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THE JEWISH WAR
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THE ANTIQUITIES
Ant. Jud., Bk 1
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Ant. Jud., Bk 4
Ant. Jud., Bk 5
Ant. Jud., Bk 6
Ant. Jud., Bk 7
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Antiquities (Greek) Book 5

From the death of Moses to the death of Eli

1. Joshua defeats the Canaanites & divides up their land by lot

2. After Joshua's death, lawlessness; the people suffered severely

3. Israel under Assyrian rule. Saved by God, through Keniazos

4. Under the Moabites; then saved by Ehud, for eighty years

5. Rescued by Barak and Deborah, from Canaanite rule

6. Rescued by Gideon, from the Madianites

7. Other judges... Abimelech, Jephtha, Jair and Abdon

8. Samson tames Philistines; deceived by Delilah; final revenge

9. The story of Ruth, ancestor of king David

10. Samuel's childhood. He foretells disaster for Eli's sons

11. Defection of Eli's sons; Philistines capture Ark; Eli dies


Antiquities of the Jews, Book 5

Chapt. & Para. numbers as in Whiston; [Verse] numbers as in Niese's Gk edition.


Chapter 1. [001-119]
Joshua defeats the Canaanites and divides their Land by Lot

1.

[1] Μωυσέος δὲ τὸν προειρημένον τρόπον ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἀπογεγονότος Ἰησοῦς ἁπάντων ἤδη τῶν ἐπ' αὐτῷ νενομισμένων τέλος ἐχόντων καὶ τοῦ πένθους λελωφηκότος παρήγγειλεν ἐπὶ στρατείαν ἕτοιμον εἶναι τὸ πλῆθος, [2] πέμπει τε κατασκόπους εἰς Ἱεριχοῦντα τήν τε δύναμιν αὐτῶν καὶ τίνα διάνοιαν ἔχουσιν αὐτοὶ γνωσομένους, αὐτὸς δὲ ἐξήταζε τὸν στρατὸν ὡς κατὰ καιρὸν διαβησόμενος τὸν Ἰόρδανον. [3] ἀνακαλεσάμενος δὲ τοὺς τῆς Ῥουβηλίδος φυλῆς ἄρχοντας καὶ τοὺς τῆς Γάδιδος καὶ Μανασσήτιδος προεστῶτας, ἐξ ἡμισείας γὰρ καὶ τῇδε τῇ φυλῇ τὴν Ἀμορίαν κατοικεῖν ἐπετέτραπτο τῆς Χαναναίων γῆς ἕβδομον οὖσαν μέρος, ὑπεμίμνησκεν ἃ ὑπέσχοντο Μωυσεῖ, [4] καὶ παρεκάλει χαριζομένους τῇ τε ἐκείνου προνοίᾳ μηδ' ὅτε ἀπέθνησκε περὶ αὐτοὺς καμούσῃ τῷ τε κοινῇ συμφέροντι παρέχειν αὑτοὺς εἰς τὰ παραγγελλόμενα προθύμους. τῶν δ' ἑπομένων ὁπλίταις πεντακισμυρίοις ἀπὸ τῆς Ἀβέλης ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰόρδανον ἐξῄει σταδίους ἑξήκοντα.

001 When Moses was taken away from mankind as we have described, and all the solemnities of mourning were completed and the grieving for him was over, the people were told to get ready to set off. 002 Joshua sent spies to Jericho to find out their forces and their intentions, and he put his camp in order, intending to cross the Jordan at the first opportunity. 003 Calling the officers of the tribe of Rubel and of the tribe of Gad and Manasses, for half of this tribe had been allowed to live in the region of the Amorites, which was the seventh part of the land of Canaan, he reminded them what they had promised Moses. 004 He urged them not to forget the concern of him who even when he was dying had not wearied in his care for them, and for the sake of the common good, to willingly do what they had promised. Then with fifty thousand of his followers he marched the sixty furlongs from Abila to the Jordan.


2.

