνον μετὰ τῶν φίλων καὶ ὁπλιτῶν εἴκοσιν εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν ὑπέστρεψα. 29. 141 When all were silent therefore, I said to them: "My countrymen! I do not refuse to die, if that is just. However, before I die, I want to tell you the truth of this matter. 142 Since I know this to be a city of great hospitality, filled with many who have left their own countries and come here to share in your fortune, whatever it be, I wished to fortify it using this money, about which you are so angry with me, although it be spent in building your own walls." 143 As I said this, the Taricheans and their guests cried out that they were grateful to me and told me to be of good courage, although the Galileans and the Tiberians continued wrathful against me, so that a dispute arose among them, one side threatening to kill me and the other bidding me not to heed them. 144 When I further promised that I would provide walls at Tiberias and at other cities that wanted them, they believed my promise and they all returned home. So, unexpectedly, I escaped the danger and returned to my own house, accompanied by my friends and twenty soldiers.

Chapter 7. Josephus forestalls his enemies

[145] Πάλιν δ᾽ οἱ λῃσταὶ καὶ τῆς στάσεως αἴτιοι δείσαντες περὶ ἑαυτῶν, μὴ δίκας εἰσπραχθῶσιν ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ τῶν πεπραγμένων, ἀναλαβόντες ἑξακοσίους ὁπλίτας ἧκον ἐπὶ τὴν οἰκίαν ἔνθα διέτριβον ἐμπρήσοντες αὐτήν. [146] Ἀπαγγελθείσης δέ μοι τῆς ἐφόδου φεύγειν μὲν ἀπρεπὲς ἡγησάμην, ἔκρινα δὲ παραβαλόμενος χρήσασθαί τι καὶ τόλμῃ. Προστάξας οὖν ἀποκλεῖσαι τῆς οἰκίας τὰς θύρας αὐτὸς ἐπὶ τὸ ὑπερῷον ἀναβὰς παρεκάλουν εἰσπέμψαι τινὰς ληψομένους τὰ χρήματα· παύσεσθαι γὰρ οὕτως τῆς ὀργῆς αὐτοὺς ἔφην. [147] Εἰσπεμψάντων δὲ τὸν θρασύτατον αὐτῶν μάστιξιν αἰκισάμενος τὴν ἑτέραν τε τῶν χειρῶν ἀποκόψαι κελεύσας καὶ κρεμάσαι ἐκ τοῦ τραχήλου τοιοῦτον ἐξέβαλον πρὸς τοὺς ἐξαποστείλαντας. [148] Τοὺς δ᾽ ἔλαβεν ἔκπληξις καὶ φόβος οὔτι μέτριος. Δείσαντες οὖν καὶ αὐτοὶ ταὐτὰ πείσεσθαι, εἰ μένοιεν, εἴκαζον γὰρ ἔνδον ἔχειν με πλείους αὐτῶν, εἰς φυγὴν ὥρμησαν. Κἀγὼ τοιούτῳ στρατηγήματι χρησάμενος τὴν δευτέραν ἐπιβουλὴν διέφυγον. 30. 145 Then, afraid that I might punish them for their actions, these brigands and other authors of this revolt took six hundred soldiers and came to the house where I lodged, to set it on fire. 146 When I heard of their plan I thought it would be indecent to run away and resolved to expose myself to danger and to act boldly so I had the doors locked and went up to an upper room, asking them to send in some of their men to receive the money and in this way allay their anger at me. 147 When they had sent in one of the boldest of them all, I had him severely scourged and had one of his hands cut off and hung about his neck; and sent him out in this state to those who sent him. 148 This struck them with fright and alarm, for fear they should be similarly treated themselves if they stayed; and thinking that I had indoors more forces than they had, they hurried away. By this ruse, I escaped the second plot.
[149] Πάλιν δὲ τὸν ὄχλον τινὲς ἠρέθιζον τοὺς ἀφικομένους πρός με βασιλικοὺς μεγιστᾶνας οὐκ ὀφείλειν ζῆν λέγοντες μὴ μεταβῆναι θέλοντας εἰς τὰ παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἔθη, πρὸς οὓς σωθησόμενοι πάρεισι· διέβαλλόν τε φαρμακέας εἶναι λέγοντες τοὺς Ῥωμαίους παραγενέσθαι. Ταχὺ δὲ τὸ πλῆθος ἐπείθετο ταῖς τῶν λεγομένων πρὸς χάριν αὐτοῖς πιθανότησιν ἀπατώμενοι. [150] Πυθόμενος δὲ περὶ τούτων ἐγὼ πάλιν τὸν δῆμον ἀνεδίδασκον μὴ δεῖν διώκεσθαι τοὺς καταφυγόντας πρὸς αὐτούς· τὸν δὲ φλύαρον τῆς περὶ τῶν φαρμάκων αἰτίας διέσυρον, οὐκ ἂν τοσαύτας μυριάδας στρατιωτῶν Ῥωμαίους λέγων τρέφειν, εἰ διὰ φαρμάκων ἦν νικᾶν τοὺς πολεμίους. [151] Ταῦτα λέγοντος ἐμοῦ πρὸς ὀλίγον μὲν ἐπείθοντο, πάλιν δ᾽ ἀναχωρήσαντες ὑπὸ τῶν πονηρῶν ἐξηρεθίζοντο κατὰ τῶν μεγιστάνων, καί ποτε μεθ᾽ ὅπλων ἐπὶ τὴν οἰκίαν αὐτῶν τὴν ἐν Ταριχέᾳ ἀπῆλθον ὡς ἀναιρήσοντες. [152] Ἔδεισα δ᾽ ἐγὼ πυθόμενος, μὴ τοῦ μύσους τέλος λαβόντος ἀνεπίβατος γένηται τοῖς καταφυγεῖν εἰς αὐτὴν θέλουσιν. [153] Παρεγενόμην οὖν εἰς τὴν τῶν μεγιστάνων οἰκίαν μετά τινων ἑτέρων, καὶ κλείσας διώρυγά τε ποιήσας ἀπ᾽ αὐτῆς ἐπὶ τὴν λίμνην ἄγουσαν μεταπεμψάμενός τε πλοῖον καὶ σὺν αὐτοῖς ἐμβὰς ἐπὶ τὴν μεθόριον τῶν Ἱππηνῶν διεπέρασα, καὶ δοὺς αὐτοῖς τὴν τιμὴν τῶν ἵππων, οὐ γὰρ ἠδυνήθην αὐτοὺς ἐπαγαγέσθαι τοιαύτης γενομένης τῆς ἀποδράσεως, ἀπέλυσα πολλὰ παρακαλέσας τὴν προσπεσοῦσαν ἀνάγκην γενναίως ἐνεγκεῖν. [154] Αὐτός τε μεγάλως ἠχθόμην βιασθεὶς τοὺς προσφυγόντας ἐκθεῖναι πάλιν εἰς τὴν πολεμίαν, ἄμεινον δὲ νομίσας παρὰ Ῥωμαίοις ἀποθανεῖν αὐτούς, εἰ συμπέσοι, μᾶλλον ἢ κατὰ τὴν ἐμὴν χώραν. Οἱ δ᾽ ἄρα διεσώθησαν· συνεχώρησεν γὰρ αὐτοῖς βασιλεὺς Ἀγρίππας τὰ ἡμαρτημένα. Καὶ τὰ μὲν περὶ ἐκείνους τοῦτ᾽ ἔσχε τὸ τέλος. 31. 149 But there were still some who stirred up the people against me, saying that the king's noble vassals must not be allowed to live, unless they conformed to the customs of those to whom they fled for safety; they also accused them as sorcerers who made it impossible to deal with the Romans. The crowd was soon swayed by such empty allegations and accepted them as true. 150 Learning of this, I again taught the people that those who fled to them for refuge ought not to be persecuted. I also laughed at the allegation about witchcraft, telling them that the Romans would not maintain so many thousand of soldiers, if they could overcome their enemies by sorcerers. 151 As I said this, the people assented for a while; but they changed again later, stirred up by some evil people against the nobles; indeed they once made an attack on the house where they lived at Tarichea, in order to kill them. 152 I feared that if so terrible a crime took place nobody else would make that city their refuge any more. 153 Therefore with some others I came to the house where these nobles lived and locked the doors and had a trench dug from their house leading to the lake and sent for a ship and embarked in it with them and sailed to the borders of Hippos. I also paid them the value of their horses, for their horses could not have been brought in such a flight, and then dismissed them, earnestly imploring them to courageously bear their fate. 154 I was also myself very unhappy to have to expel those refugees again to enemy soil but though it preferable for them to die at Roman hands, if so it happened than in the area under my control. However, they finally escaped and king Agrippa pardoned their offenses; and so this episode ended.
[155] Οἱ δὲ τὴν τῶν Τιβεριέων πόλιν κατοικοῦντες γράφουσιν πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα παρακαλοῦντες πέμψαι δύναμιν τὴν φυλάξουσαν αὐτῶν τὴν χώραν· θέλειν γὰρ αὐτῷ προστίθεσθαι. Κἀκείνῳ μὲν ταῦτ᾽ ἔγραφον. [156] Ἀφικόμενον δέ με πρὸς αὐτοὺς παρεκάλουν τὰ τείχη κατασκευάζειν αὐτοῖς, ὡς ὑπεσχήμην· ἠκηκόεισαν δὲ τὰς Ταριχέας ἤδη τετειχίσθαι. Κατανεύσας οὖν ἐγὼ καὶ πάντα τὰ πρὸς τὴν οἰκοδομίαν παρασκευασάμενος τοὺς ἀρχιτέκτονας ἐκέλευον ἐνεργεῖν. [157] Μετὰ δὲ τρίτην ἡμέραν εἰς Ταριχέας ἀπερχομένου μου τῆς Τιβεριάδος ἀπεχούσας στάδια τριάκοντα, συνέβη τινὰς Ῥωμαίων ἱππεῖς οὐ πόρρωθεν τῆς πόλεως ὁδοιποροῦντας ὀφθῆναι, οἳ δόξαν παρέσχον τὴν παρὰ τοῦ βασιλέως δύναμιν ἥκειν. [158] Εὐθέως γοῦν εἰς μὲν τὸν βασιλέα μετὰ πολλῶν ἐπαίνων ἠφίεσαν φωνάς, κατ᾽ ἐμοῦ δὲ βλασφήμους. Καὶ ἐπιδραμών τις ἀπήγγειλέν μοι τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν, ὡς ἀφίστασθαί μου διεγνώκασιν. [159] Ἐγὼ δ᾽ ἀκούσας ἐταράχθην μὲν σφόδρα· τοὺς γὰρ ὁπλίτας ἔτυχον ἐκ τῶν Ταριχεῶν ἐπὶ τὰς αὐτῶν οἰκήσεις ἀφεικὼς διὰ τὸ τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν ἡμέραν σάββατον ὑπάρχειν· οὐ γὰρ ἐβουλόμην ὑπὸ τοῦ στρατιωτικοῦ πλήθους ἐνοχλεῖσθαι τοὺς ἐν ταῖς Ταριχέαις. [160] Ὁσάκις γοῦν ἐν αὐταῖς διέτριβον οὐδὲ τῆς περὶ τὸ σῶμα φυλακῆς ἐποιούμην πρόνοιαν, πεῖραν παρὰ τῶν ἐνοικούντων τῆς πρός με πίστεως λαβὼν πολλάκις. [161] Μόνους δ᾽ ἔχων περὶ ἐμαυτὸν ἑπτὰ τῶν ὁπλιτῶν καὶ τοὺς φίλους ἠπόρουν, ὃ πράξω· μεταπέμψασθαι γὰρ τὴν ἐμὴν δύναμιν διὰ τὸ λήγειν ἤδη τὴν ἐνεστῶσαν ἡμέραν οὐκ ἐδοκίμαζον· οὐδὲ γὰρ ἀφικομένης αὐτῆς εἰς τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν ὅπλα λαβεῖν κωλυόντων ἡμᾶς τῶν νόμων, κἂν μεγάλη τις ἐπείγειν ἀνάγκη δοκῇ. [162] Εἰ δὲ τοῖς Ταριχεώταις καὶ τοῖς παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς ξένοις ἐπιτρέψαιμι τὴν πόλιν διαρπάζειν, ἑώρων οὐχ ἱκανοὺς ἐσομένους, τὴν ἐμὴν ὑπέρθεσιν ἑώρων μακροτάτην· φθήσεσθαι γὰρ καὶ τὴν παρὰ βασιλέως δύναμιν ἀφικομένην, καὶ ἐκπεσεῖσθαι τῆς πόλεως ᾠόμην. [163] Ἐβουλευόμην οὖν στρατηγήματι χρῆσθαί τινι κατ᾽ αὐτῶν. Παραχρῆμα δὴ τοὺς πιστοτάτους τῶν φίλων ταῖς πύλαις τῶν Ταριχεῶν ἐπιστήσας φυλάξοντας μετ᾽ ἀσφαλείας τοὺς ἐξιέναι θέλοντας καὶ τοὺς πρώτους τῶν οἴκων προσκαλεσάμενος, αὐτῶν ἕκαστον ἐκέλευσα καθελκύσαντα πλοῖον ἐμβάντα συνεπαγόμενον τὸν κυβερνήτην ἕπεσθαί μοι πρὸς τὴν Τιβεριέων πόλιν. [164] Καὶ αὐτὸς δὲ μετὰ τῶν φίλων καὶ τῶν ὁπλιτῶν, οὓς ἔφην ἑπτὰ τὸν ἀριθμὸν εἶναι, ἐμβὰς ἔπλεον ἐπὶ τὴν Τιβεριάδα.
32. 155 The Tiberians wrote to the king, asking him to send troops to guard their territory, as they wanted to come over to him; that was what they wrote to him. 156 But when I reached them, they asked me to build their walls as I had promised, since they had heard that the ramparts of Tarichea were already built; I agreed to their proposal and having made preparations for the building, I set to the architects to work. 157 But on the third day, when I had gone to Tarichea, thirty furlongs from Tiberias, some Roman horsemen happened to be seen on the march, not far from the city, which made it seem that the king's forces were arriving. 158 Instantly they shouted and lifted up their voices in praise of the king and in curses against me. Someone came running to me and told me of their mood and how they were resolved to revolt from me. 159 Hearing this I was much alarmed; for from Tarichea I had already sent my soldiers off to their homes, because the next day was our Sabbath, when I wanted the Taricheans to be untroubled by the soldiers' presence. 160 Indeed, whenever I was in that city, I never took particular care to have a bodyguard because I had had frequent instances of its inhabitants' fidelity to me. 161 Now I had round me no more than seven soldiers, along with some friends, and was doubtful what to do; for I did not think it right to send to recall my own forces, as that day was almost over. 162 Even had those forces been with me, I could not take up arms the next day, since our laws forbade us to do so, even though our need be great; and if I should permit the Taricheans and the strangers with them, to guard the city, I saw that they would be inadequate for that purpose and that my own action would come too late; the forces coming from the king would precede me and I would be driven out of the city. 163 So I thought to be rid of these forces by a a ruse; immediately I placed my most trusted friends at the gates of Tarichea, to watch carefully those who went out at those gates. I also called to me the heads of families and bade them each to seize a boat and launch it with a steersman, and follow me to Tiberias. 164 I myself set sail with my friends and the seven soldiers already mentioned and sailed for Tiberias.
[165] Τιβεριεῖς δὲ τὴν παρὰ τοῦ βασιλέως δύναμιν ὡς ἔγνωσαν οὐχ ἥκουσαν αὐτοῖς, πλοίων δὲ τὴν λίμνην πᾶσαν ἐθεάσαντο πλήρη, δείσαντες περὶ τῇ πόλει καὶ καταπλαγέντες ὡς ἐπιβατῶν πλήρεις εἶναι νέας, μετατίθενται τὰς γνώμας. [166] Ῥίψαντες οὖν τὰ ὅπλα μετὰ γυναικῶν καὶ παίδων ὑπηντίαζον πολλὰς μετ᾽ ἐπαίνων εἰς ἐμὲ φωνὰς ἀφιέντες, εἴκαζον γὰρ οὐ προπεπύσθαι με τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν, καὶ παρεκάλουν φείσασθαι τῆς πόλεως. [167] Ἐγὼ δὲ πλησίον γενόμενος ἀγκύρας μὲν ἔτι πόρρω τῆς γῆς ἐκέλευον βαλέσθαι τοὺς κυβερνήτας ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ κατάδηλα τοῖς Τιβεριεῦσιν εἶναι τὰ πλοῖα κενὰ τῶν ἐπιβατῶν ὄντα, πλησιάσας δ᾽ αὐτὸς ἔν τινι πλοίῳ κατεμεμφόμην αὐτῶν τὴν ἄγνοιαν, καὶ ὅτι δὴ οὕτως εὐχερεῖς εἶεν πάσης δικαίας ἄνευ προφάσεως ἐξίστασθαι τῆς πρός με πίστεως. [168] Ὡμολόγουν δ᾽ εἴς τε τὸ λοιπὸν αὐτοῖς συγγνώσεσθαι βεβαίως, εἰ πέμψειαν δέκα τοῦ πλήθους προεστῶτας. Ὑπακουσάντων δ᾽ ἑτοίμως καὶ πεμψάντων ἄνδρας οὓς προεῖπον, ἐμβιβάσας ἀπέλυον εἰς Ταριχέας φυλαχθησομένους. 33. 165 But now, when the Tiberians noticed that no forces had come from the king, yet saw the whole lake full of ships, they feared what would become of their city and terrified that the ships were fully manned, they changed their minds. 166 They threw down their weapons and met me with their wives and children and made great acclamations to me, not knowing I was aware of their intentions, and persuaded me to spare the city. 167 When I drew near, I ordered the masters of the ships to anchor far enough from shore that the Tiberians would not realise that the ships had no passengers on board; but in one of the ships I went nearer to the people and rebuked them for their foolishness, that they were so fickle as to abandon their allegiance to me without any just reason. 168 However, I assured them of a complete pardon if they would send me ten of the ringleaders. When they complied readily with this proposal and sent me the ten I mentioned, I put them on board and sent them away to Tarichea; to be kept under arrest.
[169] Τῷ στρατηγήματι δὲ τούτῳ τὴν βουλὴν πᾶσαν κατ᾽ ὀλίγους λαβὼν εἰς τὴν προειρημένην πόλιν καὶ μετ᾽ αὐτῶν τοὺς πολλοὺς τοῦ δήμου πρώτους ἄνδρας οὐκ ἐλάττους ἐκείνων ὄντας διεπεμψάμην. [170] Τὸ δὲ πλῆθος, ὡς εἶδον εἰς οἷον κακῶν ἥκουσι μέγεθος, παρεκάλουν με τὸν αἴτιον τῆς στάσεως τιμωρήσασθαι. Κλεῖτος δ᾽ ἦν ὄνομα τούτῳ, θρασύς τε καὶ προπετὴς νεανίας. [171] Ἐγὼ δ᾽ ἀποκτεῖναι μὲν οὐχ ὅσιον ἡγούμενος ὁμόφυλον ἄνδρα, κολάσαι δ᾽ ἀνάγκην ἔχων, τῶν περὶ ἐμέ τινι σωματοφυλάκων Ληουεῖ προσέταξα προελθόντι κόψαι τοῦ Κλείτου τὴν ἑτέραν τῶν χειρῶν. [172] Δείσαντος δὲ τοῦ κελευσθέντος εἰς τοσοῦτο πλῆθος προελθεῖν μόνου, τὴν δειλίαν τοῦ στρατιώτου μὴ βουληθεὶς κατάδηλον γενέσθαι τοῖς Τιβεριεῦσιν, αὐτὸν Κλεῖτον φωνήσας "ἐπειδὴ καὶ ἄξιος, εἶπον, ὑπάρχεις ἀμφοτέρας τὰς χεῖρας ἀποβαλεῖν οὕτως ἀχάριστος εἰς ἐμὲ γενόμενος, γενοῦ σαυτοῦ δημόσιος, μὴ καὶ ἀπειθήσας χείρονα τιμωρίαν ὑπόσχῃς." [173] Τοῦ δὲ τὴν ἑτέραν αὐτῷ συγχωρῆσαι πολλὰ δεομένου μόλις κατένευσα. Κἀκεῖνος ἄσμενος ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ τὰς δύο χεῖρας ἀποβαλεῖν λαβὼν μάχαιραν κόπτει τὴν ἀριστερὰν ἑαυτοῦ. Καὶ τοῦτο τὴν στάσιν ἔπαυσεν. 34. 169 By this ruse, gradually I got into my power all the council of Tiberias, and as many again of the leading citizens, and sent them to the aforementioned city. 170 When the people saw to what a wretched condition they were reduced, they asked me to punish the author of this revolt, named Cleitus, a young man, bold and rash in his undertakings. 171 Considering it an impiety to put one of my own people to death and yet finding it necessary to punish him, I ordered Levi, one of my own guards, to go and cut off one of Cleitus's hands; 172 but as the one ordered to do it was afraid to leave the ship on his own, into so great a crowd, I was unwilling to have the soldier's nervousness witnessed by the Tiberians. So I called to Cleitus himself and said to him, "Since you deserve to lose both your hands for your ingratitude to me, be your own executioner, or you will suffer a worse punishment." 173 When he earnestly begged of me to spare him one of his hands, I granted it with difficulty. So, in order to prevent the loss of both his hands, he willingly took his sword and cut off his own left hand; and this put an end to the revolt.
[174] Τιβεριεῖς δέ, ὡς εἰς τὰς Ταριχέας ἀφικόμην γνόντες τὴν στρατηγίαν, ᾗ κατ᾽ αὐτῶν ἐχρησάμην, ἀπεθαύμαζον ὅτι χωρὶς φόνων ἔπαυσα τὴν ἀγνωμοσύνην αὐτῶν. [175] Ἐγὼ δὲ τοὺς ἐκ τῆς εἱρκτῆς μεταπεμψάμενος τοῦ πλήθους τῶν Τιβεριέων, ἦν δὲ σὺν αὐτοῖς Ἰοῦστος καὶ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ Πιστός, συνδείπνους ἐποιησάμην, καὶ παρὰ τὴν ἑστίασιν ἔλεγον, ὅτι τὴν Ῥωμαίων δύναμιν οὐδ᾽ αὐτὸς ἀγνοῶ πασῶν διαφέρουσαν, σιγῴην μέντοι περὶ αὐτῆς διὰ τοὺς λῃστάς. [176] Καὶ αὐτοῖς δὲ ταῦτα συνεβούλευον ποιεῖν τὸν ἐπιτήδειον περιμένουσι καιρὸν καὶ μὴ δυσανασχετεῖν ἐμοὶ στρατηγῷ· μηδενὸς γὰρ αὐτοὺς ἑτέρου δυνήσεσθαι ῥᾳδίως ἐπιεικοῦς ὁμοίως τυχεῖν. [177] Τὸν Ἰοῦστον δὲ καὶ ὑπεμίμνησκον, ὅτι πρόσθεν ἤ με παραγενέσθαι ἐκ τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων οἱ Γαλιλαῖοι τἀδελφοῦ τὰς χεῖρας ἀποκόψειαν αὐτοῦ πρὸ τοῦ πολέμου πλαστῶν αὐτῷ γραμμάτων κακουργίαν ἐπικαλέσαντες, καὶ ὅτι μετὰ τὴν ἀναχώρησιν τὴν Φιλίππου Γαμαλῖται πρὸς Βαβυλωνίους στασιάζοντες ἀνέλοιεν Χάρητα, συγγενὴς δ᾽ ἦν οὗτος τοῦ Φιλίππου, [178] καὶ ὡς Ἰησοῦν τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ ἄνδρα τῆς ἀδελφῆς Ἰούστου σωφρόνως κολάσειαν. Ταῦτα παρὰ τὴν ἑστίασιν διαλεχθεὶς τοῖς περὶ τὸν Ἰοῦστον ἕωθεν ἐκέλευσα πάντας τῆς φυλακῆς ἀπολυθῆναι. 35. 174 When I had gone to Tarichea, the Tiberians understood the ruse I had used on them and admired how I had put an end to their foolish revolt without violence. 175 But now, sending to bring out some of the many Tiberians from the prison, including Justus and his father Pistus, I had them sup with me; and during our supper I told them that I knew the power of the Romans was superior to all others, but had not spoken out because of the brigands. 176 I advised them to do as I did and to bide their time and not be impatient at my being in command, since their subsequent ruler would not treat them as fairly as myself. 177 I also reminded Justus how before ever I came to Jerusalem, the Galileans had cut off his brother's hands, when he was accused of being a rogue and of forging some letters; also, how the people of Gamala, in their revolt against the Babylonians after the departure of Philip, killed Philip's kinsman, Chares, 178 and also how they had ruthlessly executed Jesus, the husband of his brother Justus's sister. After saying this to them at supper, in the morning I ordered Justus and all the rest to be released from the prison and sent away.
[179] Πρὸ δὲ τούτων συνέβη τὸν Ἰακίμου Φίλιππον ἀπελθεῖν ἐκ Γάμαλα τοῦ φρουρίου τοιαύτης αἰτίας γενομένης· [180] Φίλιππος πυθόμενος μεθεστάναι μὲν Οὔαρον ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως Ἀγρίππα, διάδοχον δὲ ἀφῖχθαι Μόδιον Αἴκουον ἄνδρα φίλον αὐτῷ καὶ συνήθη πάλαι, γράφει πρὸς τοῦτον τὰς καθ᾽ ἑαυτὸν τύχας ἀπαγγέλλων καὶ παρακαλῶν τὰ παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ πεμφθέντα γράμματα πρὸς τοὺς βασιλέας ἀποστεῖλαι. [181] Καὶ Μόδιος δεξάμενος τὰς ἐπιστολὰς ἐχάρη σφόδρα σώζεσθαι τὸν Φίλιππον ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐπιγνούς, καὶ πρὸς τοὺς βασιλέας ἔπεμψε τὰ γράμματα περὶ Βηρυτὸν ὄντας. [182] Ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς Ἀγρίππας ὡς ἔγνω ψευδῆ τὴν περὶ Φιλίππου φήμην γενομένην, λόγος γὰρ διῆλθεν, ὡς στρατηγοίη τῶν Ἰουδαίων ἐπὶ τὸν πρὸς Ῥωμαίους πόλεμον, ἔπεμψεν ἱππεῖς τοὺς παραπέμψοντας τὸν Φίλιππον. [183] Καὶ παραγενόμενον ἀσπάζεταί τε φιλοφρόνως τοῖς τε Ῥωμαίων ἡγεμόσιν ἐπεδείκνυεν, ὅτι δὴ Φίλιππος οὗτός ἐστιν, περὶ οὗ διεξῄει λόγος ὡς Ῥωμαίων ἀποστάντος. Κελεύει δ᾽ αὐτὸν ἱππεῖς τινας ἀναλαβόντα θᾶττον εἰς Γάμαλα τὸ φρούριον πορευθῆναι τοὺς οἰκείους αὐτῷ πάντας ἐκεῖθεν ἐξάξοντα καὶ τοὺς Βαβυλωνίους εἰς τὴν Βατανέαν πάλιν ἀποκαταστήσοντα. [184] Παρήγγειλε δὲ καὶ πᾶσαν ποιήσασθαι πρόνοιαν ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ γενέσθαι τινὰ νεωτερισμὸν παρὰ τῶν ὑπηκόων. Φίλιππος μὲν οὖν ταῦτα τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπιστείλαντος ἔσπευδε ποιήσων ἃ προσέταξεν. 36. 179 Even before this, Philip, the son of Jacimus, left the Gamala fortress in the following circumstances. 180 When Philip learned that Varus had been deposed by king Agrippa and that Modius Aequus, his former friend and companion, had come to succeed him, he wrote telling him of his various experiences and asking him to forward to the king and queen the letters he had already sent. 181 Modius was very glad to receive this message and sent on the letters to their majesties, who were then in the area of Berytus. 182 But when king Agrippa found that the rumour about Philip was false, (it had been claimed that Philip was leading the Jews in a war against the Romans,) he sent some horsemen to bring Philip to him. 183 When he arrived, he greeted him very obligingly and presented him to the Roman generals as the who had been reported as having rebelled from the Romans. He told him to take some horsemen and to go quickly to the Gamala fortress and to bring his people out from there, and to reinstate the Babylonians in Batanea. 184 He also told him to take all care that none of his subjects should be guilty of any rebellion. Philip hastened to do as the king had ordered.

Chapter 8. Josephus' strong leadership, in Galilee

[185] Ἰώσηπος δὲ τῆς ἰατρίνης πολλοὺς νεανίσκους θρασεῖς προτρεψάμενος αὐτῷ συνάρασθαι καὶ ἐπαναστὰς τοῖς ἐν Γάμαλα πρώτοις ἔπειθεν αὐτοὺς ἀφίστασθαι τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ ἀναλαβεῖν τὰ ὅπλα ὡς διὰ τούτων τὴν ἐλευθερίαν ἀποληψομένους. Καὶ τινὰς μὲν ἐβιάσαντο, τοὺς δὲ μὴ συναρεσκομένους αὐτῶν ταῖς γνώμαις ἀνῄρουν. [186] Κτείνουσι δὲ καὶ Χάρητα, καὶ μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ τινα τῶν συγγενῶν Ἰησοῦν καὶ Ἰούστου δὲ τοῦ Τιβεριέως ἀδελφὴν ἀνεῖλον, καθὼς ἤδη προείπομεν, γράφουσι δὲ καὶ πρός με παρακαλοῦντες πέμψαι καὶ δύναμιν αὐτοῖς ὁπλιτῶν καὶ τοὺς ἀναστήσοντας αὐτῶν τῇ πόλει τείχη. [187] Κἀγὼ πρὸς οὐδέτερον ἀντεῖπον ὧν ἠξίωσαν. Ἀφίσταται δὲ τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ ἡ Γαυλανῖτις χώρα μέχρι κώμης Σολύμης. Σελευκείᾳ δὲ καὶ Σωγάνῃ φύσει κώμαις ὀχυρωτάταις ᾠκοδόμησα τείχη, τάς τε κατὰ τὴν ἄνω Γαλιλαίαν κώμας καὶ πάνυ πετρώδεις οὔσας ἐτείχισα παραπλησίως. [188] Ὀνόματα δ᾽ αὐταῖς Ἰάμνια Ἀμηρὼθ Ἀχαράβη. Ὠχύρωσα δὲ καὶ τὰς ἐν τῇ κάτω Γαλιλαίᾳ πόλεις μὲν Ταριχέας Τιβεριάδα Σέπφωριν, κώμας δὲ Ἀρβήλων σπήλαιον, Βηρσουβαί, Σελαμήν, Ἰωτάπατα, Καφαραθ᾽ κωμος σωγαναι παφα καὶ τὸ Ἰταβύριον ὄρος. Εἰς ταύτας καὶ σῖτον ἀπεθέμην πολὺν καὶ ὅπλα πρὸς ἀσφάλειαν τὴν μετὰ ταῦτα. 37. 185 One Joseph, a midwife's son, then roused up many young men to join him and putting pressure on the magistrates at Gamala, persuaded them to revolt from the king and take up arms in the hope of regaining their liberty with them. Some they forced to comply and those who would not acquiesce in their plan, they killed. 186 They also killed Chares and one of his kinsmen, Jesus, and the brother of Justus of Tiberias, as already said. They also wrote to me, to send them an armed force and workmen to repair their city walls; I refused neither of these requests. 187 The region of Gaulanitis as far as the village of Solyma also rebelled from the king. I also built walls around Seleucia and Soganni, with very strong natural defences, and did the same for several villages of Upper Galilee, even though of themselves they were very rugged. 188 Their names are Jamnia and Ameroth and Achabare. In Lower Galilee, I also fortified Tarichea, Tiberias, Sepphoris and the villages, the cave of Arbela, Beersobe, Selamin, Jotapata, Capharecho and Sigo and Jaffa and Mount Itaburion. I stocked these places with much corn and armour, for their later security.
[189] Ἰωάννῃ δὲ τῷ τοῦ Ληουεῖ τὸ κατ᾽ ἐμοῦ μῖσος προσηύξετο βαρέως φέροντι τὴν ἐμὴν εὐπραγίαν. Προθέμενος οὖν πάντως ἐκποδών με ποιήσασθαι τῇ μὲν αὐτοῦ πατρίδι τοῖς Γισχάλοις κατασκευάζει τείχη, [190] τὸν ἀδελφὸν δὲ Σίμωνα καὶ τὸν τοῦ Σισέννα Ἰωνάθην ὁπλιτῶν περὶ ἑκατὸν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα πέμπει πρὸς τὸν τοῦ Γαμαλιήλου Σίμωνα παρακαλέσοντας αὐτὸν πεῖσαι τὸ κοινὸν τῶν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν τὴν ἀρχὴν ἀφελομένους ἐμὲ τῶν Γαλιλαίων αὐτῷ ψηφίσασθαι τὴν ἐξουσίαν τούτων. [191] Ὁ δὲ Σίμων οὗτος ἦν πόλεως μὲν Ἱεροσολύμων, γένους δὲ σφόδρα λαμπροῦ, τῆς δὲ Φαρισαίων αἱρέσεως, οἳ περὶ τὰ πάτρια νόμιμα δοκοῦσιν τῶν ἄλλων ἀκριβείᾳ διαφέρειν. [192] Ἦν δ᾽ οὗτος ἀνὴρ πλήρης συνέσεως καὶ λογισμοῦ δυνάμενός τε πράγματα κακῶς κείμενα φρονήσει τῇ ἑαυτοῦ διορθώσασθαι, φίλος τε παλαιὸς τῷ Ἰωάννῃ καὶ συνήθης, πρὸς ἐμὲ δὲ τότε διαφόρως εἶχεν. [193] Δεξάμενος οὖν τὴν παράκλησιν ἔπειθεν τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς Ἄνανον καὶ Ἰησοῦν τὸν τοῦ Γαμαλᾶ τινάς τε τῶν τῆς αὐτῶν στάσεως ἐκείνους ἐκκόπτειν με φυόμενον καὶ μὴ περιιδεῖν ἐπὶ μήκιστον αὐξηθέντα δόξης, συνοίσειν αὐτοῖς λέγων, εἰ τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἀφαιρεθείην· μὴ μέλλειν δὲ παρεκάλει τοὺς περὶ τὸν Ἄνανον, μὴ καὶ φθάσας γνῶναι μετὰ πολλῆς ἐπέλθω τῇ πόλει δυνάμεως. [194] Ὁ μὲν Σίμων ταῦτα συνεβούλευεν· ὁ δὲ ἀρχιερεὺς Ἄνανος οὐ ῥᾴδιον εἶναι τὸ ἔργον ἀπέφαινεν· πολλοὺς γὰρ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ τοῦ πλήθους προεστῶτας μαρτυρεῖν, ὅτι καλῶς ἐγὼ στρατηγῶ· ποιεῖσθαι δὲ κατηγορίαν ἀνδρός, καθ᾽ οὗ μηδὲν λέγειν δύνανται δίκαιον, φαύλων ἔργον εἶναι. 38. 189 But aggrieved at my success, the hatred of John, the son of Levi, grew now more violent, so that he wanted to do away with me by any possible means. So, after fortifying the ramparts of Gischala, his birthplace, 190 he sent his brother Simon and Jonathan, son of Sisenna, and about a hundred soldiers, to Jerusalem, to Simon, Gamaliel's son, to persuade him to get the Jerusalem Council to remove me from commanding the Galileans, and vote to confer that authority upon himself. 191 This Simon was a native of Jerusalem and from a very noble family of the sect of the Pharisees, who are the unrivalled experts in their ancestral laws. 192 He was a man of great wisdom and judgment, brilliant enough to restore public affairs from their bad position. He was John's old friend and companion but had a difference with me. 193 On receiving this request, he persuaded the high priests, Ananus and Jesus the son of Gamala and some others of their party, to clip my wings, and not let me grow to the height of glory, and that it would be for their advantage if I were deprived of the government of Galilee. Ananus and his friends asked them not to delay about the matter, for fear that I should learn their plans and come and attack the city with a large army. 194 This was Simon's advice; but Artanus the high priest showed them that this was hard to do, since many of the high priests and of the leaders of the people testified how well I had behaved as general and that it was a wicked thing to accuse a man in the wrong.
[195] Σίμων δ᾽ ὡς ἤκουσεν ταῦτα παρὰ τοῦ Ἀνάνου, σιωπᾶν μὲν ἐκείνους ἠξίωσεν μηδ᾽ εἰς πολλοὺς ἐκφέρειν τοὺς λόγους αὐτῶν· προνοήσεσθαι γὰρ αὐτὸς ἔφασκεν, ἵνα θᾶττον μετασταθείην ἐκ τῆς Γαλιλαίας· προσκαλεσάμενος δὲ τὸν ἀδελφὸν τοῦ Ἰωάννου προσέταξεν πέμπειν δωρεὰς τοῖς περὶ τὸν Ἄνανον· τάχα γὰρ οὕτως ἔφη πείσειν αὐτοὺς μεταθέσθαι τὰς γνώμας. [196] Καὶ τέλος ἔπραξεν ὁ Σίμων ὃ προύθετο· ὁ γὰρ Ἄνανος καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ τοῖς χρήμασιν διαφθαρέντες συντίθενται τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἐκβαλεῖν με μηδενὸς ἄλλου τῶν κατὰ τὴν πόλιν τοῦτο γινώσκοντος. Καὶ δὴ ἔδοξεν αὐτοῖς πέμπειν ἄνδρας κατὰ γένος μὲν διαφέροντας, τῇ παιδείᾳ δ᾽ ὁμοίους. [197] Ἦσαν δ᾽ αὐτῶν οἱ μὲν δύο δημοτικοί, Ἰωνάθης καὶ Ἀνανίας Φαρισαῖοι τὴν αἵρεσιν, ὁ δὲ τρίτος Γόζορος ἱερατικοῦ γένους, Φαρισαῖος καὶ αὐτός· Σίμων δ᾽ ἐξ ἀρχιερέων νεώτατος ἐκείνων. [198] Τούτους ἐκέλευον ἀφικομένους εἰς τὸ πλῆθος τῶν Γαλιλαίων πυθέσθαι παρ᾽ αὐτῶν τὴν αἰτίαν, δι᾽ ἣν ἐμὲ φιλοῦσιν· εἰ δὲ φαῖεν, ὅτι πόλεως εἴην τῆς Ἱεροσολύμων, καὶ αὐτοὺς ἐξ ἐκείνων λέγειν ὑπάρχειν τοὺς τέσσαρας, εἰ δὲ διὰ τὴν ἐμπειρίαν τῶν νόμων, μηδ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἀγνοεῖν ἔθη τὰ πάτρια φάσκειν, εἰ δ᾽ αὖ διὰ τὴν ἱερωσύνην λέγοιεν ἀγαπᾶν με, καὶ αὐτῶν ἀποκρίνεσθαι δύο ἱερεῖς ὑπάρχειν. 39. 195 When Simon heard this from Ananus, he asked the messengers to keep it secret and not let it come to the hearing of many; he himself would see to have me quickly removed from Galilee. He called for John's brother, and got him to send gifts to Ananus and his friends as a means of persuading them to change their minds. 196 Eventually Simon did achieve his purpose, when, corrupted by bribes, Artanus and his friends agreed to expel me out of Galilee, without telling the rest of the citizens what they were doing. They resolved to send a deputation of men of separate social groups and also of distinguished learning. 197 Two of these, Jonathan and Ananias, were of humble stock, by sect Pharisees; while the third, Jozar, was of priestly stock and also a Pharisee; and Simon, the last of them, was the youngest of the high priests. 198 These were instructed to go to the ordinary Galilean people and ask them the reason for their devotion to me. If they said that it was because I was from Jerusalem, they would answer that all four of them were born there too; and if it was because of my knowledge of their law, that they too were not unacquainted with the customs of their fathers; but if it was because of my priesthood, they should answer that two of them were also priests.
[199] Ταῦθ᾽ ὑποθέμενοι τοῖς περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην τέσσαρας μυριάδας ἀργυρίου διδόασιν αὐτοῖς ἐκ τῶν δημοσίων χρημάτων. [200] Ἐπεὶ δέ τινα Γαλιλαῖον ἤκουσαν Ἰησοῦν ὄνομα περὶ αὐτὸν τάξιν ἑξακοσίων ὁπλιτῶν ἔχειν ἐπιδημοῦντα τοῖς Ἱεροσολύμοις, τότε μεταπεμψάμενοι τοῦτον καὶ τριῶν μηνῶν μισθὸν δόντες ἐκέλευον ἕπεσθαι τοῖς περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην πειθαρχοῦντα αὐτοῖς, καὶ τῶν πολιτῶν δὲ τριακοσίοις ἀνδράσιν δόντες ἀργύριον εἰς τροφὴν τῶν ὅλων προσέταξαν ἀκολουθεῖν τοῖς πρέσβεσιν. [201] Πεισθέντων οὖν αὐτῶν καὶ πρὸς τὴν ἔξοδον εὐτρεπισθέντων ἐξῄεσαν οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην σὺν τούτοις ἐπαγόμενοι καὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν τοῦ Ἰωάννου καὶ ὁπλίτας ἑκατόν, [202] λαβόντες ἐντολὰς παρὰ τῶν πεμψάντων, εἰ μὲν ἑκὼν καταθείμην τὰ ὅπλα, ζῶντα πέμπειν εἰς τὴν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν πόλιν, εἰ δ᾽ ἀντιτασσοίμην, ἀποκτεῖναι μηδὲν δεδιότας· αὐτῶν γὰρ εἶναι τὸ πρόσταγμα. [203] Ἐγεγράφεισαν δὲ καὶ τῷ Ἰωάννῃ πρὸς τὸν κατ᾽ ἐμοῦ πόλεμον ἑτοιμάζεσθαι, τοῖς τε Σέπφωριν καὶ Γάβαρα κατοικοῦσιν καὶ Τιβεριεῦσιν προσέταττον συμμαχίαν τῷ Ἰωάννῃ πέμπειν. 40. 199 When they had briefed Jonathan and his companions they gave them forty thousand silver pieces from public funds. 200 And when they heard of a Galilean named Jesus then staying in Jerusalem, with a band of six hundred soldiers, they sent for him and gave him three months pay to go with Jonathan and his companions and take orders from them. They also assigned three hundred citizens of Jerusalem, with money to maintain them all, sencing them also with the envoys. 201 As soon as this was agreed and they had gotten ready for the march, Jonathan and his companions went out with them, along with John's brother and a hundred soldiers. 202 The command they had from those who sent them was this: If I voluntarily laid down my arms, they should send me alive to Jerusalem, but if I opposed them, to kill me without hesitation, since those were their orders. 203 They also wrote to John to be ready to attack me and ordered the Sepphorites and Gabara and Tiberias to send allies to John.
[204] Ταῦτά μοι τοῦ πατρὸς γράψαντος, ἐξεῖπε δὲ πρὸς αὐτὸν Ἰησοῦς ὁ τοῦ Γαμαλᾶ τῶν ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ βουλῇ γενομένων εἷς, φίλος ὢν καὶ συνήθης ἐμοί, σφόδρα περιήλγησα τούς τε πολίτας οὕτως περὶ ἐμὲ γενομένους ἀχαρίστους ἐπιγνοὺς διὰ φθόνον ἀναιρεθῆναί με προστάξαι, καὶ τῷ τὸν πατέρα διὰ τῶν γραμμάτων πολλά με παρακαλεῖν ἀφικέσθαι πρὸς αὐτόν· ποθεῖν γὰρ ἔφη θεάσασθαι τὸν υἱὸν πρὸ τοῦ τελευτῆσαι. [205] Ταῦτα δὴ πρὸς τοὺς φίλους εἶπον καὶ ὅτι μετὰ τρίτην ἡμέραν καταλιπὼν τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν εἰς τὴν πατρίδα πορευσοίμην. Λύπη δ᾽ ἅπαντας τοὺς κἀκούσαντας κατέσχε παρεκάλουν τε κλαίοντες μὴ ἐγκαταλιπεῖν αὐτοὺς ἀπολουμένους, εἰ τῆς ἐμῆς στρατηγίας ἀποστερηθεῖεν. [206] Οὐ κατανεύοντος δέ μου ταῖς ἱκετείαις αὐτῶν, ἀλλὰ περὶ τῆς ἐμαυτοῦ φροντίζοντος σωτηρίας, δείσαντες οἱ Γαλιλαῖοι, μὴ ἀπελθόντος εὐκαταφρόνητοι τοῖς λῃσταῖς γένοιντο, πέμπουσιν εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν ἅπασαν τοὺς σημανοῦντας τὴν ἐμὴν γνώμην περὶ τῆς ἀπαλλαγῆς. [207] Πολλοὶ δὲ καὶ πανταχόθεν συνήχθησαν, ὡς ἤκουσαν, μετὰ γυναικῶν καὶ τέκνων, οὐ πόθῳ, δοκῶ μοι, τῷ πρὸς ἐμὲ μᾶλλον ἢ τῷ περὶ αὐτῶν δέει τοῦτο πράττοντες· ἐμοῦ γὰρ παραμένοντος πείσεσθαι κακὸν οὐδὲν ὑπελάμβανον. Ἧκον οὖν πάντες εἰς τὸ μέγα πεδίον, ἐν ᾧ διέτριβον· Ἀσωχίς ἐστιν ὄνομα αὐτῷ. 41. 204 My father wrote to me about this, for he heard it from Jesus the son of Gamalas, a friend and companion of mine who was present in that council. I was very troubled that my fellow citizens proved so ungrateful and envious to me, as to order to have me killed, and also at father's earnest request in his letter, that I visit him, as he longed to see his son before he died. 205 I told my friends of these things and that in three days' time I should leave the district and go home. Hearing this, they were all sad and asked me, with tears in their eyes, not to abandon them to their ruin, which they expected if deprived of my leadership. 206 Taking care of my own safety, I did not yield, so dreading that my departure would leave them at the mercy of the brigands, they sent messengers over all Galilee to tell of my intention to leave them. 207 As soon as they heard it, they gathered in large numbers, from all parts, with their wives and children, influenced, I think, less by their affection for me than by their fear for themselves; for they expected to suffer no harm while I remained with them. So they all came into the great plain called Asochis, where I lived.
[208] Διὰ δὲ τῆς νυκτὸς ἐκείνης θαυμάσιον οἷον ὄνειρον ἐθεασάμην· ἐπεὶ γὰρ εἰς κοίτην ἐτραπόμην διὰ τὰ γραφέντα λυπούμενος καὶ τεταραγμένος, [209] ἔδοξά τινα λέγειν ἐπιστάντα μοι, "παῦσαι τὴν ψυχήν, ὦ οὗτος, ἀλγῶν, παντὸς δ᾽ ἀπαλλάσσου φόβου· τὰ γὰρ λυποῦντά σε μέγιστον ποιήσει καὶ ἐν πᾶσιν εὐτυχέστατον, κατορθώσεις δ᾽ οὐ μόνον ταῦτα, ἀλλὰ καὶ πολλὰ ἕτερα. Μὴ κάμνε δή, [210] μέμνησο δ᾽ ὅτι καὶ Ῥωμαίοις δεῖ σε πολεμῆσαι." Τοῦτον δὲ τὸν ὄνειρον θεασάμενος διανίσταμαι καταβῆναι προθυμούμενος εἰς τὸ πεδίον. Πρὸς δὲ τὴν ἐμὴν ὄψιν πᾶν τὸ πλῆθος τῶν Γαλιλαίων, ἦσαν δ᾽ ἐν αὐτοῖς γυναῖκές τε καὶ παῖδες, ἐπὶ στόμα ῥίψαντες ἑαυτοὺς καὶ δακρύοντες ἱκέτευον μὴ σφᾶς ἐγκαταλιπεῖν τοῖς πολεμίοις, μηδ᾽ ἀπελθεῖν ἐάσαντα τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν ἐνύβρισμα τοῖς ἐχθροῖς ἐσομένην. [211] Ὡς δὲ ταῖς δεήσεσιν οὐκ ἔπειθον, κατηνάγκαζον ὅρκοις μένειν παρ᾽ ἑαυτοῖς ἐλοιδοροῦντό τε τῷ δήμῳ πολλὰ τῶν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν ὡς εἰρηνεύεσθαι τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν οὐκ ἐῶντι. 42. 208 That very night I saw in my dreams a wonderful vision. When I had gone to my bed, grieved and troubled at the news in the letter, 209 it seemed to me that someone stood near me, who said, "Man, stop afflicting your soul and put away all fear; for what now grieves you will render you great and prosperous in all things; for you shall succeed not only in these difficulties, but in many others. So do not fret, but remember that you are to fight even the Romans." 210 Heartened by this dream, I got up, intending to go down to the plain. When the whole crowd of the Galileans, with the women and children, saw me, they fell down on their faces, and begged me with tears not to leave them open to their enemies, nor go away and let their country be harmed by them. 211 When their pleas failed, they urged me with oaths to stay with them, and they bitterly reproached the people of Jerusalem, for not letting their country enjoy peace.
[212] Ταῦτα δὴ καὶ ἐπακούων αὐτῶν καὶ βλέπων τοῦ πλήθους τὴν κατήφειαν ἐκλάσθην πρὸς ἔλεον, ἄξιον εἶναι νομίζων ὑπὲρ τοσούτου πλήθους καὶ προδήλους κινδύνους ὑπομένειν. Κατανεύω δὴ μένειν, καὶ πεντακισχιλίους ἐξ αὐτῶν ὁπλίτας ἥκειν κελεύσας ἔχοντας ἑαυτοῖς τροφὰς ἐπὶ τὰς οἰκήσεις διαφῆκα τοὺς ἄλλους. [213] Ἐπεὶ δὲ οἱ πεντακισχίλιοι παρεγένοντο, τούτους ἀναλαβὼν καὶ τρισχιλίους τοὺς σὺν ἐμαυτῷ στρατιώτας, ἱππεῖς δ᾽ ὀγδοήκοντα, τὴν πορείαν εἰς Χαβωλὼ κώμην Πτολεμαΐδος μεθόριον οὖσαν ἐποιησάμην, κἀκεῖ τὰς δυνάμεις συνεῖχον ἑτοιμάζεσθαι σκηπτόμενος ἐπὶ τὸν πρὸς Πλάκιδον πόλεμον. [214] Ἀφίκετο δ᾽ οὗτος μετὰ δύο σπειρῶν πεζοῦ στρατεύματος καὶ ἱππέων ἴλης μιᾶς ὑπὸ Κεστίου Γάλλου πεμφθείς, ἵν᾽ ἐμπρήσῃ τὰς κώμας τῶν Γαλιλαίων, αἳ πλησίον ἦσαν Πτολεμαΐδος. Βαλλομένου δ᾽ ἐκείνου χάρακα πρὸ τῆς Πτολεμαέων πόλεως τίθεμαι κἀγὼ στρατόπεδον τῆς κώμης ὅσον ἑξήκοντα σταδίους ἀποσχών. [215] Πολλάκις μὲν οὖν τὰς δυνάμεις προηγάγομεν ὡς εἰς μάχην, πλέον δ᾽ οὐδὲν ἀκροβολισμῶν ἐπράξαμεν· ὁ γὰρ Πλάκιδος ὅσῳπερ ἐγίνωσκεν σπεύδοντά με πρὸς μάχην αὐτὸς καταπληττόμενος ὑπεστέλλετο· τῆς μέντοι Πτολεμαΐδος οὐκ ἐχωρίζετο. 43. 212 Hearing this and seeing the people's dejection, I was moved to pity them and thought it right for me to take even significant risks for the sake of so large a group. So I indicated I would stay with them, and then ordered five thousand of them to come to me with weapons and provisions, sending the rest away home. 213 When those five thousand arrived, taking them along with three thousand of the soldiers that I had already and eighty horsemen, I marched to the village of Chabolo, situated in the borders of Ptolemais and gathered my forces there, pretending to get ready to fight with Placidus. 214 He had arrived with two cohorts of infantry and one troop of horsemen, sent there by Cestius Gallus to burn the Galilean villages that were near Ptolemais. As he was building a blocade before the city of the Ptolemies, I also encamped about sixty furlongs from the village. 215 Now we often brought out our forces as if to fight, but proceeded no further than shooting from a distance; for the more Placidus saw me willing to fight him, the more he was alarmed and avoided it, yet he did not move away from Ptolemais.