[5] Καὶ στρατοπεδεύσαντος εὐθὺς οἱ κατάσκοποι παρῆσαν μηδὲν ἀγνοήσαντες τῶν παρὰ τοῖς Χαναναίοις: ἐλθόντες γὰρ τὸ πρῶτον ἅπασαν ἐπ' ἀδείας αὐτῶν τὴν πόλιν κατενόησαν, τῶν τε τειχῶν ὅσα καρτερὰ καὶ ὅσα μὴ τοῦτον ἔχει τὸν τρόπον αὐτοῖς ἀσφαλῶς καὶ τῶν πυλίδων αἳ πρὸς εἴσοδον τῷ στρατοπέδῳ δι' ἀσθένειαν συνέφερον. [6] ἠμέλουν δὲ θεωμένων οἱ ἐντυγχάνοντες κατὰ ἱστορίαν ξένοις προσήκουσαν ἀκριβῶς ἕκαστα πολυπραγμονεῖν τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει νομίζοντες, ἀλλ' οὐχὶ διανοίᾳ πολεμίων. [7] ὡς δὲ γενομένης ὀψίας ὑποχωροῦσιν εἴς τι καταγώγιον τοῦ τείχους πλησίον, εἰς ὃ καὶ προήχθησαν δειπνοποιησάμενοι καὶ περὶ ἀπαλλαγῆς αὐτοῖς τὸ λοιπὸν ἡ φροντὶς ἦν, [8] μηνύονται τῷ βασιλεῖ περὶ δεῖπνον ὄντι κατασκεψόμενοί τινες τὴν πόλιν ἀπὸ τοῦ τῶν Ἑβραίων στρατοπέδου παρεῖναι καὶ ὄντες ἐν τῷ τῆς Ῥαάβης καταγωγίῳ μετὰ πολλῆς τῆς τοῦ λανθάνειν προνοίας ὑπάρχειν. ὁ δ' εὐθὺς πέμψας πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἐκέλευσεν ἀγαγεῖν συλλαβόντας, ἵνα βασανίσας μάθῃ, τί καὶ βουλόμενοι παρεῖεν. [9] ὡς δ' ἔγνω τὴν ἔφοδον αὐτῶν ἡ Ῥαάβη, λίνου γὰρ ἀγκαλίδας ἐπὶ τοῦ τείχους ἔψυχε, τοὺς μὲν κατασκόπους εἰς ταύτας ἀποκρύπτει, τοῖς δὲ πεμφθεῖσιν ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως ἔλεγεν, ὡς ξένοι τινὲς εἶεν ἀγνῶτες ὀλίγῳ πρότερον ἢ δῦναι τὸν ἥλιον παρ' αὐτῇ δειπνήσαντες ἀπαλλαγεῖεν, οὓς εἰ φοβεροὶ τῇ πόλει δοκοῦσιν, ἢ κίνδυνον τῷ βασιλεῖ φέροντες ἧκον, ἀπόνως εἶναι λαβεῖν διωχθέντας. [10] οἱ δὲ τῆς γυναικὸς οὕτως αὐτοὺς ὑπελθούσης οὐδένα ὑπονοήσαντες δόλον ἀπῆλθον οὐδ' ἐρευνήσαντες τὸ καταγώγιον. ἐπεὶ δ' ὁρμήσαντες καθ' ἃς ἐνόμιζον αὐτοὺς μάλιστα τῶν ὁδῶν ἀπέρχεσθαι καὶ κατὰ τὰς εἰς τὸν ποταμὸν φερούσας οὐδενὶ γνωρίσματι περιετύγχανον, παύονται τοῦ πονεῖν. [11] τοῦ δὲ θορύβου σταλέντος ἡ Ῥαάβη καταγαγοῦσα τοὺς ἄνδρας καὶ τὸν κίνδυνον εἰποῦσα, ὃν ὑπὲρ τῆς αὐτῶν ὑπέλθοι σωτηρίας, ἁλοῦσαν γὰρ ἀποκρύπτουσαν αὐτοὺς οὐκ ἂν διαφυγεῖν τὴν ἐκ τοῦ βασιλέως τιμωρίαν, ἀλλὰ πανοικὶ αὐτὴν ἀπολέσθαι κακῶς, [12] παρακαλέσασα διὰ μνήμης ἔχειν, ὅταν ἐγκρατεῖς τῆς Χαναναίων γῆς καταστάντες ἀμοιβὴν ἐκτῖσαι δύνωνται τῆς ἄρτι σωτηρίας, χωρεῖν ἐκέλευεν ἐπὶ τὰ οἰκεῖα ὀμόσαντας ἦ μὴν σώσειν αὐτὴν καὶ τὰ αὐτῆς, ὅταν τὴν πόλιν