Chapter 9. Various plots to depose Josephus

[216] Κατὰ τοῦτον δὲ τὸν καιρὸν ἀφικόμενος Ἰωνάθης μετὰ τῶν συμπρέσβεων, ὧν ἔφαμεν ἐκ τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων ὑπὸ τῶν περὶ Σίμωνα καὶ Ἄνανον τὸν ἀρχιερέα πεπέμφθαι, λαβεῖν δι᾽ ἐνέδρας ἐπεβούλευεν· φανερῶς γὰρ ἐπιχειρεῖν οὐκ ἐτόλμα. [217] Γράφει δὲ πρός με τοιαύτην ἐπιστολήν· "Ἰωνάθης καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ πεμφθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν Ἰωσήπῳ χαίρειν. Ἡμεῖς ὑπὸ τῶν ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις πρώτων ἀκουσάντων τὸν ἀπὸ Γισχάλων Ἰωάννην ἐπιβεβουλευκέναι σοι πολλάκις ἐπέμφθημεν ἐπιπλήξοντες αὐτῷ καὶ παραινέσοντες εἰς τὸ λοιπὸν ὑπακούειν σοι. [218] Βουλεύσασθαι δὲ σὺν σοὶ θέλοντες περὶ τῶν κοινῇ πρακτέων παρακαλοῦμεν ἥκειν θᾶττον πρὸς ἡμᾶς μὴ μετὰ πολλῶν· οὐδὲ γὰρ ἡ κώμη δύναιτ᾽ ἂν στρατιωτῶν πλῆθος ἐπιδέξασθαι." [219] Ταῦτα δ᾽ ἔγραφον προσδοκῶντες δυοῖν θάτερον, ἢ ὅτι χωρὶς ὅπλων ἀφικόμενον πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἕξουσιν ὑποχείριον, ἢ πολλοὺς ἐπαγόμενον κρινοῦσι πολέμιον. [220] Ἧκεν δέ μοι τὴν ἐπιστολὴν ἱππεὺς κομίζων θρασὺς ἄλλως νεανίας τῶν παρὰ βασιλεῖ ποτε στρατευσαμένων. Ἧν δ᾽ ὥρα νυκτὸς ἤδη δευτέρα, καθ᾽ ἣν ἐτύγχανον μετὰ τῶν φίλων καὶ τῶν τῆς Γαλιλαίας πρώτων ἑστιώμενος. [221] Οὗτος δὴ προσαγγείλαντος οἰκέτου μοι ἥκειν τινὰ ἱππέα Ἰουδαῖον, εἰσκληθεὶς ἐμοῦ κελεύσαντος ἠσπάσατο μὲν οὐδ᾽ ὅλως, τὴν δὲ ἐπιστολὴν προτείνας, "ταύτην, εἶπεν, οἱ ἐξ Ἱεροσολύμων ἥκοντες πεπόμφασί σοι. Γράφε δὴ τάχιστα καὶ σύ· καὶ γὰρ ἐπείγομαι πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὑποστρέφειν." 44. 216 About this time Jonathan and his fellow legates arrived. They were sent, as I said, by Simon and Ananus the high priest. and Jonathan sought to catch me by treachery, not daring to attack me openly. 217 So he wrote me the following letter: "Jonathan and those sent with him by the people of Jerusalem to Josephus, greeting. We are sent by the authorities in Jerusalem, who have heard that John of Gischala has often conspired against you, to reprimand him and urge him to be subject to you in future. 218 Wishing to consult with you about our common concerns and what should be done, we want you to come to us quickly with only a few attendants; for this village cannot receive a troop of soldiers." 219 So they wrote, expecting one of two things; either that I would come without soldiers and then they would have me in their grasp; or, if I came with a large force, they would condemn me as a public enemy. 220 Now a horseman brought the letter, a bold young man who had formerly soldiered under the king. It was the second hour of the night that he came, when I was dining with my friends and the leaders of Galilee. 221 When my servant announced the arrival of a horseman from Judea, he was called in at my command, and without any word of greeting held out a letter and said, "Those from Jerusalem have sent you this letter; write your reply quickly; for I must return to them soon."
[222] Οἱ μὲν οὖν κατακείμενοι τὴν τοῦ στρατιώτου τόλμαν ἐθαύμασαν, ἐγὼ δὲ καθέζεσθαι παρεκάλουν καὶ συνδειπνεῖν ἡμῖν. Ἀρνησαμένου δὲ τὴν μὲν ἐπιστολὴν μετὰ χεῖρας εἶχον ὡς ἐδεξάμην, πρὸς δὲ τοὺς φίλους περὶ πραγμάτων ἑτέρων τὴν ὁμιλίαν ἐποιούμην. [223] Μετ᾽ οὐ πολλὴν δ᾽ ὥραν ἐξαναστὰς καὶ τοὺς μὲν ἄλλους ἀπολύσας ἐπὶ κοίτην, τέσσαρας δέ μοι μόνον τῶν ἀναγκαίων φίλων προσμεῖναι κελεύσας καὶ τῷ παιδὶ προστάξας οἶνον ἑτοιμάσαι, τὴν ἐπιστολὴν ἀναπτύξας μηδενὸς ἐμβλέποντος κἀξ αὐτῆς ταχὺ συνεὶς τὴν τῶν γεγραμμένων ἐπίνοιαν, πάλιν αὐτὴν ἐσημηνάμην. [224] Καὶ ὡς μὴ προανεγνωκώς, ἀλλὰ μετὰ χεῖρας αὐτὴν ἔχων, προσέταξα τῷ στρατιώτῃ δραχμὰς εἴκοσι ἐφόδιον δοθῆναι. Τοῦ δὲ λαβόντος καὶ χάριν ἔχειν φήσαντος συνεὶς τὴν αἰσχροκέρδειαν αὐτοῦ καὶ ὡς ταύτῃ μάλιστά ἐστιν ἁλώσιμος, "ἀλλ᾽ εἰ συμπιεῖν ἡμῖν, ἔφην, θελήσειας, λήψει κατὰ κύαθον δραχμὴν μίαν." Ὁ δ᾽ ἄσμενος ὑπήκουσεν, [225] καὶ πολὺν τὸν οἶνον προσφερόμενος ὑπὲρ τοῦ πλέον λαβεῖν τὸ ἀργύριον καὶ μεθυσθεὶς οὐκέτι τὰ ἀπόρρητα στέγειν ἐδύνατο, ἀλλ᾽ ἔφραζεν οὐκ ἐρωτώμενος τήν τε συνεσκευασμένην ἐπιβουλὴν καὶ ὡς κατεψηφισμένος εἴην θάνατον παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς. 222 My guests were amazed at the soldier's impudence, but I asked him to sit down and sup with us. When he refused, I kept the letter in my hands as I received it and continued the conversation with my guests about other matters. 223 Not long after, I got up and sending the others to their beds, I had four of my closest friends stay and while ordering my servant to prepare some wine, I opened the letter in such a way that nobody could notice; and quickly grasping its import, I sealed it up again. 224 Seeming not to have read it, and merely holding it in my hands, I ordered that twenty drachmae be given to the soldier for travelling expenses; and when he took the money and thanked me for it, I noticed his love of money and that he could be caught chiefly by means of it. I said to him, "If you will just drink with us, you shall have a drachma for each glass [you drink
." 225 He gladly agreed and, in order to make more money, drank a lot of wine and got so drunk that at last he could not keep his secrets, but blurted out without being questioned, how a plot had been hatched and that I was sentenced to death by them. Hearing this, I wrote back as follows:
[226] Ταῦτ᾽ ἀκούσας ἀντιγράφω τὸν τρόπον τοῦτον· "Ἰώσηπος Ἰωνάθῃ καὶ τοῖς σὺν αὐτῷ χαίρειν. Ἐρρωμένους ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν ἥκειν πυθόμενος ἥδομαι, μάλιστα δ᾽ ὅτι δυνήσομαι παραδοὺς ὑμῖν τὴν τῶν ἐνθάδε πραγμάτων ἐπιμέλειαν εἰς τὴν πατρίδα πορευθῆναι· τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ πάλαι ποιεῖν ἤθελον. [227] Ἔδει μὲν οὖν μὴ μόνον εἰς Ξαλὼθ παραγενέσθαι με πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ἀλλὰ πόρρω καὶ μηδὲ κελευσάντων, συγγνώμης δὲ τυχεῖν ἀξιῶ μὴ δυνάμενος τοῦτο ποιῆσαι παραφυλάσσων ἐν Χαβωλὼ Πλάκιδον εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν ἀναβῆναι δι᾽ ἐννοίας ἔχοντα. Ἥκετε οὖν ὑμεῖς πρός με τὴν ἐπιστολὴν ἀναγνόντες. Ἔρρωσθε." 226 "Josephus to Jonathan and his colleagues, greetings. I am glad to hear that you have come in good health to Galilee, especially since I can now hand over to you the care of public affairs here, and return home. 227 This is what I have wanted for a long while. Even without your command, I ought to have come to greet you, not only as far as Xaloth, but even further. But please excuse me that I cannot do so now, since I am here at Chabolo keeping watch on Placidus, who is planning to come up into Galilee. Therefore, when you receive this letter, come here to me. Farewell."
[228] Ταῦτα γράψας δοὺς τῷ στρατιώτῃ φέρειν συνεξέπεμψα τριάκοντα τῶν Γαλιλαίων δοκιμωτάτους, ὑποθέμενος αὐτοῖς ἀσπάσασθαι μὲν ἐκείνους, ἕτερον δὲ μηδὲν λέγειν. Ἔταξα δὲ καθ᾽ ἕκαστον αὐτῶν πιστῶν ὁπλιτῶν ἕνα παραφυλάξοντα, μή τις τοῖς πεμφθεῖσιν ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ πρὸς τοὺς περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην ὁμιλία γένηται. [229] Καὶ οἱ μὲν ἐπορεύθησαν. Οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην τῆς πρώτης πείρας ἁμαρτόντες ἑτέραν ἐπιστολήν μοι τοιαύτην ἔπεμψαν· "Ἰωνάθης καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ Ἰωσήπῳ χαίρειν. Παραγγέλλομέν σοι χωρὶς ὁπλιτῶν εἰς τρίτην παραγενέσθαι πρὸς ἡμᾶς εἰς Γαβαρὼθ κώμην, ἵνα διακούσωμεν τῶν πρὸς Ἰωάννην ἐγκλημάτων σοι γεγονότων." Ταῦτα γράψαντες καὶ ἀσπασάμενοι τοὺς Γαλιλαίους, [230] οὓς πεπόμφειν, ἀφίκοντο εἰς Ἰαφὰν κώμην μεγίστην οὖσαν τῶν ἐν τῇ Γαλιλαίᾳ, τείχεσιν ὀχυρωτάτην καὶ πολλῶν οἰκητόρων μεστήν. Ὑπηντίαζεν δὲ τὸ πλῆθος αὐτοὺς μετὰ γυναικῶν καὶ τέκνων καὶ κατεβόων κελεύοντες ἀπιέναι καὶ μὴ φθονεῖν αὐτοῖς ἀγαθοῦ τοῦ στρατηγοῦ. [231] Παρηρεθίζοντο δὲ ταῖς φωναῖς οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην, καὶ φανεροῦν μὲν τὴν ὀργὴν οὐκ ἐτόλμων, οὐκ ἀξιώσαντες δ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἀποκρίσεως εἰς τὰς ἄλλας κώμας ἐπορεύοντο. Ὅμοιαι δ᾽ ὑπήντων αὐτοῖς παρὰ πάντων αἱ καταβοήσεις μεταπείσειν αὐτοὺς βοώντων οὐδένα περὶ τοῦ μὴ στρατηγὸν ἔχειν Ἰώσηπον. [232] Ἄπρακτοι δὲ παρὰ τούτων ἀπελθόντες οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην εἰς Σέπφωριν μεγίστην τῶν ἐν τῇ Γαλιλαίᾳ πόλιν ἀφικνοῦνται. Οἱ δ᾽ ἐντεῦθεν ἄνθρωποι πρὸς Ῥωμαίους ταῖς γνώμαις ἀποβλέποντες, ἐκείνοις μὲν ὑπήντων, ἐμὲ δὲ οὔτε ἐπῄνουν οὔτ᾽ ἐβλασφήμουν. [233] Παρὰ δὲ Σεπφωριτῶν εἰς Ἀσωχὶν καταβάντες οἱ ἐντεῦθεν παραπλησίως τοῖς Ἰαφηνοῖς κατεβόων αὐτῶν. Οἱ δὲ τὴν ὀργὴν οὐκέτι κατασχόντες κελεύουσιν τοῖς μετ᾽ αὐτῶν ὁπλίταις τύπτειν ξύλοις τοὺς καταβοῶντας. Κατὰ Γάβαρα δὲ γενομένους ὑπαντιάζει μετὰ τρισχιλίων ὁπλιτῶν ὁ Ἰωάννης. [234] Ἐγὼ δ᾽ ἐκ τῆς ἐπιστολῆς ἤδη συνεικώς, ὅτι διεγνώκασι πρός με πολεμεῖν, ἀναστὰς ἀπὸ Χαβώλων μετὰ τρισχιλίων ὁπλιτῶν, καταλιπὼν ἐν τῷ στρατοπέδῳ τὸν πιστότατον τῶν φίλων εἰς Ἰωτάπατα παρεγενόμην πλησίον αὐτῶν εἶναι βουλόμενος ὅσον ἀπὸ τεσσαράκοντα σταδίων, καὶ γράφω πρὸς αὐτοὺς τάδε· [235] "εἰ πάντως με πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐλθεῖν βούλεσθε, διακόσιαι καὶ τέσσαρες κατὰ τὴν Γαλιλαίαν εἰσὶν πόλεις καὶ κῶμαι. Τούτων εἰς ἣν θελήσετε παραγενήσομαι χωρὶς Γαβάρων καὶ Γισχάλων· ἡ μὲν γὰρ πατρίς ἐστιν Ἰωάννου, ἡ δὲ σύμμαχος αὐτῷ καὶ φίλη." 45. 228 After writing this and giving it to the soldier to deliver, I sent with him thirty of the most prominent Galileans to greet those envoys, but to say nothing else to them. To each of them I assigned a trustworthy soldier, to watch and see that those I had sent had no conversation with Jonathan's people. 229 So they went off, and when Jonathan's party had failed in their first attempt, they sent me another letter, along these lines: "Jonathan and his companions, to Josephus, greetings. We require you to come to us without military escort, to the village of Gabaroth within three days, that we may hear your accusations against John." 230 After they wrote this letter, they greeted the Galileans I had sent and came to Japha, the largest village of all Galilee, which was surrounded by very strong walls and had a large population. There the people, including wives and children, met them and shouted at them to be gone and not begrudge them their excellent general. 231 Though irritated by these protests, Jonathan's group dared not show their anger openly, so they made no answer but went on to other villages. But the same protests met them from all the people, who roared that no one could persuade them to have any other general but Josephus. 232 So Jonathan's group left them without success and came to Sepphoris, the greatest city of all Galilee. The men of that city, whose preference inclined to the Romans, did indeed meet them, but neither praised nor reproached me. 233 When they went down from Sepphoris to Asochis, the people of that place shouted against them, as those of Japha had done. Unable to restrain themselves any longer, they told the soldiers with them to beat the protesters with their clubs. On their arrival at Gabara, John met them with three thousand soldiers. 234 Knowing from their letter that they had resolved to attack me, and wishing to be near to them, I left behind in my camp one of my firmest friends and set out from Chabolo with three thousand soldiers, and came to Jotapata, no more than forty furlongs away. Then I wrote to them as follows: 235 "If you seriously want me to come to you, you know there are two hundred and forty cities and villages in Galilee; I will come to any of them you please, except Gabara and Gischala, as one of them is John's native city and the other is in alliance and friendship with him."
[236] Ταῦτα τὰ γράμματα λαβόντες οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην οὐκέτι μὲν ἀντιγράφουσιν· συνέδριον δὲ τῶν φίλων καθίσαντες καὶ τὸν Ἰωάννην παραλαβόντες ἐβουλεύοντο, τίνα τρόπον ἐπιχειρήσωσί μοι. [237] Καὶ Ἰωάννῃ μὲν ἐδόκει γράφειν πρὸς πάσας τὰς ἐν τῇ Γαλιλαίᾳ πόλεις καὶ κώμας, εἶναι γὰρ ἐν ἑκάστῃ πάντως ἕνα γοῦν καὶ δεύτερον διάφορον ἐμοί, καὶ καλεῖν τούτους ὡς ἐπὶ πολέμιον ἐκελεύετο πέμπειν τὸ δόγμα τοῦτο καὶ εἰς τὴν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν πόλιν, ἵνα κἀκεῖνοι γνόντες ὑπὸ τῶν Γαλιλαίων κεκρίσθαι με πολέμιον καὶ αὐτοὶ ψηφίσωνται· γενομένου γὰρ τούτου καὶ τοὺς εὔνως ἔχοντάς μοι Γαλιλαίους ἐγκαταλείψειν ἔφη φοβηθέντας. [238] Ταῦτα συμβουλεύσαντος Ἰωάννου σφόδρα καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἤρεσεν τὰ λεχθέντα. [239] Περὶ δ᾽ ὥραν τῆς νυκτὸς τρίτην εἰς γνῶσιν ἧκέ μοι ταῦτα, Σακχαίου τῶν σὺν αὐτοῖς τινος αὐτομολήσαντος πρός με καὶ τὴν ἐπιχείρησιν αὐτῶν ἀπαγγείλαντος· οὐκέτι δὴ δεῖν ὑπερτίθεσθαι τὸν καιρόν. [240] Ἄξιον δὲ κρίνας Ἰάκωβον ὁπλίτην τῶν περὶ ἐμὲ πιστὸν κελεύω διακοσίους ὁπλίτας λαβόντα φρουρεῖν τὰς ἀπὸ Γαβάρων εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν ἐξόδους, καὶ τοὺς παριόντας συλλαμβάνοντα πρὸς ἐμὲ πέμπειν, μάλιστα δὲ τοὺς μετὰ γραμμάτων ἁλισκομένους· [241] Ἰερεμίαν δὲ καὶ αὐτὸν ἐκ τῶν φίλων μου μεθ᾽ ἑξακοσίων ὁπλιτῶν εἰς τὴν μεθόριον τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἔπεμψα τὰς ἀπὸ ταύτης εἰς τὴν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν πόλιν ὁδοὺς παραφυλάξοντα, πρόσταγμα δοὺς κἀκείνῳ τοὺς μετ᾽ ἐπιστολῶν ὁδεύοντας συλλαμβάνειν καὶ τοὺς μὲν ἄνδρας ἐν δεσμοῖς ἐπὶ τόπου φυλάττειν, τὰ δὲ γράμματα πρὸς ἐμὲ διαπέμπειν. 46. 236 When Jonathan and his group received this letter, they wrote me no more replies but summoned a meeting of their friends including John, and planned together how to lay hands upon me. 237 John held that they should write to every city and village in Galilee, for in each there must be certainly one or two whose views differed from mine, who could be called upon to oppose me as an enemy. He wanted them to send this decree to the citizens of Jerusalem, that seeing me judged an enemy by the Galileans, they should confirm that decree. When this happened, even my Galilean supporters would desert me out of fear. 238 This counsel of John's was well received by the others. 239 News of these matters reached me about the third hour of the night, through Saccheus, who had been on their side but now deserted them and came over to me and told me their plans and said that there was no time to be lost. 240 So I told Jacob, a soldier of my bodyguard, whom I deemed faithful to me, to take two hundred men and guard the routes leading from Gabara to Galilee and to seize all who came through and send them to me, especially if they were carrying letters. 241 I also sent another of my friends, Jeremias, with six hundred soldiers, to the borders of Galilee, to watch the roads leading from that district to Jerusalem, with orders to arrest any who travelled carrying letters, to imprison the men where they were but to send me the letters.
[242] Ταῦτα τοῖς πεμπομένοις ἐντειλάμενος Γαλιλαίοις διήγγειλα κελεύων εἰς τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν ἀναλαβόντας τὰ ὅπλα καὶ τριῶν ἡμερῶν τροφὴν εἰς Γαβαρὼθ κώμην παραγενέσθαι πρός με. Τῶν δὲ περὶ ἐμὲ ὁπλιτῶν μοίρας τέτταρας νείμας τοὺς πιστοτάτους αὐτῶν περὶ τὴν τοῦ σώματος φυλακὴν ἔταξα, ταξιάρχους αὐτοῖς ἐπιστήσας καὶ φροντίζειν κελεύσας ὑπὲρ τοῦ μηδένα στρατιώτην ἄγνωστον αὐτοῖς συναναμίγνυσθαι. [243] Τῇ δ᾽ ἐπιούσῃ περὶ πέμπτην ὥραν ἐν Γαβαρὼθ γενόμενος εὑρίσκω πᾶν τὸ πεδίον τὸ πρὸ τῆς κώμης ὁπλιτῶν πλῆρες τῶν ἐκ τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἐπὶ τὴν συμμαχίαν παρόντων, ὡς αὐτοῖς παρηγγέλκειν· πολὺς δὲ καὶ ἄλλος ἐκ τῶν κωμῶν ὄχλος συνέτρεχεν. [244] Ἐπεὶ δὲ καταστὰς εἰς αὐτοὺς λέγειν ἠρξάμην, ἐβόων ἅπαντες εὐεργέτην καὶ σωτῆρα τῆς χώρας αὐτῶν καλοῦντες. Κἀγὼ χάριν αὐτοῖς ἔχειν ὁμολογήσας συνεβούλευον πρὸς μηδένα μήτε πολεμεῖν μήτε ἁρπαγῇ μολύνειν τὰς χεῖρας, ἀλλὰ σκηνοῦν κατὰ τὸ πεδίον ἀρκουμένους τοῖς ἑαυτῶν ἐφοδίοις· θέλειν γὰρ ἔφασκον τὰς ταραχὰς χωρὶς φόνων καταστεῖλαι. [245] Συνέβη δ᾽ αὐθημερὸν εἰς τὰς ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ κατασταθείσας τῶν ὁδῶν φυλακὰς τοὺς παρὰ τοῦ Ἰωνάθου πεμφθέντας μετὰ τῶν ἐπιστολῶν ἐμπεσεῖν. Καὶ οἱ μὲν ἄνδρες ἐφυλάχθησαν ἐπὶ τῶν τόπων, ὡς παρήγγειλα, τοῖς δὲ γράμμασιν ἐντυχὼν πλήρεσι βλασφημιῶν καὶ ψευσμάτων, οὐδενὶ ταῦτα φράσας ὁρμᾶν ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς διενοούμην. 47. 242 After giving them these orders, I sent to the Galileans to join me the next day, bringing their weapons and food for three days. I separated my company into four parts and assigned those that were most faithful to me as my bodyguard, and I set officers over them, with orders that no soldier whom they did not know should be let mix with them. 243 Reaching Gabaroth about the fifth hour of the following day, I found the entire plain in front of the village full of soldiers, who had come from Galilee to help me, and many others were hurrying in from the villages. 244 When I stood up and began to address them, they greeted me with acclamations, calling me the benefactor and saviour of their country. I thanked them and advised them not to attack anybody, nor to soil their hands with looting, but to camp in the plain and be content with their rations; for I said that my wish was to settle these troubles without bloodshed. 245 Now on that very day the guards whom I had appointed to watch the roads captured some letter-bearers sent by John. The men themselves were arrested on the spot, as I had ordered, but when I got the letters, which were full of reproaches and lies, without saying a word of them to anybody, I planned to proceed against them.
[246] Ἀκούσαντες δὲ οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην περὶ τῆς ἐμῆς ἀφίξεως τοὺς ἰδίους πάντας ἀναλαβόντες καὶ τὸν Ἰωάννην ὑπεχώρησαν εἰς τὴν Ἰησοῦ οἰκίαν· βᾶρις δ᾽ ἦν αὕτη μεγάλη καὶ οὐδὲν ἀκροπόλεως ἀποδέουσα. Κρύψαντες οὖν λόχον ὁπλιτῶν ἐν αὐτῇ καὶ τὰς ἄλλας ἀποκλείσαντες θύρας, μίαν δὲ ἀνοίξαντες, προσεδόκων ἥκειν ἐκ τῆς ὁδοῦ με πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἀσπασόμενον. [247] Καὶ δὴ διδόασιν ἐντολὰς τοῖς ὁπλίταις, ἐπειδὰν παραγένωμαι, μόνον εἰσελθεῖν ἐᾶσαι τοὺς ἄλλους ἀπείρξαντας· οὕτως γὰρ ᾤοντό με γενήσεσθαι ῥᾳδίως αὐτοῖς ὑποχείριον. [248] Ἐψεύσθησαν δὲ τῆς ἐλπίδος· ἐγὼ γὰρ τὴν ἐπιβουλὴν προαισθόμενος, ὡς ἐκ τῆς ὁδοῦ παρεγενόμην καταλύσας ἄντικρυς αὐτῶν καθεύδειν ἐσκηπτόμην. [249] Καὶ οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην ὑπολαμβάνοντες ὄντως ἀναπαύεσθαί με καθυπνωμένον ὥρμησαν καταβάντες εἰς τὸ πλῆθος μεταπείθειν αὐτοὺς ὡς ἐμοῦ κακῶς στρατηγοῦντος. [250] Τἀναντία δὲ αὐτοῖς συνέπεσεν· ὀφθέντων γὰρ εὐθὺς ἐγένετο βοὴ παρὰ τῶν Γαλιλαίων πρὸς ἐμὲ τὸν στρατηγὸν εὐνοίας ἀξία, κατάμεμψίν τε ἐποιοῦντο τῶν περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην, ὅτι πάρεισιν οὐδὲν μὲν αὐτοὶ κακὸν προπεπονθότες, ἀνατρέψοντες δὲ τὰ ἐκείνων πράγματα, καὶ παρεκελεύοντο ἀπιέναι· μὴ γὰρ ἄν ποτε μεταπεισθῆναι προστάτην ἕτερον ἀντ᾽ ἐμοῦ λαβεῖν. [251] Τούτων ἀπαγγελθέντων μοι προελθεῖν εἰς μέσους οὐκ ὤκνησα. Κατέβαινον οὖν εὐθέως, αὐτὸς τί λέγουσιν οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην ἀκουσόμενος. Προελθόντος δέ μου κρότος παρὰ παντὸς τοῦ πλήθους εὐθὺς ἦν καὶ μετ᾽ εὐφημιῶν ἐπιβοήσεις χάριν ἔχειν ὁμολογούντων τῇ 'μῇ στρατηγίᾳ. 48. 246 When Jonathan's group heard of my arrival, they retreated with John to the residence of Jesus, a large castle like a citadel. Here they hid a band of soldiers and locked all the doors except one which they kept open, waiting for me to come to greet them after my journey. 247 They had ordered the soldiers to let nobody come in but me, excluding all others; so they expected to have me easily at their mercy. 248 But their hopes were disappointed, for I saw their plot and at the end of my march took up lodgings across the road, and pretended to go to sleep there. 249 Jonathan and his party, thinking me really asleep and at rest, hastened to go down into the open, to persuade the people that I was a bad governor. 250 But the matter proved otherwise; for as soon as they appeared, the Galileans shouted out their good opinion of me as their governor; they criticised Jonathan and his partners for coming to them unprovoked, to throw their affairs into disorder, and ordered them to leave, as they were determined to accept no other ruler but myself. 251 When I heard this, I no longer hesitated to go down but immediately went to hear what Jonathan's group had to say. At my appearance, the whole crowd acclaimed me and shouted my praises, expressing gratitude for my leadership.
[252] Ταῦτα δ᾽ οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην ἀκούοντες ἐφοβήθησαν, μὴ καὶ κινδυνεύσωσιν ἀποθανεῖν ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς ὁρμησάντων τῶν Γαλιλαίων κατὰ τὴν πρὸς ἐμὲ χάριν· δρασμὸν οὖν ἐπενόουν. Μὴ δυνηθέντες δὲ ἀπελθεῖν, προσμεῖναι γὰρ αὐτοὺς ἠξίωσα, κατηφεῖς ἐστησάμενοι τῷ λόγῳ. [253] Προστάξας οὖν τῷ μὲν πλήθει τὰς εὐφημίας ἐπισχεῖν, καὶ τῶν ὁπλιτῶν τοὺς πιστοτάτους ταῖς ὁδοῖς ἐπιστήσας ὑπὲρ τοῦ φρουρεῖν, μὴ ἀπροσδοκήτως ἡμῖν ὁ Ἰωάννης ἐπιπέσῃ, παραινέσας δὲ καὶ τοῖς Γαλιλαίοις ἀναλαβεῖν τὰ ὅπλα, μὴ πρὸς τὴν ἔφοδον τῶν πολεμίων, ἐὰν γένηταί τις αἰφνίδιος ταραχθῶσιν, πρῶτον τῆς ἐπιστολῆς τοὺς περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην ὑπεμίμνησκον, [254] ὃν τρόπον γράψειαν ὑπὸ τοῦ κοινοῦ τῶν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν πεπέμφθαι διαλύσοντές μου τὰς πρὸς τὸν Ἰωάννην φιλονεικίας, ὡς παρακαλέσειάν τέ με πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἀφικέσθαι. [255] Καὶ ταῦτα διεξιὼν τὴν ἐπιστολὴν εἰς μέσους προύτεινον, ἵνα μηδὲν ἀρνήσασθαι δυνηθῶσιν ἐλεγχόντων αὐτοὺς τῶν γραμμάτων. [256] "Καὶ μήν, ἔφην, Ἰωνάθη ὑμεῖς τε οἱ συμπρέσβεις, εἰ πρὸς Ἰωάννην κρινόμενος ὑπὲρ τοῦ παραστῆσαι τὸν ἐμαυτοῦ βίον δύο τινὰς ἢ τρεῖς μάρτυρας καλοὺς κἀγαθοὺς ἤγαγον, δῆλον ὡς ἀνάγκην ἂν εἴχετε προεξετάσαντες καὶ τοὺς τούτων βίους ἀπαλλάξαι με τῶν ἐγκλημάτων. [257] Ἵν᾽ οὖν γνῶτε καλῶς πεπρᾶχθαί μοι τὰ κατὰ τὴν Γαλιλαίαν, τρεῖς μὲν μάρτυρας ὀλίγους εἶναι νομίζω τῷ καλῶς βεβιωκότι, τούτους δὲ πάντας ὑμῖν δίδωμι. [258] Παρὰ τούτων οὖν πύθεσθε, τίνα τρόπον ἐβίωσα, εἰ μετὰ πάσης σεμνότητος καὶ πάσης ἀρετῆς ἐνθάδε πεπολίτευμαι. Καὶ δὴ ὁρκίζω ὑμᾶς, ὦ Γαλιλαῖοι, μηδὲν ἐπικρύψασθαι τῆς ἀληθείας, λέγειν δ᾽ ἐπὶ τούτων ὡς δικαστῶν, εἴ τι μὴ καλῶς πέπρακται." 49. 252 When Jonathan and his companions heard this, they were afraid for their own lives and in danger of being attacked by the Galileans for my sake. They sought a way out but were unable to get away, for I told them to stay, so they had to stand there and listen as I spoke. 253 I told the people to stop their shouting and placed the most faithful of my soldiers at the exits, to guard us against an unexpected attack by John. I encouraged the Galileans to hold their weapons, for fear of being troubled by their enemies, if any sudden attack be made on them. 254 Then I reminded Jonathan and his partners first of all how they had written to me that they were sent by the council of Jerusalem to resolve the differences between me and John and how they had asked me to come to them. 255 As I said this, I publicly showed the letter they had written, so that they could not deny it, with the letter itself as proof against them. 256 Then I said, "Jonathan, and you his fellow-delegates, if I were to be judged in John's presence regarding my behaviour, and only brought here two or three good and true witnesses, it is clear that when you saw their characters, you would have to drop the accusations. 257 Now so that you may be convinced that I have acted well in the affairs of Galilee, I think three witnesses too few to be brought by a man who has done his duty; so I gave you all these people as witnesses. 258 Ask them how I have lived and whether I have not behaved decently and virtuously among them. An I urge you, my Galileans, to hide nothing of the truth, but declare before these men as before judges, whether in anything I have acted otherwise than well."
[259] Ταῦτ᾽ ἔτι λέγοντος κοιναὶ παρὰ πάντων ἐγένοντο φωναὶ καλούντων εὐεργέτην με καὶ σωτῆρα, καὶ περὶ μὲν τῶν πεπραγμένων ἐμαρτύρουν, περὶ δὲ τῶν πραχθησομένων παρεκάλουν, πάντες δ᾽ ὤμνυον ἀνυβρίστους μὲν ἔχειν τὰς γυναῖκας, λελυπῆσθαι δὲ μηδέποτε μηδὲν ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ. [260] Μετὰ τοῦτο δύο τῶν ἐπιστολῶν, ἃς οἱ κατασταθέντες ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ φρουροὶ πεμφθείσας ὑπὸ τῶν περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην ἑλόντες ἀπεστάλκεισαν πρὸς ἐμέ, παρανεγίνωσκον τοῖς Γαλιλαίοις πολλῶν βλασφημιῶν πλήρεις καὶ καταψευδομένας, ὅτι τυραννίδι μᾶλλον ἢ στρατηγίᾳ χρῶμαι κατ᾽ αὐτῶν. [261] Ἕτερά τε πολλὰ πρὸς τούτοις ἐνεγέγραπτο μηδὲν παραλιπόντων ἀναισχύντου ψευδολογίας. Ἔφην δ᾽ ἐγὼ πρὸς τὸ πλῆθος τὰ γράμματα λαβεῖν δόντων ἑκουσίως τῶν κομιζόντων· οὐ γὰρ ἐβουλόμην αὐτοὺς τὰ περὶ τὰς φρουρὰς τοὺς ἐναντίους εἰδέναι, μὴ δείσαντες τοῦ γράφειν ἀποστῶσιν. 50. 259 as I was said this, the people together with one voice called me their benefactor and saviour and attested to my past behaviour and urged me to continue the same in the future. They all swore that their wives had been preserved from harm and that no one had ever suffered injury from me. 260 After this, I read to the Galileans two of the letters sent by Jonathan's group, which those whom I had appointed to guard the highway had taken and sent to me. These were full of reproaches and lies, claiming that I had acted with them more like a tyrant than a governor. 261 There were many other things in them, which were no less than outright lies. I told the people how I came by these letters and that those who carried them handed them over voluntarily; for I did not want my enemies to know I had set a guard, lest they give up writing to me.
[262] Ταῦτ᾽ ἀκοῦσαν τὸ πλῆθος σφόδρα παροξυνθὲν ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην ὥρμα καὶ τοὺς σὺν αὐτῷ συμπαρόντας ὡς διαφθεροῦντες· κἂν ἐπεπράχεισαν τὸ ἔργον, εἰ μὴ τοὺς μὲν Γαλιλαίους ἔπαυσα τῆς ὀργῆς, τοῖς περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην δ᾽ ἔφην συγγινώσκειν τῶν ἤδη πεπραγμένων, εἰ μέλλοιεν μετανοήσειν καὶ πορευθέντες εἰς τὴν πατρίδα λέγοιεν τοῖς πέμψασι τἀληθῆ περὶ τῶν ἐμοὶ πεπολιτευμένων. [263] Ταῦτ᾽ εἰπὼν ἀπέλυον αὐτοὺς καίτοι γιγνώσκων, ὅτι μηδὲν ὧν ὑπέσχοντο ποιήσουσιν. Τὸ πλῆθος δ᾽ εἰς ὀργὴν ἐξεκαίετο κατ᾽ αὐτῶν κἀμὲ παρεκάλουν ἐπιτρέπειν αὐτοῖς τιμωρήσασθαι τοὺς τοιαῦτα τολμήσαντας. [264] Παντοῖος μὲν [οὖν] ἐγινόμην πείθων αὐτοὺς φείσασθαι τῶν ἀνδρῶν· πᾶσαν γὰρ ᾔδειν στάσιν ὄλεθρον οὖσαν τοῦ κοινῇ συμφέροντος· τὸ δὲ πλῆθος ἔσχεν τὴν κατ᾽ αὐτῶν ὀργὴν ἀμετάβλητον, καὶ πάντες ὥρμησαν ἐπὶ τὴν οἰκίαν, ἐν ᾗ κατήγοντο οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην. [265] Ἐγὼ δὲ συνορῶν τὴν ὁρμὴν οὖσαν αὐτῶν ἀνεπίσχετον ἀναπηδήσας ἐφ᾽ ἵππον ἐκέλευσα τοῖς πλήθεσιν πρὸς Σωγάνην κώμην ἕπεσθαι Γαβάρων ἀπέχουσαν εἴκοσι στάδια. Καὶ τοιούτῳ στρατηγήματι χρησάμενος παρέσχον ἐμαυτῷ τὸ μὴ δοκεῖν ἐμφυλίου πολέμου κατάρχειν. 51. 262 Hearing what I said, the people were so angry at Jonathan and his colleagues that they would have attacked and killed them, and this they would certainly have done, if I had not restrained the Galileans' anger and said that I forgave Jonathan's group what was past, if they would repent and go back to their own region and tell those who sent them the truth about my conduct. 263 Saying this I let them go, although knowing well that they would fulfil none of their promises; but the people were enraged at them and begged me to let them punish them for their insolence. 264 I did everything I could to persuade them to spare the men; for I knew that every civil conflict is harmful to the common good. But the crowd was too angry with them to be dissuaded and they all went immediately to the house where Jonathan's group lodged. 265 When I saw that their rage could not be restrained, I got on a horse and ordered the crowds to follow me to the village of Sogane, which was twenty furlongs from Gabara, and in this way I guarded myself against seeming to begin a civil war.
[266] Ἐπεὶ δὲ περὶ τὰς Σωγανέας ἐγενόμην, ἐπιστήσας τὸ πλῆθος καὶ παραινέσει χρησάμενος περὶ τοῦ μὴ πρὸς τὰς ὀργὰς καὶ ταῦτ᾽ ἐπ᾽ ἀνηκέστοις τιμωρίαις ὀξέως φέρεσθαι, κελεύω τοὺς καθ᾽ ἡλικίαν ἤδη προβεβηκότας καὶ πρώτους παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἑκατὸν ἄνδρας ὡς πορευσομένους εἰς τὴν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν πόλιν εὐτρεπίζεσθαι, μέμψιν ποιησομένους ἐπὶ τοῦ δήμου τῶν τὴν χώραν διαστασιαζόντων. [267] "Καὶ ἐὰν ἐπικλασθῶσιν, ἔφην, πρὸς τοὺς λόγους ὑμῶν, παρακαλέσατε τὸ κοινὸν γράψαι πρὸς ἐμὲ μένειν κελεύοντας ἐπὶ τῆς Γαλιλαίας, [268] τοὺς δὲ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην ἀναχωρεῖν ἐκεῖθεν." Ταύτας αὐτοῖς τὰς ὑποθήκας δοὺς ἐναρμοσαμένων τε ταχέως ἐκείνων ἡμέρᾳ τρίτῃ μετὰ τὴν ἐκκλησίαν τὴν ἀποστολὴν ἐποιησάμην, συμπέμψας ὁπλίτας πεντακοσίους. [269] Ἐγραψα δὲ καὶ τοῖς ἐν Σαμαρείᾳ φίλοις προνοήσασθαι τοῦ ἀσφαλῆ γενέσθαι τὴν πορείαν αὐτοῖς· ἤδη γὰρ ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίοις ἦν ἡ Σαμάρεια καὶ πάντως ἔδει τοὺς ταχὺ βουλομένους ἀπελθεῖν δι᾽ ἐκείνης πορεύεσθαι· τρισὶν [γὰρ] ἡμέραις ἀπὸ Γαλιλαίας ἔνεστιν οὕτως εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα καταλῦσαι. [270] Συμπαρέπεμψα δὲ τοὺς πρέσβεις κἀγὼ μέχρι τῶν τῆς Γαλιλαίας ὅρων φύλακας ἐπιστήσας ταῖς ὁδοῖς ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ ῥᾳδίως τινὰ μαθεῖν ἀπαλλαττομένους. Καὶ ταῦτα πράξας ἐν Ἰάφοις τὴν διατριβὴν ἐποιούμην. 52. 266 As I approached Sogane, I got the people to halt and urged them not to be so easily stirred to anger nor to inflict punishments that could not later be recalled. I also commanded that a hundred men, of mature age and prominent among them, should get ready to go to Jerusalem with a complaint against those who were splitting the district into factions. 267 I said, "If they are moved by what you say, ask the council to write to me and with orders to continue in Galilee and orders for Jonathan's group to leave it." 268 When I had given them these instructions and they got ready as fast as they could, the third day after the meeting I sent them on this errand, escorted by five hundred soldiers. 269 I also wrote to my friends in Samaria, to provide them safe passage through the district. For Samaria was already under the Romans and for a rapid transit it was absolutely necessary to pass through there; for by that route you may get from Galilee to Jerusalem in three days. 270 I myself conducted the delegates as far as the borders of Galilee, posting guards on the roads, that it might not be easily known how they had gone. With this done, I settled at Jaffa.
[271] Οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην διαμαρτόντες τῆς κατ᾽ ἐμοῦ πράξεως Ἰωάννην ἀπέλυσαν εἰς τὰ Γίσχαλα, αὐτοὶ δ᾽ εἰς τὴν Τιβεριέων πόλιν πεπόρευντο λήψεσθαι προσδοκῶντες αὐτὴν ὑποχείριον, ἐπειδὴ καὶ Ἰησοῦς κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν τοῦτον ἐγεγράφει πρὸς αὐτοὺς πείσειν ἐπαγγελλόμενος τὸ πλῆθος ἐλθόντας ὑποδέχεσθαι καὶ αὐτοῖς ἑλέσθαι προστεθῆναι. [272] Ἐκεῖνοι μὲν οὖν ἐπὶ τοιαύταις ἐλπίσιν ἀπῆλθον, ἀπαγγέλλει δέ μοι ταῦτα Σίλας διὰ γραμμάτων, ὃν ἔφην τῆς Τιβεριάδος ἐπιμελητὴν καταλελοιπέναι, καὶ σπεύδειν ἠξίου. Κἀγὼ ταχέως ὑπακούσας αὐτῷ καὶ παραγενόμενος εἰς κίνδυνον ἀπωλείας κατέστην ἐξ αἰτίας τοιαύτης. [273] Οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην γενόμενοι παρὰ τοῖς Τιβεριεῦσιν καὶ πολλοὺς πείσαντες ἀποστῆναί μου διαφόρους ὄντας, ὡς ἤκουσαν τὴν ἐμὴν παρουσίαν, δείσαντες περὶ ἑαυτῶν ἧκον πρὸς ἐμέ, καὶ ἀσπασάμενοι μακαρίζειν ἔλεγον οὕτως περὶ τὴν Γαλιλαίαν ἀναστραφέντα, συνήδεσθαί τε διὰ τιμῆς ἀγομένῳ· [274] κόσμον γὰρ ἑαυτῶν εἶναι τὴν ἐμὴν δόξαν ἔφασαν, ὡς ἂν διδασκάλων τέ μου γενομένων καὶ πολιτῶν ὄντων, δικαιοτέραν τε τῆς Ἰωάννου τὴν ἐμὴν πρὸς αὐτοὺς φιλίαν ὑπάρχειν ἔλεγον, καὶ σπεύδειν μὲν εἰς τὴν οἰκείαν ἀπελθεῖν, περιμένειν δ᾽ ἕως ὑποχείριον τὸν Ἰωάννην ἐμοὶ ποιήσωσιν. [275] Καὶ ταῦτα λέγοντες ἐπώμοσαν τοὺς φρικωδεστάτους ὅρκους παρ᾽ ἡμῖν, δι᾽ οὓς ἀπιστεῖν οὐ θεμιτὸν ἡγούμην. Καὶ δὴ παρακαλοῦσίν με τὴν κατάλυσιν ἀλλαχοῦ ποιήσασθαι διὰ τὸ τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν ἡμέραν εἶναι σάββατον· ὀχλεῖσθαι δὲ μὴ δεῖν ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν τὴν πόλιν τῶν Τιβεριέων ἔφασκον. 53. 271 Having failed to accomplish their plan against me, Jonathan's group sent John back to Gischala, but went themselves to Tiberias, expecting it to submit to them, since Jesus, then its governor, had written them a letter, promising that if they came the people would receive them and elect to join them. 272 So they set out with this expectation. But Silas, whom, as I said, I had left in charge of Tiberias, told me of it and asked me to hurry there. I complied immediately with his advice and came there, but found my own life in danger, in this way: 273 Jonathan's group had been at Tiberias and had persuaded many who had differed with me to desert me; but when they heard of my coming, they were feared for themselves and came out to me. After greeting me, they said that I was a fortunate man in having behaved so well in the government of Galilee; and they congratulated me for the honours that were paid me. 274 For they said that my glory was a credit to them, as my teachers and fellow citizens; they also said that it was only just for them to prefer my friendship rather than John's and that they would have immediately gone home, and only stayed in order to hand over John into my power. 275 As they said this they swore to it with oaths of the most fearful kind amongst us, such as I did not think fit to doubt. However, they asked me to lodge somewhere else, because the next day was the Sabbath, when it was not right, they said, to inconvenience the city of the Tiberians.
[276] Κἀγὼ μηδὲν ὑπονοήσας ἐς τὰς Ταριχέας ἀπῆλθον καταλιπὼν ὅμως ἐν τῇ πόλει τοὺς πολυπραγμονήσοντας, τί περὶ ἡμῶν λέγοιτο. Διὰ πάσης δὲ τῆς ὁδοῦ τῆς ἀπὸ Ταριχεῶν εἰς Τιβεριάδα φερούσης ἐπέστησα πολλούς, ἵνα μοι δι᾽ ἀλλήλων σημαίνωσιν ἅπερ ἂν παρὰ τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει καταλειφθέντων πύθωνται. [277] Κατὰ τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν οὖν ἡμέραν συνάγονται πάντες εἰς τὴν προσευχὴν μέγιστον οἴκημα καὶ πολὺν ὄχλον ἐπιδέξασθαι δυνάμενον. Εἰσελθὼν δὲ ὁ Ἰωνάθης φανερῶς μὲν περὶ τῆς ἀποστάσεως οὐκ ἐτόλμα λέγειν, ἔφη δὲ στρατηγοῦ κρείττονος χρείαν τὴν πόλιν αὐτῶν ἔχειν. [278] Ἰησοῦς δ᾽ ὁ ἄρχων οὐδὲν ὑποστειλάμενος ἀναφανδὸν εἶπεν· "Ἄμεινόν ἐστιν, ὦ πολῖται, τέσσαρσιν ἡμᾶς ἀνδράσιν ὑπακούειν ἢ ἑνί, καὶ κατὰ γένος λαμπροῖς καὶ κατὰ σύνεσιν οὐκ ἀδόξοις." Ὑπεδείκνυε δὲ τοὺς περὶ Ἰωνάθην. [279] Ταῦτ᾽ εἰπόντα τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐπῄνει παρελθὼν Ἰοῦστος καί τινας ἐκ τοῦ δήμου συνέπειθεν. Οὐκ ἠρέσκετο δὲ τοῖς λεχθεῖσιν τὸ πλῆθος καὶ πάντως ἂν εἰς στάσιν ἐχώρησαν, εἰ μὴ τὴν σύνοδον διέλυσεν ἐπελθοῦσα ἕκτη ὥρα, καθ᾽ ἣν τοῖς σάββασιν ἀριστοποιεῖσθαι νόμιμόν ἐστιν ἡμῖν, καὶ οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην εἰς τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν ὑπερθέμενοι τὴν βουλὴν ἀπῄεσαν ἄπρακτοι.
[280] Εὐθὺς δέ μοι τούτων ἀπαγγελθέντων πρωῒ διέγνων εἰς τὴν Τιβεριέων πόλιν ἀφικέσθαι, καὶ τῇ ἐπιούσῃ περὶ τὴν ὥραν ἧκον ἀπὸ τῶν Ταριχεῶν, καταλαμβάνω δὲ συναγόμενον ἤδη τὸ πλῆθος εἰς τὴν προσευχήν· ἐφ᾽ ὅ τι δ᾽ ἦν αὐτοῖς ἡ σύνοδος οὐκ ἐγίνωσκον οἱ συλλεγόμενοι. [281] Οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην ἀπροσδοκήτως θεασάμενοί με παρόντα διεταράχθησαν. Εἶτ᾽ ἐπινοοῦσιν διαδοῦναι λόγον, ὅτι Ῥωμαίων ἱππεῖς ἐν τῇ μεθορίῳ πόρρω τριάκοντα σταδίων ἀπὸ τῆς πόλεως κατὰ τόπον λεγόμενον Ὁμόνοιαν εἰσὶν ἑωραμένοι. [282] Καὶ προσαγγελθέντων τούτων ἐξ ὑποβολῆς παρεκάλουν οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην μὴ περιιδεῖν ὑπὸ τῶν πολεμίων λεηλατουμένην αὐτῶν τὴν γῆν. Ταῦτα δ᾽ ἔλεγον δι᾽ ἐννοίας ἔχοντες ἐμὲ προφάσει τῆς κατεπειγούσης βοηθείας μεταστήσαντες αὐτοὶ τὴν πόλιν ἐχθράν μοι κατασκευάσαι.
54. 276 Suspecting nothing I went away to Tarichea; yet I also left some behind, to find out what was said in the city about us. I also set several people along the road from Tarichea to Tiberias, to pass along any news they might learn from those that were back in the city. 277 Next day there was a meeting in the prayer-house, a large building that could hold a large number of people. Jonathan went in and though he dared not openly speak of a revolt, he said that their city needed a better governor than it then had. 278 Jesus their leader had no such scruple and said openly, "Fellow citizens, it is better for you to be ruled by four rather than one; and by those those that are of high birth and with a reputation for wisdom," pointing to Jonathan's group. 279 As he said this, Justus entered and supported him and persuaded some others of the people to share this view too. But the majority were not pleased with what was said and would have certainly gone into an uproar, except that the arrival of the sixth hour dissolved the meeting, at which hour our laws require us to go to dinner on Sabbath days. So Jonathan's group put off their council until the next day and went off without success.
280 When told of these matters, I decided to go in the morning to Tiberias. Next day, about the first hour of daylight, I came from Tarichea and found the people already gathered in the prayer-house; but those that were there did not know why they had convened. 281 When Jonathan's group saw me there unexpectedly, they were shaken, and invented a rumour that Roman horsemen had been seen at the border, at a place called Union, thirty furlongs from the city. 282 When this fictitious report arrived, Jonathan's people urged me not to look about me while the land was plundered by the enemy. Their aim was to get me out of the way, under pretext that my help was needed, and in my absence make the city hostile to me.
[283] Ἐγὼ δὲ καίπερ εἰδὼς αὐτῶν τὸ ἐνθύμημα ὅμως ὑπήκουσα, μὴ δόξαν παράσχω τοῖς Τιβεριεῦσιν οὐ προνοούμενος αὐτῶν τῆς ἀσφαλείας. Ἐξῆλθον οὖν, καὶ γενόμενος κατὰ τὸν τόπον, ὡς οὐδ᾽ ἴχνος πολεμίων εὗρον, [284] ὑποστρέφω συντόνως ὁδεύσας, καὶ καταλαμβάνω τήν τε βουλὴν πᾶσαν συνεληλυθυῖαν καὶ τὸν δημοτικὸν ὄχλον ποιουμένους τε πολλὴν κατηγορίαν μου τοὺς περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην, ὡς τοῦ μὲν τὸν πόλεμον ἐπελαφρύνειν αὐτοῖς ἀμελοῦντος, ἐν τρυφαῖς δὲ διάγοντος. [285] Ταῦτα δὲ λέγοντες προύφερον ἐπιστολὰς τέσσαρας ὡς ἀπὸ τῶν ἐν τῇ μεθορίᾳ τῆς Γαλιλαίας γεγραμμένας πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ βοήθειαν ἥκειν παρακαλούντων, Ῥωμαίων γὰρ δύναμιν μέλλειν ἱππέων τε καὶ πεζῶν εἰς τρίτην ἡμέραν τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν λεηλατεῖν, ἐπισπεύδειν τε καὶ μὴ περιοφθῆναι δεομένων.
[286] Ταῦτ᾽ ἀκούσαντες οἱ Τιβεριεῖς λέγειν ἀληθῆ δόξαντες αὐτοὺς καταβοήσεις ἐποιοῦντο, μὴ καθέζεσθαί με δεῖν λέγοντες, ἀλλ᾽ ἀπελθεῖν ἐπικουρήσοντα τοῖς ὁμοεθνέσιν αὐτῶν. [287] Πρὸς ταῦτ᾽ ἐγώ, συνῆκα γὰρ τὴν ἐπίνοιαν τῶν περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην, ὑπακούσεσθαι μὲν ἔφην ἑτοίμως καὶ χωρὶς ἀναβολῆς ὁρμήσειν πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον ἐπηγγειλάμην, συνεβούλευον δ᾽ ὅμως, ἐπεὶ τὰ γράμματα κατὰ τέσσαρας τόπους Ῥωμαίους σημαίνει προσβαλεῖν, εἰς πέντε μοίρας διελόντας τὴν δύναμιν ἑκάστῃ τούτων ἐπιστῆσαι τοὺς περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην καὶ τοὺς ἑταίρους αὐτοῦ· [288] πρέπειν γὰρ ἀνδράσιν ἀγαθοῖς μὴ μόνον συμβουλεύειν, ἀλλὰ χρείας ἐπειγούσης ἡγουμένους βοηθεῖν· ἐγὼ γὰρ πλὴν μιᾶς μοίρας οὐκ ἔφην ἀφηγεῖσθαι δυνατὸς εἶναι. [289] Σφόδρα τῷ πλήθει συνήρεσεν ἡ 'μὴ συμβουλία· κἀκείνους οὖν ἠνάγκαζον ἐπὶ τὸν πόλεμον ἐξιέναι. Τοῖς δ᾽ οὔτι μετρίως συνεχύθησαν αἱ γνῶμαι μὴ κατεργασαμένοις ἃ διενοήθησαν ἐμοῦ τοῖς ἐπιχειρήμασιν αὐτῶν ἀντιστρατηγήσαντος.
55. 283 Although aware of their plan, I complied with their proposal, for fear the Tiberians should think me heedless of their security. Out I went, but when I reached the place I found not the least trace of any enemy, 284 so back I came as fast as I could and found the whole council and the body of the people asembled, and Jonathan's group bringing hot accusations against me, that I had no concern to spare them the burdens of war and that I lived luxuriously. 285 As they said this, they produced four letters, as written to them from some people who lived at the borders of Galilee, imploring their help, because an army of Romans, both horsemen and infantry, was about to lay waste the country in three days time; they asked them also to hurry and not to ignore them.
286 When the Tiberians heard this, they thought they spoke truth and complained against me and said I ought not to sit idly by, but to go off to the help of their countrymen. 287 At this, knowing the intentions of Jonathan's group, I said I was ready to agree with what they proposed and to march without delay to the war they spoke about, yet I also advised them that since these letters claimed that the Romans would make their attack in four separate places, they should divide their forces into five troops and make Jonathan's group generals of each troop of them, 288 for it was the task of brave men not only to give advice but to act as leaders and help their countrymen when such a need arose, for, said I, "it is impossible for me to lead more than one troop." 289 My advice was favoured by the majority; so they compelled them to go out to the war. When their plans failed due to my counter-ruse, they were embarrassed beyond measure.
[290] Εἷς δέ τις ἐξ αὐτῶν Ἀνανίας τοὔνομα, πονηρὸς ἀνὴρ καὶ κακοῦργος, εἰσηγεῖτο τοῖς πλήθεσι πανδημεὶ νηστείαν εἰς τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν τῷ θεῷ προθέσθαι καὶ κατὰ τὴν αὐτὴν ὥραν ἐκέλευεν εἰς τὸν αὐτὸν τόπον ἀνόπλους παρεῖναι τῷ θεῷ φανερὸν ποιήσοντας, ὅτι μὴ τῆς παρ᾽ ἐκείνου τυγχάνοντες βοηθείας πᾶν ὅπλον ἄχρηστον εἶναι νομίζουσιν. [291] Ταῦτα δ᾽ ἔλεγεν οὐ δι᾽ εὐσέβειαν, ἀλλ᾽ ὑπὲρ τοῦ λαβεῖν ἄνοπλόν με καὶ τοὺς ἐμούς. Κἀγὼ δι᾽ ἀνάγκην ὑπήκουον, μὴ δόξω καταφρονεῖν τῆς περὶ τὴν εὐσέβειαν ὑποθήκης. [292] Ὡς οὖν ἀνεχωρήσαμεν ἐπὶ τὰ ἑαυτῶν, οἱ μὲν περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην γράφουσι τῷ Ἰωάννῃ πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἕωθεν ἀφικέσθαι κελεύοντες μεθ᾽ ὅσων ἂν στρατιωτῶν δυνηθῇ· λήψεσθαι γὰρ εὖ ἐμὲ ὑποχείριον καὶ ποιήσειν ὅπερ ἔχει δι᾽ εὐχῆς. Δεξάμενος δὲ τὴν ἐπιστολὴν ἐκεῖνος ὑπακούειν ἔμελλεν. [293] Ἐγὼ δὲ τῆς ἐπιούσης ἡμέρας δύο τῶν περὶ ἐμὲ σωματοφυλάκων τοὺς κατ᾽ ἀνδρείαν δοκιμωτάτους καὶ κατὰ πίστιν βεβαίους κελεύω ξιφίδια κρύψαντας ὑπὸ τὰς ἐσθῆτας ἐμοὶ συμπροελθεῖν, ἵν᾽ εἰ γένοιτο παρὰ τῶν ἐχθρῶν ἐπίθεσις ἀμυνώμεθα. Θώρακα δ᾽ ἔλαβον αὐτὸς καὶ μάχαιραν ὑπεζωσάμην ὡς οἷόν τ᾽ ἦν ἀφανέστατα καὶ ἦλθον εἰς τὴν προσευχήν. 56. 290 One of them called Ananias, a wicked and very mischievous man, proposed a public fast for the next day for all the people in God's name, calling for them to assemble at the same hour and the same place, without weapons, to display before God that they considered all these weapons useless as long as they had his help. 291 This he said, not from piety, but in order to catch me and my friends unarmed. I had to agree, for fear of seeming to despise a devout proposal. 292 As soon as we had gone home, Jonathan's group wrote to John to come to them in the morning and to bring as many soldiers as he possibly could, for then they could easily to get me into their hands and do what they wanted to do. When John received this letter, he decided to agree. 293 The next day I told two of my bodyguards whom I deemed the bravest and most faithful, to accompany me with daggers hidden under their dress, for self defence if any attack were made by our enemies. I myself took my breastplate and wearing my sword as inconspicuously as possible, came into the prayer-house.
[294] Τοὺς μὲν οὖν σὺν ἐμοὶ πάντας ἐκκλεῖσαι προσέταξεν Ἰησοῦς ὁ ἄρχων, αὐτὸς γὰρ ταῖς θύραις ἐφειστήκει, μόνον δ᾽ ἐμὲ μετὰ τῶν φίλων εἰσελθεῖν εἴασεν. [295] Ἤδη δ᾽ ἡμῶν τὰ νόμιμα ποιούντων καὶ πρὸς εὐχὰς τραπομένων ἀναστὰς Ἰησοῦς περὶ τῶν ληφθέντων ἐκ τοῦ ἐμπρησμοῦ τῆς βασιλικῆς αὐλῆς σκευῶν τοῦ ἀσήμου ἀργυρίου ἐπυνθάνετό μου, παρὰ τίνι τυγχάνει κείμενα. Ταῦτα δ᾽ ἔλεγεν διατρίβειν τὸν χρόνον βουλόμενος, ἕως ἂν ὁ Ἰωάννης παραγένηται. [296] Κἀγὼ πάντα Καπέλλαν ἔχειν εἶπον καὶ τοὺς δέκα πρώτους Τιβεριέων· "Ἀνάκριναι δ᾽ αὐτός, ἔφην, οὐ ψεύδομαι." Τῶν δὲ παρ᾽ ἑαυτοῖς εἶναι λεγόντων "Οἱ δ᾽ εἴκοσιν, εἶπεν, χρυσοῖ, οὓς ἔλαβες πωλήσας τινὰ σταθμὸν ἀσήμου, [297] τί γεγόνασιν;" καὶ τούτους ἔφην δεδωκέναι πρέσβεσιν αὐτῶν ἐφόδιον πεμφθεῖσιν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα. Πρὸς ταῦτα οἱ μὲν περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην οὐ καλῶς ἔφασαν πεποιηκέναι με δόντα τοῖς πρέσβεσιν τὸν μισθὸν ἐκ τοῦ κοινοῦ. [298] Παροξυνθέντος δὲ τοῦ πλήθους ἐπὶ τούτοις, ἐνόησαν γὰρ τῶν ἀνθρώπων τὴν πονηρίαν, συνεὶς ἐγὼ στάσιν μέλλουσαν ἐξάπτεσθαι καὶ προσεξερεθίσαι μᾶλλον βουλόμενος τὸν δῆμον ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, "Ἀλλ᾽ εἴ γε μὴ ὀρθῶς, εἶπον, ἔπραξα δοὺς τὸν μισθὸν ἐκ τοῦ κοινοῦ τοῖς πρέσβεσιν ὑμῶν, παύεσθε χαλεπαίνοντες· ἐγὼ γὰρ τοὺς εἴκοσι χρυσοῦς αὐτὸς ἀποτίσω." 57. 294 Jesus, who was in charge, told them to exclude all who came with me, for he guarded the door himself and let none in except his friends. 295 While we were engaged in the duties of the day and had attended to our prayers, Jesus got up and asked me what became of the vessels and uncoined silver taken from the king's palace when it was burnt down, and who held them now. He said this just to pass the time until John's arrival. 296 I said that Capella and the ten leading Tiberians had them and could say if I was lying or not. When they affirmed they had them, he asked me, "What became of those twenty pieces of gold you got at the sale of some uncoined money?" 297 I replied that I had given them to their own envoys as a travel allowance, when they were sent by them to Jerusalem but Jonathan's group said it was wrong to pay the envoys out of public money. 298 As the people were exasperated with them, aware of their malice, I saw that a riot was at hand, and wanting to provoke the people to greater rage against the men, I said, "But if I have done wrong in paying our envoys out of the public stock, stop being angry at me, for I will repay the twenty pieces of gold myself."

Chapter 10. He defeats his opponents and grants them amnesty

[299] Ταῦτ᾽ εἰπόντος, οἱ μὲν περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην ἡσύχασαν, ὁ δὲ δῆμος ἔτι μᾶλλον κατ᾽ αὐτῶν παρωξύνθη φανερὰν ἐπιδεικνυμένων τὴν ἄδικον πρὸς ἐμὲ δυσμένειαν. [300] Συνιδὼν δὲ τὴν μεταβολὴν αὐτῶν Ἰησοῦς τὸν μὲν δῆμον ἐκέλευεν ἀναχωρεῖν, προσμεῖναι δὲ τὴν βουλὴν ἠξίωσεν· οὐ γὰρ δύνασθαι θορυβουμένους περὶ πραγμάτων τοιούτων τὴν ἐξέτασιν ποιεῖσθαι. [301] Τοῦ δὲ δήμου βοῶντος μὴ καταλείψειν παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἐμὲ μόνον, ἧκέν τις ἀγγέλλων κρύφα τοῖς περὶ τὸν Ἰησοῦν Ἰωάννην μετὰ τῶν ὁπλιτῶν πλησιάζειν. Καὶ οἱ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην οὐκέτι κατασχόντες αὑτούς, τάχα καὶ τοῦ θεοῦ προνοοῦντος τῆς ἐμῆς σωτηρίας, μὴ γὰρ ἂν γενομένου τούτου πάντως ὑπὸ τοῦ Ἰωάννου διεφθάρην, [302] "Παύσασθε, ἔφη, ὦ Τιβεριεῖς, τὴν ζήτησιν εἴκοσι χρυσῶν ἕνεκεν· διὰ τούτους μὲν γὰρ οὐκ ἄξιός ἐστιν Ἰώσηπος ἀποθανεῖν, ὅτι δὲ τυραννεῖν ἐπεθύμησεν καὶ τὰ τῶν Γαλιλαίων πλήθη λόγοις ἀπατήσας τὴν ἀρχὴν αὑτῷ κατεκτήσατο." Ταῦτα λέγοντος εὐθύς μοι τὰς χεῖρας ἐπέβαλον ἀναιρεῖν τ᾽ ἐπειρῶντο. [303] Ὡς δ᾽ εἶδον οἱ σὺν ἐμοὶ τὸ γιγνόμενον, σπασάμενοι τὰς μαχαίρας καὶ παίειν ἀπειλήσαντες, εἰ βιάζοιντο, τοῦ τε δήμου λίθους ἀραμένου καὶ βάλλειν ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην ὁρμήσαντος ἐξαρπάζουσί με τῆς τῶν πολεμίων βίας. 58. 299 When I had said this, Jonathan's group held their peace; but the people were still more stirred up against them, as they had openly shown their unjust ill-will to me. 300 Seeing this change in the people, Jesus made them leave but asked the council to stay, since they could not examine things of this nature in such a roudy scene. 301 As the people called out that they would not leave me alone, a messenger came and secretly told Jesus and his friends that John and his soldiers were at hand, so Jonathan's group, no longer restraining themselves, (and perhaps the providence of God saved me through this, for had it not happened I would certainly have been killed by John,) said, 302 "People of Tiberias, be done with this inquiry about the twenty pieces of gold. It is not for them that Josephus has deserved to die; but for wanting to be a tyrant and deceiving the Galilean people with his speeches, to gain power over them." As he was saying this, they laid hands upon me to kill me. 303 But as soon as my supporters saw what they were doing, they drew their swords, threatening to strike if any violence was done to me. The people also took up stones to throw at Jonathan; and so they hurried me away from the violence of my enemies.
[304] Ἐπεὶ δὲ προελθὼν ὀλίγον ὑπαντιάζειν ἔμελλον τῷ Ἰωάννῃ προσιόντι μετὰ τῶν ὁπλιτῶν, δείσας ἐκεῖνον μὲν ἐξέκλινα, διὰ στενωποῦ δέ τινος ἐπὶ τὴν λίμνην σωθεὶς καὶ πλοίου λαβόμενος, ἐμβὰς εἰς τὰς Ταριχέας διεπεραιώθην ἀπροσδοκήτως τὸν κίνδυνον διαφυγών. [305] Μεταπέμπομαί τ᾽ εὐθὺς τοὺς πρωτεύοντας τῶν Γαλιλαίων καὶ φράζω τὸν τρόπον, ᾧ παρασπονδηθεὶς ὑπὸ τῶν περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην καὶ τοὺς Τιβεριεῖς παρ᾽ ὀλίγον παρ᾽ αὐτῶν διαφθαρείην. [306] Ὀργισθὲν δ᾽ ἐπὶ τούτοις τῶν Γαλιλαίων τὸ πλῆθος παρεκελεύετό μοι μηκέτι μέλλειν τὸν πρὸς αὐτοὺς πόλεμον ἐκφέρειν, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπιτρέπειν αὐτοῖς ἐλθοῦσιν ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰωάννην ἄρδην αὐτὸν ἀφανίσαι καὶ τοὺς περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην. [307] Ἐπεῖχον δ᾽ ὅμως αὐτοὺς ἐγὼ καίπερ οὕτως ὀργιζομένους, περιμένειν αὐτοὺς κελεύων ἕως μάθωμεν, τί οἱ πεμφθέντες ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν εἰς τὴν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν πόλιν ἀπαγγελοῦσιν· μετὰ τῆς ἐκείνων γὰρ γνώμης τὰ δοκοῦντα πράξειν αὐτοὺς ἔφην. [308] Καὶ ταῦτ᾽ εἰπὼν ἔπεισα. Τότε δὴ καὶ Ἰωάννης οὐ λαβούσης αὐτοῦ τέλος τῆς ἐνέδρας ἀνεζεύγνυεν εἰς τὰ Γίσχαλα. 59. 304 But on my way out, I almost bumped into John, who was coming in with his soldiers. I turned aside from him in alarm and escaping through a narrow passage to the lake I seized a boat, embarked in it and sailed over to Tarichea. So, beyond all expectation, I escaped this danger. 305 Immediately I sent for the chief Galileans and told them how, despite all the promises given by Jonathan's friends and the Tiberians, I had very nearly been killed by them. 306 At this the ordinary Galileans were furious and urged me to delay no longer in making war, but to let them proceed against John and the friends of Jonathan, and wipe them out. 307 I still restrained them, furious as they were, and asked them to delay a while, until we should hear the report of the envoys they had sent to Jerusalem, since only with their advice would we know what was best to do. 308 My words convinced them. At this time also, when the snares he had laid proved a failure, John went back to Gischala.
[309] Μετ᾽ οὐ πολλὰς δ᾽ ἡμέρας ἀφικνοῦνται πάλιν οὓς ἐπέμψαμεν καὶ ἀπήγγελλον σφόδρα τὸν δῆμον ἐπὶ τοὺς περὶ τὸν Ἄνανον καὶ τὸν Σίμωνα τὸν τοῦ Γαμαλιήλου παρωξύνθαι, ὅτι χωρὶς γνώμης τοῦ κοινοῦ πέμψαντες εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν ἐκπεσεῖν με ταύτης παρεσκεύασαν. [310] Ἐφασαν δ᾽ οἱ πρέσβεις, ὅτι καὶ τὰς οἰκίας αὐτῶν ὁ δῆμος ὥρμησεν ἐμπιπράναι. Ἔφερον δὲ καὶ γράμματα, δι᾽ ὧν οἱ τῶν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν πρῶτοι πολλὰ τοῦ δήμου δεηθέντος αὐτῶν ἐμοὶ μὲν τὴν τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἀρχὴν ἐβεβαίουν, τοῖς περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην δὲ προσέτασσον εἰς τὴν οἰκείαν ὑποστρέφειν θᾶσσον. [311] Ἐντυχὼν οὖν ταῖς ἐπιστολαῖς εἰς Ἄρβηλα κώμην ἀφικόμην, ἔνθα σύνοδον τῶν Γαλιλαίων ποιησάμενος ἐκέλευσα τοὺς πρέσβεις διηγεῖσθαι τὴν ἐπὶ τοῖς πεπραγμένοις ὑπὸ τῶν περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην ὀργὴν καὶ μισοπονηρίαν, [312] καὶ ὡς κυρώσειαν ἐμοὶ τῆς χώρας αὐτῶν τὴν προστασίαν, τά τε πρὸς τοὺς περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην γεγραμμένα περὶ ἀπαλλαγῆς, πρὸς οὓς δὴ καὶ τὴν ἐπιστολὴν εὐθέως διεπεμψάμην πολυπραγμονῆσαι τὸν κομίσαντα κελεύσας, τί ποιεῖν μέλλουσιν.
60. 309 A few days later the envoys he had sent returned and told us that the people were indignant at Ananus and Simon, son of Gamaliel, and their friends, for having sent people to Galilee without public support, to try to have me removed from the province. 310 The envoys said that the people were ready to burn those men's houses and brought letters in which, at the people's earnest request, the Jerusalem leaders confirmed me as governor of Galilee and ordered Jonathan's group to return home quickly. 311 Armed with these letters, I came to the village of Arbela, where I called a meeting of the Galileans and bade the envoys tell them about what had occurred and the anger and hatred expressed at the wicked conduct of Jonathan's group; 312 also, how I had been confirmed as governor of their district, and of the order they had in writing for Jonathan's group to return home; and I sent them the letter immediately, telling the bearer to enquire, as best he could, how they intended to proceed.
[313] Δεξάμενοι δ᾽ ἐκεῖνοι τὴν ἐπιστολὴν καὶ ταραχθέντες οὐχὶ μετρίως μεταπέμπονται τὸν Ἰωάννην καὶ τοὺς ἐκ τῆς βουλῆς τῶν Τιβεριέων τούς τε πρωτεύοντας Γαβάρων, βουλήν τε προτιθέασιν σκοπεῖσθαι κελεύοντες, τί πρακτέον ἐστὶν αὐτοῖς. [314] Τιβεριεῦσι μὲν οὖν ἀντέχεσθαι μᾶλλον ἐδόκει τῶν πραγμάτων· οὐ δεῖν γὰρ ἔφασαν ἐγκαταλιπέσθαι τὴν πόλιν αὐτῶν ἅπαξ ἐκείνοις προστεθειμένην, ἄλλως τε μηδ᾽ ἐμοῦ μέλλοντος αὐτῶν ἀφέξεσθαι· τοῦτο γὰρ ὡς ἠπειληκότος ἐμοῦ κατεψεύδοντο. [315] Ὁ δ᾽ Ἰωάννης οὐ μόνον τούτοις συνηρέσκετο, καὶ πορευθῆναι δὲ συνεβούλευεν αὐτῶν τοὺς δύο κατηγορήσοντάς μου πρὸς τὸ πλῆθος, ὅτι μὴ καλῶς τὰ κατὰ τὴν Γαλιλαίαν διοικῶ, καὶ πείσειν ῥᾳδίως αὐτοὺς ἔφη διά τε τὸ ἀξίωμα καὶ παντὸς πλήθους εὐτρέπτως ἔχοντος. [316] Δόξαντος οὖν τοῦ Ἰωάννου κρατίστην εἰσενηνοχέναι γνώμην, ἔδοξε δύο μὲν ἀπιέναι πρὸς τοὺς Ἱεροσολυμίτας, Ἰωνάθην καὶ Ἀνανίαν, τοὺς ἑτέρους δὲ δύο μένοντας ἐν τῇ Τιβεριάδι καταλιπεῖν. Συνεπηγάγοντο δὲ φυλακῆς ἕνεκα τῆς ἑαυτῶν ὁπλίτας ἑκατόν. 61. 313 They were greatly shaken on receiving the letter and sent for John and the senators of Tiberias and the leading men of the Gabarenes, proposing to hold a meeting to consider what they ought to do. 314 The Tiberians were strongly disposed to take things in hand themselves, thinking it wrong to desert their city, now it was in their power, especially since I would soon attack them, as they falsely pretended that I had made such a threat. 315 Now John not only shared this view but advised that two of them should go to accuse me to the crowd, of not properly managing the affairs of Galilee; and that their rank would easily persuade the people, because the populace are very fickle. 316 When John's proposal pleased them best, they voted that two of them, Jonathan and Ananias, should go to the people of Jerusalem while the other two stayed behind in Tiberias. They took with them an escort of a hundred infantery.
[317] Τιβεριεῖς δὲ τὰ μὲν τείχη προυνόησαν ἀσφαλισθῆναι, τοὺς ἐνοίκους δὲ κελεύουσιν ἀναλαβεῖν τὰ ὅπλα, καὶ παρὰ Ἰωάννου δὲ μετεπέμψαντο στρατιώτας οὐκ ὀλίγους συμμαχήσοντας, εἰ δεήσειεν, αὐτοῖς τὰ πρὸς ἐμέ. [318] Ἦν δὲ ὁ Ἰωάννης ἐν Γισχάλοις. Οἱ τοίνυν περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην ἀναζεύξαντες ἀπὸ τῆς Τιβεριάδος, ὡς ἧκον εἰς Δαβάριττα κώμην ἐν ταῖς ἐσχατιαῖς τῆς Γαλιλαίας κειμένην ἐν τῷ μεγάλῳ πεδίῳ, περὶ μέσην νύκτα τοῖς ἐμοῖς φύλαξιν ἐμπίπτουσιν, οἳ καὶ κελεύσαντες αὐτοὺς τὰ ὅπλα καταθέσθαι ἐφύλασσον ἐν δεσμοῖς ἐπὶ τόπου καθὼς αὐτοῖς ἐντετάλμην. [319] Γράφει δὲ πρὸς ἐμὲ ταῦτα δηλῶν Λευίς, ᾧ τὴν φυλακὴν πεπιστεύκειν. Παραλιπὼν οὖν ἡμέρας δύο καὶ μηδὲν ἐγνωκέναι προσποιησάμενος, πέμψας πρὸς τοὺς Τιβεριεῖς συνεβούλευον αὐτοῖς τὰ ὅπλα καταθεμένοις ἀπολύειν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους εἰς τὴν ἑαυτῶν. [320] Οἱ δέ, δόξαν γὰρ εἶχον περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην εἰς τὰ Ἱεροσόλυμα ἤδη διαπεπορεῦσθαι, βλασφήμους ἐποιήσαντο τὰς ἀποκρίσεις· μὴ καταπλαγεὶς δ᾽ ἐγὼ καταστρατηγεῖν αὐτοὺς ἐπενόουν. [321] Πρὸς μὲν οὖν τοὺς πολίτας ἐξάπτειν πόλεμον οὐκ ἐνόμιζον εὐσεβὲς εἶναι, βουλόμενος δ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἀποσπάσαι τῶν Τιβεριέων, μυρίους ὁπλίτας τοὺς ἀρίστους ἐπιλέξας εἰς τρεῖς μοίρας διεῖλον, καὶ τούτους μὲν ἀφανῶς ἐν δώμαις προσέταξα λοχῶντας περιμένειν, [322] χιλίους δ᾽ εἰς ἑτέραν κώμην ὀρεινὴν μὲν ὁμοίως, ἀπέχουσαν δὲ τῆς Τιβεριάδος τέσσαρας σταδίους, εἰσήγαγον κελεύσας ἐκείνους ἐπειδὰν λάβωσιν σημεῖον εὐθὺς καταβαίνειν· αὐτὸς δὲ τῆς κώμης προελθὼν ἐν προύπτῳ καθεζόμην. [323] Οἱ δὲ Τιβεριεῖς ὁρῶντες ἐξέτρεχον συνεχῶς καὶ πολλὰ κατεκερτόμουν· τοσαύτη γοῦν ἀφροσύνη κατέσχεν αὐτούς, ὥστε ποιήσαντες εὐτρεπῆ κλίνην προύθεσαν καὶ περὶ αὐτὴν ἱστάμενοι ὠδύροντό με μετὰ παιδιᾶς καὶ γέλωτος. Διετιθέμην δ᾽ ἐγὼ τὴν ψυχὴν ἡδέως τὴν ἄνοιαν αὐτῶν ἐπιβλέπων. 62. 317 The Tiberians took care to have their city walls strengthened, and told the inhabitants to carry their weapons and sent to John for a number of soldiers to help them against me should occasion arise; now that John was at Gischala. 318 Therefore Jonatjan and his friends left Tiberias and about midnight, when they had reached Dabaritta, a village on the border of Galilee in the great plain, they met with the guards I had set, who ordered them to lay down their weapons and put them in chains on the spot, as I had instructed them. 319 This news was reported by Levi, whom I had put in command of that patrol. I said nothing about it for two days; and, pretending to be unaware of it, I sent a message to the Tiberians advising them to lay down their arms and tell the envoys to go home. 320 But thinking that Jonathan and his friends had already reached Jerusalem, they answered me with insults. Undaunted, I used another ruse against them, 321 thinking it would be wrong to kindle the flame of war against the citizens. As I wished to draw them out of Tiberias, I chose ten thousand of my best soldiers and divided them into three groups, with orders to remain concealed in ambush, at Adomah. 322 I sent a thousand into another village in the hills, four furlongs from Tiberias, with orders that at my signal, they should immediately come down, while I myself took up position within sight of the village. 323 Seeing me, the Tiberians made frequent sorties out of the city and shouted curses at me. Indeed their foolery went so far that they made an elegant bier for me, and standing round it, they mourned my death with jesting and laughter and I could not help being amused at the sight of their tomfoolery.
[324] Βουλόμενος δὲ δι᾽ ἐνέδρας λαβεῖν τὸν Σίμωνα καὶ σὺν αὐτῷ Ἰώζαρον, πέμψας πρὸς αὐτοὺς παρεκάλουν ὀλίγον τῆς πόλεως πόρρω μετὰ φίλων πολλῶν τῶν παραφυλαξόντων αὐτοὺς ἐλθεῖν· βούλεσθαι γὰρ ἔφην καταβὰς σπείσασθαι πρὸς αὐτοὺς καὶ διανείμασθαι τὴν προστασίαν τῆς Γαλιλαίας. [325] Σίμων μὲν οὖν διὰ νεότητα καὶ πρὸς ἐλπίδα κέρδους ἀπατηθεὶς οὐκ ὤκνησεν ἐλθεῖν, ὁ δ᾽ Ἰώζαρος ἐνέδραν ὑποπτεύσας ἔμεινεν. Ἀναβάντα δὴ τὸν Σίμωνα μετὰ φίλων τῶν παραφυλασσόντων αὐτὸν ὑπαντιάσας ἠσπαζόμην τε φιλοφρόνως καὶ χάριν ἔχειν ὡμολόγουν ἀναβάντι. [326] Μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺ δὲ συμπεριπατῶν ὡς κατὰ μόνας τι βουλόμενος εἰπεῖν, ἐπεὶ πορρωτέρω τῶν φίλων ἀπήγαγον, μέσον ἀράμενος ἀγαγεῖν εἰς τὴν κώμην τοῖς μετ᾽ ἐμοῦ φίλοις ἔδωκα, τοὺς ὁπλίτας δὲ καταβῆναι κελεύσας προσέβαλλον μετ᾽ αὐτῶν τῇ Τιβεριάδι. [327] Μάχης δὲ γενομένης ἀμφοτέρωθεν καρτερᾶς καὶ ὅσον οὔπω τῶν Τιβεριέων νικώντων, πεφεύγεισαν γὰρ οἱ παρ᾽ ἡμῶν ὁπλῖται, τὸ γινόμενον ἰδὼν καὶ τοὺς μετ᾽ ἐμαυτοῦ παρακαλέσας νικῶντας ἤδη τοὺς Τιβεριεῖς εἰς τὴν πόλιν συνεδίωξα. Ἑτέραν δὲ δύναμιν εἰσπέμψας διὰ τῆς λίμνης προσέταξα τὴν πρώτην λαβοῦσιν οἰκίαν ἐμπρῆσαι. [328] Τούτου γενομένου νομίσαντες οἱ Τιβεριεῖς εἰλῆφθαι κατὰ κράτος αὐτῶν τὴν πόλιν, ὑπὸ φόβου ῥίπτουσιν τὰ ὅπλα, μετὰ γυναικῶν δὲ καὶ τέκνων ἱκέτευον φείσασθαι τῆς πόλεως αὐτῶν. [329] Ἐγὼ δὲ πρὸς τὰς δεήσεις ἐπικλασθεὶς τοὺς μὲν στρατιώτας τῆς ὁρμῆς ἐπέσχον, αὐτὸς δέ, καὶ γὰρ ἑσπέρα κατέλαβεν, μετὰ τῶν ὁπλιτῶν ἀπὸ τῆς πολιορκίας ὑποστρέψας περὶ τὴν τοῦ σώματος θεραπείαν ἐγινόμην. [330] Καλέσας δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν ἑστίασιν τὸν Σίμωνα παρεμυθούμην περὶ τῶν γεγονότων ὑπισχνούμην τε δοὺς ἐφόδια αὐτῷ καὶ τοῖς σὺν αὐτῷ παραπέμψειν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα μετὰ πάσης ἀσφαλείας. 63. 324 Wanting to trap Simon and Joazar I invited them to come a little way out of the city with many friends to protect them; for I said I would come down to parley with them and share with them the leadership of Galilee. 325 Due to his imprudence and his hopes of profit, Simon fell for this trick and came without delay; but Joazar held back, suspecting the trap laid for him. So when Simon came out, with his friends acting as a bodyguard for him, I met him and greeted him cordially, professing my gratitude that he had come. 326 Not long after, when walking beside him as though to say something to him in private, after leading him a good way from his friends I caught him around the waist and handed him over to my friends who were with me, to bring him into a village; and, ordering my soldiers to come down, I attacked Tiberias with them. 327 After hard fighting on both sides and when some my infantry fled and the Tiberians were winning, I saw the situation and rallying those around me, chased the victorious Tiberians into their city. I sent another band of soldiers into the city by way of the lake with orders to set fire to the first house they could seize. 328 When this was done, the Tiberians thought their city had been taken by storm and threw down their arms in fear and, with their wives and children, begged me to spare their city. 329 Yielding to their pleas I restrained the soldiers from pursuing them vigourously, and in the evening I abandoned the siege with my soldiers and retired for bodily refreshment. 330 Inviting Simon to sup with me, I consoled him about what had happened and promised to send him and his group safe and secure to Jerusalem and give them provisions for the journey there.
[331] Κατὰ δὲ τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν ἡμέραν μυρίους ἐπαγόμενος ὁπλίτας ἧκον εἰς τὴν Τιβεριάδα, καὶ μεταπεμψάμενος εἰς τὸ στάδιον τοὺς πρώτους αὐτῶν τοῦ πλήθους ἐκέλευσα φράζειν, οἵτινες εἶεν αἴτιοι τῆς ἀποστάσεως. [332] Ἐνδειξαμένων δὲ τοὺς ἄνδρας ἐκείνους μὲν δεδεμένους εἰς τὴν Ἰωταπάτην πόλιν ἐξέπεμψα, τοὺς δὲ περὶ τὸν Ἰωνάθην καὶ Ἀνανίαν λύσας τῶν δεσμῶν καὶ δοὺς ἐφόδια μετὰ Σίμωνος καὶ Ἰωζάρου καὶ ὁπλιτῶν πεντακοσίων, οἳ παραφυλάξουσιν αὐτούς, ἐξέπεμψα εἰς τὰ Ἱεροσόλυμα. [333] Τιβεριεῖς δὲ πάλιν προσελθόντες συγγινώσκειν αὐτοῖς παρεκάλουν περὶ τῶν πεπραγμένων, ἐπανορθώσεσθαι τὰς ἁμαρτίας τῇ μετὰ ταῦτα πρὸς ἐμὲ πίστει λέγοντες, τὰ δ᾽ ἐκ τῆς διαρπαγῆς περισσεύσαντα σῶσαί με τοῖς ἀπολέσασιν ἐδέοντο. [334] Κἀγὼ τοῖς ἔχουσιν προσέταττον εἰς μέσον πάντα φέρειν, ἀπειθούντων δὲ μέχρι πολλοῦ, θεασάμενός τινα τῶν περὶ ἐμὲ στρατιωτῶν λαμπροτέραν τοῦ συνήθους περικείμενον στολὴν ἐπυθόμην, πόθεν ἔχοι. [335] Εἰπόντος δὲ ἐκ τῆς κατὰ πόλιν ἁρπαγῆς, ἐκεῖνον μὲν πληγαῖς ἐκόλασα, τοῖς δὲ ἄλλοις ἅπασιν ἠπείλησα μείζω τιμωρίαν ἐπιθήσειν μὴ κομίσασιν εἰς τοὐμφανὲς ὅσα ἡρπάκεισαν. Πολλῶν δὲ συνενεχθέντων ἑκάστῳ τῶν Τιβεριέων τὸ ἐπιγνωσθὲν ἀπέδωκα. 64. 331 Next day I went to Tiberias with ten thousand men and summoned the leading citizens to the stadium, demanding to know who were the authors of the revolt. 332 When they told me who they were, I sent the men bound to the city of Jotapata. But I set free the men sent by Jonathan and Ananias and gave them provisions for their journey, sending them along with Simon and Joazar to Jerusalem, with five hundred soldiers as escort. 333 The Tiberians came to me again, asking my forgiveness for what they had done, promising to make amends for their past wrongs by their future fidelity to me, and imploring me to recover the remainder of the plunder for those that had lost everything. 334 So I ordered those who had got it, to bring it all into the open. When for a long while they did not comply and I saw one of my soldiers wearing an extraordinarily magnificent garment, I asked him how he had got it. 335 When he replied that he got it from the plunder of the city, I had him punished with beating; then I threatened all the rest with more severe punishment if they did not bring us whatever they had plundered; and when a great many spoils were brought together, I restored to each of the Tiberians what they claimed as their own.
[336] Γεγονὼς δ᾽ ἐνταῦθα τῆς διηγήσεως βούλομαι πρὸς Ἰοῦστον καὶ αὐτὸν τὴν περὶ τούτων πραγματείαν γεγραφότα πρός τε τοὺς ἄλλους τοὺς ἱστορίαν μὲν γράφειν ὑπισχνουμένους, περὶ δὲ τὴν ἀλήθειαν ὀλιγώρους καὶ δι᾽ ἔχθραν ἢ χάριν τὸ ψεῦδος οὐκ ἐντρεπομένους, [μικρὰ διελθεῖν]. [337] Πράττουσι μὲν γὰρ ὅμοιόν τι τοῖς περὶ συμβολαίων πλαστὰ γράμματα συντεθεικόσι, τῷ δὲ μηδεμίαν ὁμοίως τιμωρίαν ἐκείνοις δεδιέναι καταφρονοῦσι τῆς ἀληθείας. [338] Ἰοῦστος γοῦν συγγράφειν τὰς περὶ τούτων ἐπιχειρήσας πράξεις τὸν πόλεμον, ὑπὲρ τοῦ δοκεῖν φιλόπονος εἶναι ἐμοῦ μὲν κατέψευσται, ἠλήθευσε δὲ οὐδὲ περὶ τῆς πατρίδος. Ὅθεν ἀπολογήσασθαι γὰρ νῦν ἀνάγκην ἔχω καταψευδομαρτυρούμενος, ἐρῶ τὰ μέχρι νῦν σεσιωπημένα. [339] Καὶ μὴ θαυμάσῃ τις, ὅτι μὴ πάλαι περὶ τούτων ἐδήλωσα· τῷ γὰρ ἱστορίαν ἀναγράφοντι τὸ μὲν ἀληθεύειν ἀναγκαῖον, ἔξεστιν δ᾽ ὅμως μὴ πικρῶς τὰς τινῶν πονηρίας ἐλέγχειν, οὐ διὰ τὴν πρὸς ἐκείνους χάριν, ἀλλὰ διὰ τὴν αὐτοῦ μετριότητα. 65. 336 At this point in my story, I wish to say a few things to Justus, who has also written a history about these events, and to others who profess to write history but have little regard for truth and whether from ill-will or favour do not hesitate to lie. 337 They act like forgers of deeds and conveyances but disregard the truth since they are not subject to similar punishment. 338 When Justus undertook to write about these facts and about the war, in order to look industrious he made up his statements about me and could not speak the truth even about his own country. Being maligned by him, I must defend myself and so I shall tell what I have concealed up to now. 339 Let no one wonder that I have not told these things already, for although a historian should write the truth, he is not strictly bound to comment on the malice of individuals, not from any favour to them, but from the author's own sense of propriety.
[340] Πῶς οὖν, ἵνα φῶ πρὸς αὐτὸν ὡς παρόντα, Ἰοῦστε δεινότατε συγγραφέων, τοῦτο γὰρ αὐχεῖς περὶ σεαυτοῦ, αἴτιοι γεγόναμεν ἐγώ τε καὶ Γαλιλαῖοι τῇ πατρίδι σου τῆς πρὸς Ῥωμαίους καὶ πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα στάσεως; [341] πρότερον γὰρ ἢ ἐμὲ τῆς Γαλιλαίας στρατηγὸν ὑπὸ τοῦ κοινοῦ τῶν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν χειροτονηθῆναι σὺ καὶ πάντες Τιβεριεῖς οὐ μόνον ἀνειλήφατε τὰ ὅπλα, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰς ἐν τῇ Συρίᾳ δέκα πόλεις ἐπολεμεῖτε· σὺ γοῦν τὰς κώμας αὐτῶν ἐνέπρησας καὶ ὁ σὸς οἰκέτης ἐπὶ τῆς παρατάξεως ἐκείνης ἔπεσεν. [342] Ταῦτα δὲ οὐκ ἐγὼ λέγω μόνος, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν τοῖς Οὐεσπασιανοῦ τοῦ αὐτοκράτορος ὑπομνήμασιν οὕτως γέγραπται, καὶ τίνα τρόπον ἐν Πτολεμαΐδι Οὐεσπασιανοῦ κατεβόησαν οἱ τῶν δέκα πόλεων ἔνοικοι τιμωρίαν ὑποσχεῖν σε τὸν αἴτιον ἀξιοῦντες. [343] Καὶ δεδώκεις ἂν δίκην Οὐεσπασιανοῦ κελεύσαντος, εἰ μὴ βασιλεὺς Ἀγρίππας λαβὼν ἐξουσίαν ἀποκτεῖναί σε, πολλὰ τῆς ἀδελφῆς Βερενίκης δεηθείσης οὐκ ἀνελὼν δεδεμένον ἐπὶ πολὺν χρόνον ἐφύλαξεν. [344] Καὶ αἱ μετὰ ταῦτα δὲ πολιτεῖαί σου σαφῶς ἐμφανίζουσιν τόν τε βίον τὸν ἄλλον καὶ ὅτι σὺ τὴν πατρίδα Ῥωμαίων ἀπέστησας, ὧν τὰ τεκμήρια κἀγὼ δηλώσω μετ᾽ ὀλίγον. 340 How is it then, Justus (addressing him as if he were present,) you cleverest of writers, as you claim to be, that I and the Galileans caused your district to rebel against the Romans and against the king? 341 For before ever I was appointed governor of Galilee by the community of Jerusalem, both you and all the Tiberians had not only taken up arms, but had made war on Decapolis of Syria. It was you who ordered their villages to be burnt and a domestic servant of yours fell in the battle. 342 It is not I alone who say this; but so it is written in the Commentaries of Vespasian the emperor; as also how the people of Decapolis came clamouring to Vespasian at Ptolemais and asked that you be punished as the culprit. 343 You certainly would have been punished at Vespasian's command, if king Agrippa, who was entrusted with your execution, had not commuted your penalty from death to a long imprisonment, at the earnest petition of his sister Berenice. 344 Your subsequent political administration also clearly reveals other aspects of your behaviour and that it was you who caused your country's revolt from the Romans; evidence of which I shall soon produce.
[345] Βούλομαι δ᾽ εἰπεῖν καὶ πρὸς τοὺς ἄλλους Τιβεριεῖς ὀλίγα διὰ σὲ καὶ παραστῆσαι τοῖς ἐντυγχάνειν μέλλουσιν ταῖς ἱστορίαις, ὅτι μήτε φιλορώμαιοι μήτε φιλοβασιλεῖς γεγόνατε· [346] τῶν ἐν τῇ Γαλιλαίᾳ πόλεων αἱ μέγισται Σέπφωρις καὶ Τιβεριὰς ἡ σὴ πατρίς, ὦ Ἰοῦστε. Ἀλλὰ Σέπφωρις μὲν ἐν τῷ μεσαιτάτῳ τῆς Γαλιλαίας κειμένη καὶ περὶ αὐτὴν κώμας ἔχουσα πολλὰς καί τι καὶ θρασύνεσθαι δυναμένη πρὸς Ῥωμαίους εἴπερ ἠθέλησεν εὐχερῶς, διεγνωκυῖα τῇ πρὸς τοὺς δεσπότας ἐμμένειν πίστει κἀμὲ τῆς πόλεως αὐτῶν ἐξέκλεισε καὶ στρατεύσασθαί τινα τῶν πολιτῶν Ἰουδαίοις ἐκώλυσεν. [347] Ὅπως δὲ καὶ τὰ πρὸς ἡμᾶς ἀσφαλεῖς εἶεν, ἠπάτησάν με τείχεσιν αὐτῶν τὴν πόλιν ὀχυρῶσαι προτρέψαντες, καὶ παρὰ Κεστίου Γάλλου τοῦ τῶν ἐν τῇ Συρίᾳ Ῥωμαϊκῶν ταγμάτων ἡγεμονεύοντος φρουρὰν ἑκόντες ἐδέξαντο, καταφρονήσαντες ἐμοῦ τότε μέγα δυναμένου καὶ πᾶσιν δι᾽ ἐκπλήξεως ὄντος.
[348] Πολιορκουμένης τε τῆς μεγίστης ἡμῶν πόλεως Ἱεροσολύμων καὶ τοῦ κοινοῦ πάντων ἱεροῦ κινδυνεύοντος ἐν τῇ τῶν πολεμίων ἐξουσίᾳ γενέσθαι συμμαχίαν οὐκ ἔπεμψαν μὴ βουλόμενοι δοκεῖν κατὰ Ῥωμαίων ὅπλα λαβεῖν. [349] Ἡ δὲ σὴ πατρίς, ὦ Ἰοῦστε, κειμένη ἐν τῇ Γεννησαρίδι λίμνῃ καὶ ἀπέχουσα Ἵππου μὲν στάδια τριάκοντα, Γαδάρων δὲ ἑξήκοντα, Σκυθοπόλεως δὲ εἴκοσι καὶ ἑκατὸν τῆς ὑπηκόου βασιλεῖ, μηδεμιᾶς δὲ πόλεως Ἰουδαίων παρακειμένης, εἰ ἤθελεν τὴν πρὸς Ῥωμαίους πίστιν φυλάττειν, ῥᾳδίως ἐδύνατο. [350] Καὶ γὰρ πολὺς ἦτε δῆμος καὶ ὅπλων εὐπορεῖτε. Ἀλλ᾽, ὡς σὺ φῄς, αἴτιος ὑμῖν ἐγὼ τότε. Μετὰ ταῦτα δὲ τίς, ὦ Ἰοῦστε; πρὸ γὰρ τῆς Ἱεροσολύμων πολιορκίας οἶδας ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίοις ἐμὲ γενόμενον, καὶ Ἰωτάπατα κατὰ κράτος ληφθέντα φρούριά τε πολλά, πολύν τε Γαλιλαίων ὄχλον κατὰ τὴν μάχην πεσόντα. [351] Τότ᾽ οὖν ἐχρῆν ὑμᾶς παντὸς ἀπηλλαγμένους τοῦ δι᾽ ἐμὲ φόβου ῥῖψαί τε τὰ ὅπλα καὶ παραστῆσαι τῷ βασιλεῖ καὶ Ῥωμαίοις, ὅτι δὴ οὐχ ἑκόντες, ἀλλ᾽ ἀναγκασθέντες ἐπὶ τὸν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὡρμήσατε πόλεμον. [352] Ὑμεῖς δὲ καὶ περιεμείνατε Οὐεσπασιανόν, ἕως αὐτὸς ἀφικόμενος μετὰ πάσης τῆς δυνάμεως προσέλθοι τοῖς τείχεσιν, καὶ τότε διὰ φόβον τὰ ὅπλα κατέθεσθε· καὶ πάντως ἂν ὑμῶν ἡ πόλις ἥλω κατὰ κράτος, εἰ μὴ τῷ βασιλεῖ δεομένῳ καὶ τὴν ἄνοιαν ὑμῶν παραιτουμένῳ συνεχώρησεν Οὐεσπασιανός. Οὐκ ἐγὼ τοίνυν αἴτιος, ἀλλ᾽ ὑμεῖς οἱ πολεμικὰ φρονήσαντες.
[353] Ἢ οὐ μέμνησθε, ὅτι τοσαυτάκις ὑμῶν ἐγκρατὴς γενόμενος οὐδένα διέφθειρα, στασιάζοντες δ᾽ ὑμεῖς πρὸς ἀλλήλους, οὐ διὰ τὴν πρὸς Ῥωμαίους καὶ τὸν βασιλέα εὔνοιαν, διὰ δὲ τὴν ὑμετέραν αὐτῶν πονηρίαν ἑκατὸν ὀγδοηκονταπέντε τῶν πολιτῶν ἀπεκτείνατε, κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν ἐκεῖνον ἐμοῦ πολιορκουμένου ἐν Ἰωταπάτοις ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίων. [354] Τί δ᾽ οὐχὶ καὶ κατὰ τὴν τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων πολιορκίαν δισχίλιοι Τιβεριέων ἐξητάσθησαν, οἱ μὲν πεπτωκότες, οἱ δὲ ληφθέντες αἰχμάλωτοι; ἀλλὰ σὺ πολέμιος οὐ γεγονέναι φήσεις, ὅτι πρὸς βασιλέα τότ᾽ ἔφυγες. Καὶ τοῦτο δὲ διὰ τὸν ἐξ ἐμοῦ φόβον φημί σε πεποιηκέναι. [355] Κἀγὼ μὲν πονηρός, ὡς λέγεις, ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς Ἀγρίππας, ὁ τὴν ψυχήν σοι συγχωρήσας ὑπὸ Οὐεσπασιανοῦ θανεῖν κατακριθέντι, ὁ τοσούτοις δωρησάμενος χρήμασιν, τίνος ἕνεκεν ὕστερον δὶς μὲν ἔδησε, τοσαυτάκις δὲ φυγεῖν τὴν πατρίδα προσέταξεν, καὶ ἀποθανεῖν δὲ κελεύσας ἅπαξ τῇ ἀδελφῇ Βερενίκῃ πολλὰ δεηθείσῃ τὴν σὴν σωτηρίαν ἐχαρίσατο; [356] καὶ μετὰ τοσαῦτα δέ σου κακουργήματα τάξιν ἐπιστολῶν σοι πιστεύσας, ὡς καὶ ταύταις εὗρε ῥᾳδιουργόν, ἀπήλασε τῆς ὄψεως. Ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τούτων ἐλέγχειν ἐπ᾽ ἀκριβὲς ἐῶ.
345 Let me say a few things about you to the rest of the Tiberians and prove to those who encounter this history that you were no friend either to the Romans or to the king. 346 Justus, the greatest cities of Galilee were Sepphoris and your own native Tiberias. But while Sepphoris, situated in the very centre of Galilee and surrounded by many villages, could easily have put up a bold resistance to the Romans, if they had so pleased, they still resolved to continue faithful to them as their masters, and excluded me from their city and let none of their citizens join with the Jews in the war. 347 In order to protect themselves from me, they tricked me and got my permission to fortify their city with walls: they also, of their own accord, accepted a garrison of Roman legions, sent them by Cestius Gallus, who was then governor of Syria and so despised me, though I was then very powerful and all others feared me.
348 Similarly when Jerusalem, the greatest of our cities, was besieged and our temple, which belonged to us all, was in danger of falling into the enemy's power, they sent it no help, unwilling to seem to bear arms against the Romans. 349 But your own native place, Justus, situated on the lake of Gennesareth only thirty furlongs from Hippos, sixty from Gadara and a hundred and twenty from Scythopolis, which was under the king's jurisdiction, and with no Jewish city nearby, how easily it might have stayed faithful to the Romans. 350 The population was large and you had plenty of weapons. But you say it was I who instigated the revolt; then pray, Justus, who instigated it later? For you know that before Jerusalem was besieged I was in the power of the Romans, and Jotapata had been taken by force, and many other fortress, and that many of the Galileans had fallen in the war. 351 Then was the proper time, when you were certainly freed from any fear on my account, to throw down your arms and demonstrate to the king and to the Romans, that it was not by choice, but only under necessity, that you were driven into war against them. 352 But you waited until Vespasian himself came as far as your walls, with his whole army; and then indeed out of fear you laid aside your weapons and your city would for certain have been taken by storm, if Vespasian had not heard with the king's plea for you and excused your madness. It was not I, therefore, who instigated all this, but your own lust for war.
353 Do you not remember how I often had you in my power and yet put none of you to death? Indeed you once began fighting each other, not for any love for the king and the Romans but due to your own malice, and killed one hundred and eighty-five of your citizens, while I was besieged by the Romans in Jotapata. 354 Indeed, were there not as many as two thousand Tiberians caught in the siege of Jerusalem, some of whom were killed and the rest taken prisoner? But you claim that you did not engage in the war, since you fled to the king. Yes, indeed, you did flee to him; but only out of fear of me. 355 You say it was I who was the bad one. But then, why was it that king Agrippa, who saved your life when you were condemned to death by Vespasian, and lavished such riches on you, later had you imprisoned twice and as often made you flee the country, and once, after ordering you to be executed, granted you a pardon at the earnest wish of Berenice? 356 After all your trickery, when he made you his secretary, he caught you tricking again and drove you out of his sight; but I shall enquire no further into these matters.
[357] Θαυμάζειν δ᾽ ἔπεισί μοι τὴν σὴν ἀναίδειαν, ὅτι τολμᾷς λέγειν ἁπάντων τῶν τὴν πραγματείαν ταύτην γεγραφότων αὐτὸς ἄμεινον ἐξηγγελκέναι, μήτε τὰ πραχθέντα κατὰ τὴν Γαλιλαίαν ἐπιστάμενος, ἦς γὰρ ἐν Βηρυτῷ τότε παρὰ βασιλεῖ, μηθ᾽ ὅσα ἔπαθον Ῥωμαῖοι ἐπὶ τῆς Ἰωταπάτων πολιορκίας ἢ ἔδρασαν ἡμᾶς παρακολουθήσας, μήθ᾽ ὅσα κατ᾽ ἐμαυτὸν ἔπραξα πολιορκούμενος δυνηθεὶς πυθέσθαι· πάντες γὰρ οἱ ἀπαγγείλαντες ἂν διεφθάρησαν ἐπὶ τῆς παρατάξεως ἐκείνης. [358] Ἀλλ᾽ ἴσως τὰ κατὰ τὴν Ἱεροσόλυμα πραχθέντα μετὰ ἀκριβείας φήσεις συγγεγραφέναι. Καὶ πῶς οἷόν τε; οὔτε γὰρ τῷ πολέμῳ παρέτυχες οὔτε τὰ Καίσαρος ἀνέγνως ὑπομνήματα. Μέγιστον δὲ τεκμήριον· τοῖς γὰρ Καίσαρος ὑπομνήμασιν ἐναντίαν πεποίησαι τὴν γραφήν. [359] Εἰ δὲ θαρρεῖς ἄμεινον ἁπάντων συγγεγραφέναι, διὰ τί ζώντων Οὐεσπασιανοῦ καὶ Τίτου τῶν αὐτοκρατόρων τῶν τὸν πόλεμον κατεργασαμένων καὶ βασιλέως Ἀγρίππα περιόντος ἔτι καὶ τῶν ἐκ γένους αὐτοῦ πάντων, ἀνδρῶν τῆς Ἑλληνικῆς παιδείας ἐπὶ πλεῖστον ἡκόντων, τὴν ἱστορίαν οὐκ ἔφερες εἰς μέσον; [360] πρὸ γὰρ εἴκοσι ἐτῶν εἶχες γεγραμμένην καὶ παρ᾽ εἰδότων ἔμελλες τῆς ἀκριβείας τὴν μαρτυρίαν ἀποφέρεσθαι· νῦν δ᾽, ὅτ᾽ ἐκεῖνοι μὲν οὐκέτ᾽ εἰσὶν μεθ᾽ ἡμῶν, ἐλεγχθῆναι δ᾽ οὐ νομίζεις, τεθάρρηκας. 357 Yet I cannot I but be amazed at your impudence, that you dare to claim that your report is better than that of all others who have written about it, while you neither knew what happened in Galilee - since you were then at Berytus with the king - nor what the Romans suffered or inflicted on us at the siege of Jotapata; nor could you find out what I myself did during that siege; for all who might have such information died in that siege. 358 Still, you may perhaps claim to have described exactly what was done against the people of Jerusalem. But how could that be? You neither took part in that war, nor have you read the emperor's commentaries, as is evident from the fact that you contradicted those commentaries in your history. 359 But if you are so bold as to claim that your history is better than all the rest, why did you not publish it while the emperors Vespasian and Titus, the generals in that war, as well as king Agrippa and his family, all skilled in Hellenistic culture, were still alive? 360 For you had written it twenty years ago and at that time could have had their testimony to your accuracy. But only now, when these are no longer with us and you think you cannot be contradicted, you venture to publish it.
[361] Οὐ μὴν ἐγώ σοι τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον περὶ τῆς ἐμαυτοῦ γραφῆς ἔδεισα, ἀλλ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἐπέδωκα τοῖς αὐτοκράτορσι τὰ βιβλία μόνον οὐ τῶν ἔργων ἔτι βλεπομένων· συνῄδειν γὰρ ἐμαυτῷ τετηρηκότι τὴν τῆς ἀληθείας παράδοσιν, ἐφ᾽ ᾗ μαρτυρίας τεύξεσθαι προσδοκήσας οὐ διήμαρτον. [362] Καὶ ἄλλοις δὲ πολλοῖς εὐθὺς ἐπέδωκα τὴν ἱστορίαν, ὧν ἔνιοι καὶ παρατετεύχεισαν τῷ πολέμῳ, καθάπερ βασιλεὺς Ἀγρίππας καί τινες αὐτοῦ τῶν συγγενῶν. [363] Ὁ μὲν γὰρ αὐτοκράτωρ Τίτος ἐκ μόνων αὐτῶν ἐβουλήθη τὴν γνῶσιν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις παραδοῦναι τῶν πράξεων, ὥστε χαράξας τῇ ἑαυτοῦ χειρὶ τὰ βιβλία δημοσιῶσαι προσέταξεν, [364] ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς Ἀγρίππας ἑξηκονταδύο γέγραφεν ἐπιστολὰς τῇ τῆς ἀληθείας παραδόσει μαρτυρῶν. Ὧν δὴ καὶ δύο ὑπέταξα καὶ βουληθέντι σοι τὰ γεγραμμένα γνῶναι πάρεστιν ἐξ αὐτῶν· [365] "Βασιλεὺς Ἀγρίππας Ἰωσήπῳ τῷ φιλτάτῳ χαίρειν. Ἥδιστα διῆλθον τὴν βύβλον, καί μοι πολὺ ἐπιμελέστερον ἔδοξας τῶν ταῦτα συγγραψάντων ἠκριβωκέναι. 361 I had no such fear about my own writing, but I presented my books to the emperors themselves, when the facts were barely faded from sight; for I was conscious of preserving the truth of the facts; and as I was confident of their testimony to them, my hopes were not disappointed. 362 Moreover, I immediately presented my history to many others, some of whom were involved in the war, as was king Agrippa and some of his family. 363 The emperor Titus was so anxious that people should learn of these matters only from my books, that he signed them himself and ordered that they be published. 364 And king Agrippa wrote me sixty-two letters attesting to the truth of my record, two of which I have attached here, that you may know what is written in them: 365 "King Agrippa to dearest Josephus, greetings. I have read the book with great pleasure. Of all writers, you appear to me to have written these things with far the greatest care and accuracy. Send me the remaining volumes. Farewell."
[366] Πέμπε δέ μοι καὶ τὰς λοιπάς. Ἔρρωσο. Βασιλεὺς Ἀγρίππας Ἰωσήπῳ τῷ φιλτάτῳ χαίρειν. Ἐξ ὧν ἔγραψας οὐδεμιᾶς ἔοικας χρῄζειν διδασκαλίας ὑπὲρ τοῦ μαθεῖν ἡμᾶς ὅλους ἀρχῆθεν. Ὅταν μέντοι συντύχῃς μοι, καὶ αὐτός σε πολλὰ κατηχήσω τῶν ἀγνοουμένων."
[367] Ἐμοὶ δὲ ἀπαρτισθείσης τῆς ἱστορίας ἀληθείᾳ οὐ κολακεύων, οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐπέβαλλεν αὐτῷ, οὐδὲ εἰρωνευόμενος, ὡς σὺ φήσεις, πόρρω γὰρ ἦν ἐκεῖνος τοιαύτης κακοηθείας, ἀλλὰ τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἐμαρτύρει, καθάπερ πάντες οἱ ταῖς ἱστορίαις ἐντυγχάνοντες. Ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν πρὸς Ἰοῦστον ἀναγκαίαν λαβόντα τὴν παρέκβασιν μέχρι τούτων ἡμῖν λελέχθω.
366 "King Agrippa to dearest Josephus, greetings. From what you wrote, you seem to need no instruction, in order to let us know all things from the beginning. But when you meet me, I will inform you of much that is unknown."
367 So when this history was finished, it was neither by way of flattery, for that was not his way, nor, as you will claim, by way of irony (for he was above such malice) but quite sincerely, that he, like all who have read these histories, attested to their truth. Here I end my digression about Justus which he forced upon me.
[368] Διοικήσας δ᾽ ἐγὼ τὰ κατὰ τὴν Τιβεριάδα καὶ καθίσας τῶν φίλων συνέδριον ἐβουλευόμην περὶ τῶν πρὸς Ἰωάννην πραχθησομένων. Ἐδόκει μὲν οὖν πᾶσι τοῖς Γαλιλαίοις ὁπλίσαντα πάντας ἀπελθεῖν ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰωάννην καὶ λαβεῖν παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ δίκας ὡς πάσης τῆς στάσεως αἰτίου γεγονότος. [369] Οὐκ ἠρεσκόμην δ᾽ ἐγὼ ταῖς γνώμαις αὐτῶν προαίρεσιν ἔχων τὰς ταραχὰς χωρὶς φόνου καταστέλλειν. Ὅθεν δὴ παρῄνεσα πᾶσαν εἰσενέγκασθαι πρόνοιαν ὑπὲρ τοῦ γνῶναι τὰ ὀνόματα τῶν ὑπὸ τὸν Ἰωάννην ὄντων. [370] Ποιησάντων δ᾽ ἐκείνων γνοὺς ἐγὼ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους οἵτινες ἦσαν ἐξέθηκα πρόγραμμα, διὰ τούτου πίστιν καὶ δεξιὰν προτείνων τοῖς μετὰ Ἰωάννου θελήσασιν λαβεῖν μετάνοιαν, καὶ ἡμερῶν εἴκοσι χρόνον προέτεινα τοῖς βουλεύσασθαι θέλουσιν περὶ τῶν ἑαυτοῖς συμφερόντων. Ἠπείλουν δέ, εἰ μὴ ῥίψουσιν τὰ ὅπλα, καταπρήσειν αὐτῶν τὰς οἰκήσεις καὶ δημοσιώσειν τὰς οὐσίας. [371] Ταῦτα δὲ ἀκούσαντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι καὶ ταραχθέντες οὔ τι μετρίως καταλείπουσιν μὲν τὸν Ἰωάννην, τὰ δ᾽ ὅπλα ῥίψαντες ἧκον πρός με τετρακισχίλιοι τὸν ἀριθμὸν ὄντες. [372] Μόνοι δὲ τῷ Ἰωάννῃ παρέμειναν οἱ πολῖται καὶ ξένοι τινὲς ἐκ τῆς Τυρίων μητροπόλεως ὡς χίλιοι καὶ πεντακόσιοι. Ἰωάννης μὲν οὖν οὕτω καταστρατηγηθεὶς ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ τὸ λοιπὸν ἐν τῇ πατρίδι περίφοβος ἔμεινεν. 66. 368 When I had settled the affairs of Tiberias I called a meeting of my friends and consulted them on what to do about John. The unanimous opinion of the Galileans was that I should arm them and march against John to punish him as the author of all the disorders that had happened. 369 Yet I did not share their view, as I wished to resolve these troubles without bloodshed, so I urged them to carefully find out the names of all that were under John. 370 When they had done this and I knew who the men were, I published an edict, offering security and my guarantee to those of John's side who wished to repent; I allowed twenty days' time to any who wished to take this course for their own good. I also threatened, if they did not throw down their arms, to would burn their houses and offer their goods for public sale. 371 When they heard this, they were alarmed and deserted John; and four thousand of them threw down their arms and joined me. 372 Only his fellow-citizens stayed with John, with about fifteen hundred aliens from the metropolis of Tyre; and outmanoeuvred by me, from then on John was afraid and stayed in his own town.

Chapter 11. Josephus tries to spare Sepphoris and Tiberias

[373] Κατὰ τοῦτον δὲ τὸν καιρὸν Σεπφωρῖται θαρρήσαντες ἀναλαμβάνουσιν ὅπλα πεποιθότες τῇ τε τῶν τειχῶν ὀχυρότητι καὶ τῷ πρὸς ἑτέροις ὄντα με ὁρᾶν. Πέμπουσι δὴ πρὸς Κέστιον Γάλλον, Συρίας δ᾽ ἦν οὗτος ἡγεμών, παρακαλοῦντες ἢ αὐτὸν ἥκειν θᾶττον παραληψόμενον αὐτῶν τὴν πόλιν ἢ πέμψαι τοὺς φρουρήσοντας. [374] Ὁ δὲ Γάλλος ἐλεύσεσθαι μὲν ὑπέσχετο, πότε δὲ οὐ διεσάφησεν. Κἀγὼ ταῦτα πυθόμενος, ἀναλαβὼν τοὺς σὺν ἐμοὶ στρατιώτας καὶ ὁρμήσας ἐπὶ τοὺς Σεπφωρίτας εἷλον αὐτῶν κατὰ κράτος τὴν πόλιν. [375] Λαβόμενοι δ᾽ ἀφορμῆς οἱ Γαλιλαῖοι καὶ παρεῖναι τοῦ μίσους τὸν καιρὸν οὐ βουληθέντες, εἶχον γὰρ ἀπεχθῶς καὶ πρὸς ταύτην τὴν πόλιν, ὥρμησαν ὡς ἄρδην ἀφανίσοντες πάντας σὺν τοῖς ἐποίκοις. [376] Εἰσδραμόντες οὖν ἐνεπίμπρασαν αὐτῶν τὰς οἰκίας ἐρήμους καταλαμβάνοντες· οἱ γὰρ ἄνθρωποι δείσαντες εἰς τὴν ἀκρόπολιν συνέφυγον· διήρπαζον δὲ πάντα καὶ τρόπον οὐδένα πορθήσεως κατὰ τῶν ὁμοφύλων παρελίμπανον. [377] Ταῦτ᾽ ἐγὼ θεασάμενος σφόδρα διετέθην ἀνιαρῶς καὶ παύεσθαι προσέταττον αὐτοῖς, ὑπομιμνήσκων ὅτι τοιαῦτα δρᾶν ὁμοφύλους οὐκ ἔστιν ὅσιον. [378] Ἐπεὶ δ᾽ οὔτε παρακαλοῦντος οὔτε προστάσσοντος ἤκουον, ἐνίκα δὲ τὸ μῖσος τὰς παραινέσεις, τοὺς πιστοτάτους τῶν περὶ ἐμὲ φίλων ἐκέλευσα διαδοῦναι λόγους, ὡς Ῥωμαίων μετὰ μεγάλης δυνάμεως κατὰ τὸ ἕτερον μέρος τῆς πόλεως εἰσβεβληκότων. [379] Ταῦτα δ᾽ ἐποίουν ὑπὲρ τοῦ τῆς φήμης ἐμπεσούσης ἐπισχεῖν μὲν τῶν Γαλιλαίων τὰς ὁρμάς, διασῶσαι δὲ τὴν τῶν Σεπφωριτῶν πόλιν. Καὶ τέλος προυχώρησε τὸ στρατήγημα· [380] τῆς γὰρ ἀγγελίας ἀκούσαντες ἐφοβήθησαν ὑπὲρ αὑτῶν· καὶ καταλιπόντες τὰς ἁρπαγὰς ἔφευγον, μάλιστα δ᾽, ἐπεὶ κἀμὲ τὸν στρατηγὸν ἑώρων ταῦτα ποιοῦντα· πρὸς γὰρ τὸ πιστὸν τῆς φήμης ἐσκηπτόμην ὁμοίως αὐτοῖς διατεθεῖσθαι. Σεπφωρῖται δὲ παρ᾽ ἐλπίδα τὴν ἑαυτῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐμοῦ σοφίσματος ἐσώθησαν. 67. 373 About this time the Sepphorites, confident in the strength of their walls and because they seeing me busy with other matters, boldly took up arms. They sent to Cestius Gallus, the governor of Syria, asking him either to come quickly and take their city under his protection, or to send them a garrison. 374 Accordingly, Gallus promised to come, but did not say when he would come; so when I learned this, I took my soldiers and attacked the Sepphorites and took the city by force. 375 The Galileans, seeing this as an this opportunity to vent their hatred on a city they detested, rushed forward intending to destroy them all including the aliens living there. 376 So they rushed in and finding their houses empty, set them on fire, for the people had fled in fear to the citadel. They looted everything and spared their countrymen no kind of misery. 377 I was distressed at this and ordered them to stop, reminding them that it was impious to do such things to their own countrymen. 378 But since they heeded neither my urgings nor my orders, for their hatred for the people there was stronger than all my words, I bade my closest and most faithful friends to spread a rumour that the Romans were attacking the other side of the city with a large army. 379 This I did so that, when this report spread around it would restrain the violence of the Galileans and save the city of Sepphoris. 380 In the end this plan worked; for when they heard this report, fearing for their own selves they left off looting and ran away; and especially when they saw me, their general, also doing the same; for, to make this report credible I also pretended to be as much afraid as they. That is how the Sepphorites were unexpectedly saved by this trick of mine.
[381] Καὶ Τιβεριὰς δὲ παρ᾽ ὀλίγον ἀνηρπάσθη ὑπὸ Γαλιλαίων τοιαύτης αἰτίας ὑποπεσούσης· τῶν ἐκ τῆς βουλῆς οἱ πρῶτοι γράφουσι πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα παρακαλοῦντες ἀφικέσθαι πρὸς αὐτοὺς παραληψόμενον τὴν πόλιν. [382] Ὑπέσχετο δ᾽ ὁ βασιλεὺς ἔρχεσθαι, καὶ τὰς ἐπιστολὰς ἀντιγράφει καὶ τῶν περὶ τὸν κοιτῶνα τινί, Κρίσπῳ μὲν τοὔνομα, τὸ δὲ γένος Ἰουδαίῳ, δίδωσι πρὸς τοὺς Τιβεριεῖς φέρειν. [383] Τοῦτον κομίσαντα τὰ γράμματα γνωρίσαντες οἱ Γαλιλαῖοι καὶ συλλαβόντες ἄγουσιν ἐπ᾽ ἐμέ. Τὸ δὲ πᾶν πλῆθος, ὡς ἤκουσεν, παροξυνθὲν ἐφ᾽ ὅπλα τρέπεται. [384] Συναχθέντες δὲ πολλοὶ πολλαχόθεν κατὰ τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν ἧκον εἰς Ἄσωχιν πόλιν, ἔνθα δὴ τὴν κατάλυσιν ἐποιούμην, καταβοήσεις τε σφόδρα ἐποιοῦντο, προδότιν ἀποκαλοῦντες τὴν Τιβεριάδα καὶ βασιλέως φίλην, ἐπιτρέπειν τε ἠξίουν αὐτοῖς καταβᾶσιν ἄρδην ἀφανίσαι· καὶ γὰρ πρὸς τοὺς Τιβεριεῖς εἶχον ἀπεχθῶς, ὡς πρὸς τοὺς Σεπφωρίτας. 68. 381 Indeed, even Tiberias narrowly escaped being plundered by the Galileans, on the following occasion: The leaders of the council wrote to the king, asking him to come to them and take over their city. 382 The king promised to come and wrote a letter in response, giving it to his chamberlain, named Crispus, who was by birth a Jew, to bring it to Tiberias. 383 When the Galileans learned that this man carried such a letter, they caught him and brought him to me; and as soon as the crowd heard of it, they were enraged and took to arms. 384 Next day a great many of them came from all quarters to the town of Asochis, where I was then staying and bitterly complained, calling the city of Tiberias a traitor to them and a friend to the king; and asking my leave to go down and utterly destroy it; for they hated the Tiberians as much as the Sepphorites.
[385] Ἐγὼ δ᾽ ἀκούσας ἠπόρουν, τίνα τρόπον ἐξαρπάσω τὴν Τιβεριάδα τῆς Γαλιλαίων ὀργῆς. Ἀρνήσασθαι γὰρ οὐκ ἐδυνάμην μὴ γεγραφέναι τοὺς Τιβεριεῖς καλοῦντας τὸν βασιλέα· ἤλεγχον γὰρ αἱ παρ᾽ ἐκείνου πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἀντιγραφαὶ τὴν ἀλήθειαν. [386] Σύννους οὖν πολλὴν γενόμενος ὥραν, "Ὅτι μὲν ἠδικήκασιν, εἶπον, Τιβεριεῖς, οἶδα κἀγώ, τὴν πόλιν δ᾽ αὐτῶν ὑμᾶς οὐ κωλύσω διαρπάσαι. Δεῖ δ᾽ ὅμως καὶ μετὰ κρίσεως τὰ τηλικαῦτα πράττειν· οὐ γὰρ μόνοι Τιβεριεῖς προδόται τῆς ἐλευθερίας ἡμῶν γεγόνασιν, ἀλλὰ πολλοὶ καὶ τῶν ἐν Γαλιλαίᾳ δοκιμωτάτων. [387] Προσμείνατε δὴ μέχρι τοὺς αἰτίους ἀκριβῶς ἐκμάθω, καὶ τότε πάντας ὑποχειρίους ἕξετε καὶ ὅσους ἰδίᾳ ἐπάξαι δυνήσεσθε." [388] Ταῦτ᾽ εἰπὼν ἔπεισα τὸ πλῆθος καὶ παυσάμενοι τῆς ὀργῆς διελύθησαν. Τὸν παρὰ βασιλέως δὲ πεμφθέντα δῆσαι κελεύσας, μετ᾽ οὐ πολλὰς ἡμέρας ἐπί τινα τῶν ἐμαυτοῦ χρειῶν ἐπείγουσαν σκηψάμενος ἐκδημεῖν τῆς βασιλείας, καλέσας τὸν Κρῖσπον λάθρα προσέταξα μεθύσαι τὸν στρατιώτην φύλακα καὶ φυγεῖν πρὸς βασιλέα· μὴ γὰρ διωχθήσεσθαι. [389] Καὶ ὁ μὲν ταῖς ὑποθήκαις πεισθεὶς διέφυγε· Τιβεριὰς δὲ μέλλουσα δεύτερον ἀφανίζεσθαι στρατηγίᾳ τῇ ἐμῇ καὶ προνοίᾳ τῇ περὶ αὐτῆς ὀξὺν οὕτως κίνδυνον διέφυγεν. 69. 385 When I heard this, I was stuck for a way to save Tiberias from the rage of the Galileans, since I could not deny that the Tiberians had written to the king inviting him to come to them; his answering letters to them proved the truth of that. 386 So I sat a long time musing and then said to them, "I know well enough how the Tiberians have offended and will not stop you from plundering the city. But such things should be done with care, for the Tiberians are not the only ones to betray our liberty, for many of the foremost Galileans have done likewise. 387 So wait until I find out exactly who are guilty and then you shall have them all together under your power, along with whoever you shall yourselves bring in." 388 With these words I mollified the people so that they calmed their anger and went away. Then I ordered the man who had brought the king's letters to be put in chains and some days later I made some pretext to leave the kingdom, and secretly calling on Crispus, told him to make the soldier guarding him drunk, and so escape to the king. 389 So when Tiberias was in danger of being utterly destroyed a second time, it escaped the danger by my skill and the care that I had to preserve it.
[390] Κατὰ τοῦτον δὲ τὸν καιρὸν Ἰοῦστος ὁ Πιστοῦ παῖς λαθὼν ἐμὲ διαδιδράσκει πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα. Τὴν αἰτίαν δὲ δι᾽ ἣν τοῦτ᾽ ἔπραξεν ἀφηγήσομαι. [391] Λαβόντος ἀρχὴν Ἰουδαίοις τοῦ πρὸς Ῥωμαίους πολέμου Τιβεριεῖς διεγνώκεισαν ὑπακούειν βασιλεῖ καὶ Ῥωμαίων μὴ ἀφίστασθαι. Πείθει δ᾽ αὐτοὺς Ἰοῦστος ἐφ᾽ ὅπλα χωρῆσαι νεωτέρων αὐτὸς ἐφιέμενος πραγμάτων καὶ δι᾽ ἐλπίδος ἔχων ἄρξειν Γαλιλαίων τε καὶ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ πατρίδος. [392] Οὐ μὴν τῶν προσδοκηθέντων ἐπέτυχεν· Γαλιλαῖοί τε γὰρ ἐχθρῶς ἔχοντες πρὸς τοὺς Τιβεριεῖς διὰ μῆνιν ὧν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ πρὸ τοῦ πολέμου πεπόνθεισαν, [393] οὐκ ἠνείχοντο στρατηγοῦντος αὐτῶν Ἰούστου, κἀγὼ δὲ τὴν προστασίαν τῆς Γαλιλαίας πιστευθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ κοινοῦ τῶν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν, πολλάκις εἰς τοσαύτην ἧκον ὀργήν, ὡς ὀλίγου δεῖν ἀποκτεῖναι τὸν Ἰοῦστον, φέρειν αὐτοῦ τὴν μοχθηρίαν οὐ δυνάμενος. Δείσας οὖν ἐκεῖνος, μὴ καὶ λάβῃ τέλος ἅπαξ ὁ θυμός, ἔπεμψε πρὸς βασιλέα Κρῖσπον ἀσφαλέστερον οἰκήσειν παρ᾽ ἐκείνῳ νομίζων. 70. 390 About this time, without my knowledge, Justus, son of Pistus, fled away to the king; the occasion of which I will here relate. 391 At the beginning of the war between the Jews and Romans, the Tiberians resolved to submit to the king and not to revolt from the Romans; while Justus tried to persuade them to take up arms, being eager for revolt and having hopes of gaining power over Galilee, as well as over his native town. 392 Still he did not get what he hoped for, because the Galileans bore ill-will to those of Tiberias, due to their anger at what they had suffered from them before the war; that is why they would not endure Justus as their governor. 393 I myself who had been entrusted with the government of Galilee by the Jerusalem council, was often so enraged at Justus, that unable to bear his malice I could almost have killed him. He was so fearful that my passion should finally overboil, that he went to the king, thinking that he would live more safely with him.

Chapter 12. Siege of Sepphoris; Josephus fights the Romans

[394] Σεπφωρῖται δὲ παραδόξως τὸν πρῶτον κίνδυνον διαφυγόντες πρὸς Κέστιον Γάλλον ἔπεμψαν ἥκειν παρακαλοῦντες ὡς αὐτοὺς θᾶττον παραληψόμενον τὴν πόλιν, ἢ πέμπειν δύναμιν τὴν ἀνακόψουσαν τὰς ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς τῶν πολεμίων ἐπιδρομάς· καὶ τέλος ἔπεισαν τὸν Γάλλον πέμψαι δύναμιν αὐτοῖς ἱππικήν τε καὶ πεζικήν, ἣν ἐλθοῦσαν νυκτὸς εἰσεδέξαντο. [395] Κακουμένης δὲ ὑπὸ τῆς Ῥωμαϊκῆς στρατιᾶς τῆς [πέριξ] χώρας ἀναλαβὼν ἐγὼ τοὺς περὶ ἐμὲ στρατιώτας ἧκον εἰς Γαρεις κώμην. Ἔνθα βαλόμενος χάρακα πόρρω τῆς Σεπφωριτῶν πόλεως ἀπὸ σταδίων εἴκοσι νυκτὸς ἐπ᾽ αὐτῇ προσέμιξα καὶ τοῖς τείχεσι προσέβαλλον, [396] καὶ διὰ κλιμάκων ἐμβιβάσας συχνοὺς τῶν στρατιωτῶν ἐγκρατὴς τοῦ πλείστου τῆς πόλεως μέρους ἐγενόμην, μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺ δὲ διὰ τὴν τῶν τόπων ἄγνοιαν ἀναγκασθέντες ὑπεχωρήσαμεν, ἀνελόντες Ῥωμαίων μὲν ἱππεῖς δύο, πεζοὺς δὲ δέκα, ὀλίγους δὲ Σεπφωριτῶν, αὐτοὶ δ᾽ ἕνα μόνον ἀπεβάλομεν. [397] Γενομένης δ᾽ ὕστερον ἡμῖν κατὰ τὸ πεδίον μάχης πρὸς τοὺς ἱππεῖς μέχρι πολλοῦ καρτερῶς διακινδυνεύσαντες ἡττήθημεν· περιελθόντων γὰρ τῶν Ῥωμαίων οἱ μετ᾽ ἐμοῦ δείσαντες ἔφυγον εἰς τοὐπίσω. Πίπτει δ᾽ ἐπὶ τῆς παρατάξεως ἐκείνης εἷς τῶν πεπιστευμένων τὴν τοῦ σώματός μου φυλακὴν Ἰοῦστος τοὔνομα καὶ παρὰ βασιλεῖ ποτε τὴν αὐτὴν τάξιν ἐσχηκώς. [398] Κατὰ τοῦτον δὲ τὸν καιρὸν ἡ παρὰ βασιλέως δύναμις ἧκεν ἱππική τε καὶ πεζικὴ καὶ Σύλλας ἐπ᾽ αὐτῆς ἡγεμὼν ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν σωματοφυλάκων. Οὗτος οὖν βαλόμενος στρατόπεδον Ἰουλιάδος ἀπέχον σταδίους πέντε φρουρὰν ἐφίστησιν ταῖς ὁδοῖς, τῇ τε εἰς Σελεύκειαν ἀγούσῃ καὶ τῇ εἰς Γάμαλα τὸ φρούριον, ὑπὲρ τοῦ τὰς παρὰ τῶν Γαλιλαίων ὠφελείας τοῖς ἐνοίκοις ἀποκλείειν. 71. 394 When the Sepphorites had so surprisingly escaped their first danger, they sent to Cestius Gallus, asking him to come and take over their city immediately, or else to send enough forces to block their enemies from raiding them; and at the last they prevailed on Gallus to send them a force of cavalry and infantry, which arrived by night and which they admitted into the city. 395 But when the countryside round about was harassed by the Roman army, I took my men and came to Garis, where I dug in, about twenty furlongs away from Sepphoris. Then I made a night attack upon its walls with my forces. 396 When I had ordered a number of my soldiers to scale them with ladders, I got control of most of the city. But soon after, our unfamiliarity with the places forced us to retire, after we had killed twelve of the Roman infantry and two horsemen and a few of the Sepphorites, with the loss of only one of our own men. 397 Afterwards, in a battle against the horsemen in the plain after a long and dogged resistance, we were beaten; for when the Romans surrounded me, my soldiers were afraid and fell back. In that battle one of my bodyguards named Justus, who had previously served the king in the same role, was killed. 398 At the same time reinforcements, both horsemen and infantry, came from the king, under the command of Sulla, the captain of his bodyguard. Sulla encamped five furlongs from Julias and posted a guard upon the roads, one leading to Cana and the other to the Gamala fortress, to prevent their inhabitants from getting provisions from Galilee.
[399] Ταῦτα δ᾽ ὡς ἐπυθόμην ἐγὼ πέμπω δισχιλίους ὁπλίτας καὶ στρατηγὸν αὐτῶν Ἱερεμίαν, οἳ δὴ καὶ χάρακα θέντες ἀπὸ σταδίου τῆς Ἰουλιάδος πλησίον τοῦ Ἰορδάνου ποταμοῦ πλέον ἀκροβολισμῶν οὐδὲν ἔπραξαν, μέχρι τρισχιλίους στρατιώτας αὐτὸς ἀναλαβὼν ἧκον πρὸς αὐτούς. [400] Κατὰ δὲ τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν ἡμέραν ἔν τινι φάραγγι καθίσας λόχον οὐκ ἄπωθεν αὐτῶν τοῦ χάρακος προεκαλούμην τοὺς βασιλικοὺς εἰς μάχην, παραινέσας τοῖς μετ᾽ ἐμοῦ στρατιώταις στρέψαι τὰ νῶτα, μέχρις ἂν ἐπισπάσωνται τοὺς πολεμίους προελθεῖν· ὅπερ καὶ ἐγένετο. [401] Σύλλας γὰρ εἰκάσας ταῖς ἀληθείαις τοὺς ἡμετέρους φεύγειν προελθὼν ἐπιδιώκειν οἷός τε ἦν, κατὰ νώτου δ᾽ αὐτὸν λαμβάνουσιν οἱ ἐκ τῆς ἐνέδρας καὶ σφόδρα πάντας ἐθορύβησαν. [402] Ἐγὼ δ᾽ εὐθὺς ὀξείᾳ χρησάμενος ὑποστροφῇ μετὰ τῆς δυνάμεως ὑπήντησα τοῖς βασιλικοῖς καὶ εἰς φυγὴν ἔτρεψα. Κἂν κατώρθωτό μοι κατὰ τὴν ἡμέραν ἐκείνην ἡ πρᾶξις μὴ ἐμποδὼν γενομένου δαίμονός τινος· [403] ὁ γὰρ ἵππος, ἐφ᾽ ᾧ τὴν μάχην ἐποιούμην, εἰς τελματώδη τόπον ἐμπεσὼν συγκατήνεγκέ με ἐπὶ τοὔδαφος. Θραύσεως δὲ τῶν ἄρθρων γενομένης ἐπὶ τὸν ταρσὸν τῆς χειρὸς ἐκομίσθην εἰς κώμην Κεφαρνωκὸν λεγομένην. [404] Οἱ δὲ ταῦτ᾽ ἀκούσαντες καὶ δεδοικότες, μή τι χεῖρον ἔπαθον, τῆς μὲν ἐπὶ πλέον διώξεως ἀπέσχοντο, ὑπέστρεφον δὲ περὶ ἐμὲ λίαν ἀγωνιῶντες. Μεταπεμψάμενος οὖν ἰατροὺς καὶ θεραπευθεὶς τὴν ἡμέραν ἐκείνην αὐτοῦ κατέμεινα πυρέξας, δόξαν τε τοῖς ἰατροῖς τῆς νυκτὸς εἰς Ταριχέας μετεκομίσθην. 72. 399 Learning of this, I sent two thousand soldiers and their captain, Jeremiah, who dug in a furlong from Julias, near the river Jordan and did no more than skirmish with the enemy, untilI myself took three thousand soldiers and came to them. 400 Next day, when I had laid an ambush in a certain valley not far from the ramparts, I provoked the royal troops to come out to battle and ordered my own soldiers to turn their backs upon them, to draw the enemy away from their camp and bring them out into the field, which was done accordingly. 401 Sulla, thinking that our party really was escaping, began pursuing them, when our soldiers in ambush took them from the rear and put them all into great confusion. 402 Immediately I too made a sudden turn with my own forces and met those of the king's party and put them to flight; and I would have performed great deeds that day, if not prevented by some demon. 403 For the horse I rode, and on whose back I fought, fell into a quagmire and threw me on the ground and I broke some bones in my wrist, and was carried into a village named Cepharnome, or Capernaum. 404 When my men heard about this, they were afraid I had been hurt worse than I was; and so they did not continue their pursuit but returned in great anxiety on my account. I sent for physicians and after their treatment I continued feverish that day; then at night, under doctor's orders, I was taken to Tarichea.
[405] Σύλλας δὲ καὶ οἱ μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ πυθόμενοι τὰ κατ᾽ ἐμὲ πάλιν ἐθάρρησαν, καὶ γνόντες ἀμελεῖσθαι τὰ περὶ τὴν φυλακὴν τοῦ στρατοπέδου διὰ νυκτὸς ἱππέων λόχον ἱδρύσαντες ἐν τῷ πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, γενομένης ἡμέρας εἰς μάχην ἡμᾶς προεκαλέσαντο. [406] Τῶν δ᾽ ὑπακουσάντων καὶ μέχρι τοῦ πεδίου προελθόντων ἐπιφανέντες οἱ ἐκ τῆς ἐνέδρας ἱππεῖς καὶ ταράξαντες αὐτοὺς εἰς φυγὴν ἔτρεψαν ἕξ τε τῶν ἡμετέρων ἀπέκτειναν, οὐ μὴν μέχρι τέλους τὴν νίκην ἤγαγον· καταπεπλευκέναι γάρ τινας ὁπλίτας ἀκούσαντες ἀπὸ Ταριχεῶν εἰς Ἰουλιάδα φοβηθέντες ἀνεχώρησαν. 73. 405 When Sulla and his party were told what happened to me, they took courage again; and hearing that the watch was negligently kept in our camp, by night they placed a body of horsemen in ambush beyond the Jordan and when it was day they provoked us to fight. 406 When we did not refuse it, but came into the plain, their horsemen appeared out of the ambush where they had lain and putting our men into disorder made them run away; so they killed six men of our side. Still they did not in the end follow up the victory; for when they heard that some soldiers had sailed from Tarichea to Julias, they were afraid and retreated.
[407] Μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺν δὲ χρόνον Οὐεσπασιανὸς εἰς Τύρον ἀφικνεῖται καὶ σὺν αὐτῷ ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἀγρίππας. Καὶ οἱ Τύριοι βλασφημεῖν ἤρξαντο τὸν βασιλέα Τυρίων αὐτὸν καλοῦντες καὶ Ῥωμαίων πολέμιον· τὸν γὰρ στρατοπεδάρχην αὐτοῦ Φίλιππον ἔλεγον προδεδωκέναι τὴν βασιλικὴν αὐλὴν καὶ τὰς Ῥωμαίων δυνάμεις τὰς οὔσας ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις κατὰ τὴν αὐτοῦ πρόσταξιν. [408] Οὐεσπασιανὸς δὲ ἀκούσας Τυρίοις μὲν ἐπέπληξεν ὑβρίζουσιν ἄνδρα καὶ βασιλέα καὶ Ῥωμαίοις φίλον, τῷ δὲ βασιλεῖ παρῄνεσεν πέμψαι Φίλιππον εἰς Ῥώμην ὑφέξοντα λόγον Νέρωνι περὶ τῶν πεπραγμένων. [409] Φίλιππος δὲ πεμφθεὶς οὐχ ἧκεν εἰς ὄψιν Νέρωνι· καταλαβὼν γὰρ αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς ἐσχάτοις ὄντα διὰ τὰς ἐμπεσούσας ταραχὰς καὶ τὸν ἐμφύλιον πόλεμον ὑπέστρεψε πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα. [410] Ἐπεὶ δὲ Οὐεσπασιανὸς εἰς Πτολεμαΐδα παρεγένετο, οἱ πρῶτοι τῶν τῆς Συρίας δέκα πόλεων κατεβόων Ἰούστου τοῦ Τιβεριέως, ὅτι τὰς κώμας αὐτῶν ἐμπρήσειεν. Παρέδωκεν οὖν αὐτὸν Οὐεσπασιανὸς τῷ βασιλεῖ κολασθησόμενον ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς βασιλείας ὑποτελῶν· ὁ βασιλεὺς δ᾽ αὐτὸν ἔδησεν ἐπικρυψάμενος τοῦτο Οὐεσπασιανόν, ὡς ἀνωτέρω δεδηλώκαμεν. [411] Σεπφωρῖται δ᾽ ὑπαντήσαντες καὶ ἀσπασάμενοι Οὐεσπασιανὸν λαμβάνουσι δύναμιν καὶ στρατηγὸν Πλάκιδον, ἀναβάντες δὲ μετὰ τούτων ἑπομένου μου * ἄχρι τῆς εἰς Γαλιλαίαν Οὐεσπασιανοῦ ἀφίξεως. [412] Περὶ ἧς τίνα τρόπον ἐγένετο, καὶ πῶς περὶ Γάρις κώμην τὴν πρώτην πρὸς ἐμὲ μάχην ἐποιήσατο, καὶ ὡς ἐκεῖθεν εἰς τὰ Ἰωτάπατα ἀνεχώρησα, καὶ τὰ πεπραγμένα μοι κατὰ τὴν ταύτης πολιορκίαν, καὶ ὃν τρόπον ζῶν ληφθεὶς ἐδέθην καὶ πῶς ἐλύθην, πάντα τε τὰ πεπραγμένα μοι κατὰ τὸν Ἰουδαϊκὸν πόλεμον καὶ τὴν Ἱεροσολύμων πολιορκίαν μετ᾽ ἀκριβείας ἐν ταῖς περὶ τοῦ Ἰουδαϊκοῦ πολέμου βίβλοις ἀπήγγελκα. [413] Ἀναγκαῖον δ᾽ ἐστίν, ὡς οἶμαι, καὶ ὅσα μὴ κατὰ τὸν Ἰουδαϊκὸν πόλεμον ἀνέγραψα τῶν ἐν τῷ βίῳ μου πεπραγμένων νῦν προσαναγράψα 74. 407 Soon afterwards Vespasian came to Tyre along with king Agrippa, but the Tyrians began to insult the king and called him an enemy to the Romans. For they said that Philip, the general of his army, had betrayed the royal palace and the Roman forces that were in Jerusalem and that it was done at his command. 408 When Vespasian heard this report, he reprimanded the Tyrians for insulting a man who was both a king and a friend to the Romans; but he urged the king to send Philip to Rome, to answer before Nero for what he had done. 409 When Philip was sent there, he never got into the presence of Nero, for he found the emperor very near to death, due to his troubles at that time and a civil war; and so he returned to the king. 410 After Vespasian arrived in Ptolemais, the leaders of Decapolis of Syria complained that Justus of Tiberias had set their villages on fire, so Vespasian handed him over to the king, to be put to death by the king's men; but the king only put him in chains and concealed it from Vespasian, as we said earlier. 411 The Sepphorites met Vespasian and greeted him and sent him forces under their general, Placidus, who went up with them. I also pursued them, until Vespasian came into Galilee. 412 I have given an accurate account in my books about the War of the Jews about his coming and how it was ordered and how he fought his first battle with me near the village Tarichea and how from there they went to Jotapata and how I was taken alive and bound and how I was later set free, along with all that I did in the Jewish war and during the siege of Jerusalem. 413 But I think I should now add an account of those actions of my life not told in that book on the Jewish war.

Chapter 13. Josephus taken prisoner; his later career in Rome

[414] Τῆς γὰρ τῶν Ἰωταπάτων πολιορκίας λαβούσης τέλος γενόμενος παρὰ Ῥωμαίοις μετὰ πάσης ἐπιμελείας ἐφυλασσόμην τὰ πολλὰ διὰ τιμῆς ἄγοντός με Οὐεσπασιανοῦ, καὶ δὴ κελεύσαντος αὐτοῦ ἠγαγόμην τινὰ παρθένον ἐκ τῶν αἰχμαλωτίδων τῶν κατὰ Καισάρειαν ἁλουσῶν ἐγχώριον. [415] Οὐ παρέμενεν δ᾽ αὕτη μοι πολὺν χρόνον, ἀλλὰ λυθέντος καὶ μετὰ Οὐεσπασιανοῦ πορευθέντος εἰς τὴν Ἀλεξάνδρειαν ἀπηλλάγη· γυναῖκα δ᾽ ἑτέραν ἠγαγόμην κατὰ τὴν Ἀλεξάνδρειαν. [416] Κἀκεῖθεν ἐπὶ τὴν τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων πολιορκίαν συμπεμφθεὶς Τίτῳ πολλάκις ἀποθανεῖν ἐκινδύνευσα, τῶν τε Ἰουδαίων διὰ σπουδῆς ἐχόντων ὑποχείριόν με λαβεῖν τιμωρίας ἕνεκα καὶ Ῥωμαίων ὁσάκι νικηθεῖεν πάσχειν τοῦτο κατ᾽ ἐμὴν προδοσίαν δοκούντων συνεχεῖς καταβοήσεις ἐπὶ τοῦ αὐτοκράτορος ἐγίγνοντο κολάζειν με ὡς καὶ αὐτῶν προδότην ἀξιούντων. [417] Τίτος δὲ Καῖσαρ τὰς πολέμου τύχας οὐκ ἀγνοῶν σιγῇ τὰς ἐπ᾽ ἐμὲ τῶν στρατιωτῶν ἐξέλυεν ὁρμάς. Ἤδη δὲ κατὰ κράτος τῆς τῶν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν πόλεως ἐχομένης Τίτος Καῖσαρ ἔπειθέν με πολλάκις ἐκ τῆς κατασκαφῆς τῆς πατρίδος πᾶν ὅ τι θέλοιμι λαβεῖν· συγχωρεῖν γὰρ αὐτὸς ἔφασκεν. [418] Ἐγὼ δὲ τῆς πατρίδος πεσούσης μηδὲν ἔχων τιμιώτερον, ὃ τῶν ἐμαυτοῦ συμφορῶν εἰς παραμυθίαν λαβὼν φυλάξαιμι, σωμάτων ἐλευθέρων τὴν αἴτησιν ἐποιούμην Τίτον καὶ βιβλίων ἱερῶν ἔλαβον χαρισαμένου Τίτου. [419] Μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺ δὲ καὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν μετὰ πεντήκοντα φίλων αἰτησάμενος οὐκ ἀπέτυχον. Καὶ εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν δὲ πορευθεὶς Τίτου τὴν ἐξουσίαν δόντος, ἔνθα πολὺ πλῆθος αἰχμαλώτων ἐγκέκλειστο γυναικῶν τε καὶ τέκνων, ὅσους ἐπέγνων φίλων ἐμῶν καὶ συνήθων ὑπάρχοντας ἐρρυσάμην περὶ ἑκατὸν καὶ ἐνενήκοντα ὄντας τὸν ἀριθμὸν καὶ οὐδὲ λύτρα καταθεμένους ἀπέλυσα συγχωρήσας αὐτοὺς τῇ προτέρᾳ τύχῃ. [420] Πεμφθεὶς δ᾽ ὑπὸ Τίτου Καίσαρος σὺν Κερεαλίῳ καὶ χιλίοις ἱππεῦσιν εἰς κώμην τινὰ Θεκῶαν λεγομένην προκατανοήσων, εἰ τόπος ἐπιτήδειός ἐστιν χάρακα δέξασθαι, ὡς ἐκεῖθεν ὑποστρέφων εἶδον πολλοὺς αἰχμαλώτους ἀνεσταυρωμένους καὶ τρεῖς ἐγνώρισα συνήθεις μοι γενομένους, ἤλγησά τε τὴν ψυχὴν καὶ μετὰ δακρύων προσελθὼν Τίτῳ εἶπον. [421] Ὁ δ᾽ εὐθὺς ἐκέλευσεν καθαιρεθέντας αὐτοὺς θεραπείας ἐπιμελεστάτης τυχεῖν. Καὶ οἱ μὲν δύο τελευτῶσιν θεραπευόμενοι, ὁ δὲ τρίτος ἔζησεν. 75. 414 Once the siege of Jotapata was over and I was among the Romans, I was carefully guarded, because of the great respect that Vespasian showed me. Also at his command, I married a virgin from among the captives of that district, 415 but she not live with me for long, but was divorced after I was freed from my chains and went to Alexandria. 416 I married another wife at Alexandria and was sent from there, along with Titus, to the siege of Jerusalem and was often in danger of being put to death. The Jews were very eager to get me under their power, in order to have me punished. and the Romans too, whenever they were beaten, supposed that it was caused by my treachery and made continual clamours to the emperors asking to have me punished as a traitor to them. 417 Titus Caesar was well acquainted with the uncertain fortune of war and gave no answer to the soldiers' outbursts against me. When the city of Jerusalem was taken by storm, Titus Caesar often urged me to take whatever I wished from the ruins of my country; and gave me leave to do so. 418 But as my country was destroyed, I regarded nothing else as of any value, to take and keep as a comfort in my sorrows, so I requested Titus to give my family their liberty; and by a grant of Titus I had also the holy books. 419 Not long after that I asked him to spare the life of my brother and fifty of his friends, and was not denied. Once when with Titus's permission I went to the temple, where there was a large crowd of captive women and children, I got him to set free all those whom I remembered from among my own friends and acquaintances, in number about one hundred and ninety; and so without their paying any price of redemption I saved and restored them to their former fortune. 420 Again, when I was sent by Titus Caesar with Cerealius and a thousand horsemen, to a certain village called Thecoa, in order to see if it would be a suitable place to camp, as I returned, I saw many captives being crucified and recognised three of them as former acquaintances of mine. In distress about this I went to Titus and with tears told him about them. 421 Immediately he ordered them taken down and every effort to be made for their recovery. In fact, two of them died under the physician's hands, but the third recovered.
[422] Ἐπεὶ δὲ κατέπαυσεν τὰς ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ ταραχὰς Τίτος, εἰκάσας τοὺς ἀγροὺς οὓς εἶχον ἐν τοῖς Ἱεροσολύμοις ἀνονήτους ἐσομένους μοι διὰ τὴν μέλλουσαν ἐκεῖ Ῥωμαίων φρουρὰν ἐγκαθέζεσθαι, ἔδωκεν ἑτέραν χώραν ἐν πεδίῳ, μέλλων τε ἀπαίρειν εἰς τὴν Ῥώμην σύμπλουν ἐδέξατο πᾶσαν τιμὴν ἀπονέμων. [423] Ἐπεὶ δ᾽ εἰς τὴν Ῥώμην ἥκομεν, πολλῆς ἔτυχον παρὰ Οὐεσπασιανοῦ προνοίας· καὶ γὰρ καὶ κατάλυσιν ἔδωκεν ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ τῇ πρὸ τῆς ἡγεμονίας αὐτῷ γενομένῃ πολιτείᾳ τε Ῥωμαίων ἐτίμησεν καὶ σύνταξιν χρημάτων ἔδωκεν καὶ τιμῶν διετέλει μέχρι τῆς ἐκ τοῦ βίου μεταστάσεως οὐδὲν τῆς πρὸς ἐμὲ χρηστότητος ὑφελών, [ὅ μοι] διὰ τὸν φθόνον ἤνεγκε κίνδυνον· 76. 422 But when Titus had settled the troubles in Judea and reckoned that the lands which I owned in Judea would bring me no profit, because a garrison to guard the country was later to settle there, he gave me another property in the plain. And when he was going away to Rome, he chose me to sail along with him and paid me great respect. 423 When we got to Rome, I was well cared for by Vespasian, who gave me an apartment in the house he had lived in before becaming emperor and honour of Roman citizenship, and an annual pension; and to the end of his life never ceased his kindness to me, which brought both envy and danger upon me.
[424] Ἰουδαῖος γάρ τις Ἰωνάθης τοὔνομα στάσιν ἐξεγείρας ἐν Κυρήνῃ καὶ δισχιλίους τῶν ἐγχωρίων συναναπείσας, ἐκείνοις μὲν αἴτιος ἀπωλείας ἐγένετο, αὐτὸς δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ τῆς χώρας ἡγεμονεύοντος δεθεὶς καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν αὐτοκράτορα πεμφθεὶς ἔφασκεν ἐμὲ αὐτῷ ὅπλα πεπομφέναι καὶ χρήματα. [425] Οὐ μὴν Οὐεσπασιανὸν ψευδόμενος ἔλαθεν, ἀλλὰ κατέγνω θάνατον αὐτοῦ, καὶ παραδοθεὶς ἀπέθανεν. Πολλάκις δὲ καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα τῶν βασκαινόντων μοι τῆς εὐτυχίας κατηγορίας ἐπί με συνθέντων θεοῦ προνοίᾳ πάσας διέφυγον. Ἔλαβον δὲ παρὰ Οὐεσπασιανοῦ δωρεὰν γῆν οὐκ ὀλίγην ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ. 77. 424 A Jew called Jonathan had raised uproar in Cyrene and got two thousand men of that country to join him, which brought ruin to them. Then when captured by the governor of that country and sent to the emperor, he told him that I had sent him weapons and money. 425 But the liar could not fool Vespasian and he was condemned and put to death. After that, though people envious of my good fortune often brought accusations against me, by God's providence I escaped them all. I also received as a free gift from Vespasian a considerable amount of land in Judea.
[426] Καθ᾽ ὃν δὴ καιρὸν καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα μὴ ἀρεσκόμενος αὐτῆς τοῖς ἤθεσιν ἀπεπεμψάμην τριῶν παίδων γενομένην μητέρα, ὧν οἱ μὲν δύο ἐτελεύτησαν, εἷς δέ, ὃν Ὑρκανὸν προσηγόρευσα, περίεστιν. [427] Μετὰ ταῦτα ἠγαγόμην γυναῖκα κατῳκηκυῖαν μὲν ἐν Κρήτῃ, τὸ δὲ γένος Ἰουδαίαν, γονέων εὐγενεστάτων καὶ τῶν κατὰ τὴν χώραν ἐπιφανεστάτων, ἤθει πολλῶν γυναικῶν διαφέρουσαν, ὡς ὁ μετὰ ταῦτα βίος αὐτῆς ἀπέδειξεν. Ἐκ ταύτης δή μοι γίνονται παῖδες δύο, πρεσβύτερος μὲν Ἰοῦστος, Σιμωνίδης δὲ μετ᾽ ἐκεῖνον ὁ καὶ Ἀγρίππας ἐπικληθείς. 78. 426 About this time too I divorced my wife, being displeased with her behaviour, though not until she had given birth to three children, two of whom are dead and one, whom I named Hyrcanus, is alive. 427 After this I married a wife who had lived in Crete, but was of Jewish birth, of parents who were eminent and among the noblest in the whole country, and whose character excelled most other women, as her subsequent life showed. By her I had two sons; the elder's name was Justus and the next Simonides, who was also named Agrippa. Such was my domestic situation.
[428] Ταῦτα μέν μοι τὰ κατὰ τὸν οἶκον. Διέμεινεν δὲ ὅμοια καὶ τὰ παρὰ τῶν αὐτοκρατόρων· Οὐεσπασιανοῦ γὰρ τελευτήσαντος Τίτος τὴν ἀρχὴν διαδεξάμενος ὁμοίαν τῷ πατρὶ τὴν τιμήν μοι διεφύλαξεν πολλάκις τε κατηγορηθέντος οὐκ ἐπίστευσεν. [429] διαδεξάμενος δὲ Τίτον Δομετιανὸς καὶ προσηύξησεν τὰς εἰς ἐμὲ τιμάς· τούς τε γὰρ κατηγορήσαντάς μου Ἰουδαίους ἐκόλασεν καὶ δοῦλον εὐνοῦχον παιδαγωγὸν τοῦ παιδός μου κατηγορήσαντα κολασθῆναι προσέταξεν, ἐμοὶ δὲ τῆς ἐν Ἰουδαίᾳ χώρας ἀτέλειαν ἔδωκεν, ἥπερ ἐστὶ μεγίστη τιμὴ τῷ λαβόντι. Καὶ πολλὰ δ᾽ ἡ τοῦ Καίσαρος γυνὴ Δομετία διετέλεσεν εὐεργετοῦσά με. 79. 428 The emperor's kindness to me continued unchanged; for when Vespasian was dead, Titus, who succeeded him in the government, continued showing me the same respect which I had from his father; and when accusations were frequently made against me, he would not believe them. 429 When Domitian succeeded Titus, he still honoured me; for he punished the Jews that were my accusers and ordered that a servant of mine, a eunuch who accused me, should be punished. He also exempted from taxes the property I had in Judea, which is a sign of the greatest honour to its owner; and indeed, Caesar's wife Domitia continued to show favour to me.
[430] Ταῦτα μὲν τὰ πεπραγμένα μοι διὰ παντὸς τοῦ βίου ἐστίν, κρινέτωσαν δ᾽ ἐξ αὐτῶν τὸ ἦθος ὅπως ἂν ἐθέλωσιν ἕτεροι. Σοὶ δ᾽ ἀποδεδωκώς, κράτιστε ἀνδρῶν Ἐπαφρόδιτε, τὴν πᾶσαν τῆς ἀρχαιολογίας ἀναγραφὴν ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος ἐνταῦθα καταπαύω τὸν λόγον. 80. 430 These are the deeds of my whole life, and let others judge my character from them as they please. But Epaphroditus, most excellent of men, to whom I dedicate the whole treatise of our Antiquities, for the present, I here conclude my story.