ἑλόντες φθείρωσι πάντας τοὺς ἐν αὐτῇ κατὰ ψήφισμα τὸ παρ' αὐτοῖς γενόμενον: ταῦτα γὰρ εἰδέναι σημείοις τοῖς ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ διδαχθεῖσαν. [13] οἱ δὲ καὶ τῶν παρόντων αὐτῇ χάριν ἔχειν ὡμολόγουν καὶ περὶ τῶν αὖθις ὤμνυον ἔργῳ τὴν ἀμοιβὴν ἀποδώσειν: ἡνίκα δ' ἂν αἴσθηται μελλούσης ἁλίσκεσθαι τῆς πόλεως, συνεβούλευον κτῆσίν τε τὴν αὐτῆς καὶ τοὺς οἰκείους ἅπαντας εἰς τὸ καταγώγιον ἀποθεμένην ἐγκαθεῖρξαι πρὸ τῶν θυρῶν ἀνατείνασαν φοινικίδας, ὅπως εἰδὼς τὴν οἰκίαν ὁ στρατηγὸς φυλάττηται κακῶς ποιεῖν: [14] “μηνύσομεν γὰρ αὐτῷ, ἔφασαν, διὰ τὸ σὸν σώζεσθαι πρόθυμον. εἰ δέ τις ἐν τῇ μάχῃ πέσοι τῶν σῶν, σύ τε οὐκ ἂν ἡμῖν ἐπενέγκοις αἰτίαν καὶ τὸν θεὸν ὃν ὀμωμόκαμεν παραιτούμεθα μη [15] δὲν ὡς ἐπὶ παραβαίνουσι τοὺς ὅρκους δυσχερᾶναι.” καὶ οἱ μὲν ταῦτα συνθέμενοι ἐχώρουν διὰ τοῦ τείχους καθιμήσαντες ἑαυτούς, καὶ διασωθέντες πρὸς τοὺς οἰκείους ἐδήλωσαν ὅσα πράξαντες ἐπὶ τῆς πόλεως ἧκον: Ἰησοῦς δὲ τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ Ἐλεαζάρῳ καὶ τῇ γερουσίᾳ φράζει τὰ τοῖς σκοποῖς ὁμοθέντα πρὸς τὴν Ῥαάβην: οἱ δ' ἐπεκύρουν τὸν ὅρκον.

005 As soon as he had encamped, the spies came to him, well informed about the whole state of the Canaanites, for at first, before anyone noticed them, they got a full view of the city and saw which parts of the ramparts were strong and which were less so, and which of the gates was weak enough to offer access to their army. 006 Those who met and saw them took no notice of them, thinking of them as strangers, who usually are very curious in observing everything in the city, rather than as enemies. 007 At nightfall they retreated to a hotel near the wall, where they had their supper. 008 After the meal, as they considered how to get away, the king was told as he dined, that some spies had come from the Hebrews' camp to view the city and that they were at the hotel kept by Rahab and were trying to stay in hiding. Immediately he sent some with orders to arrest them and bring them to him, to find out from them under torture what was their business there. 009 When Rahab heard that these messengers were coming, she hid the spies under stalks of flax, laid out to dry on the roof of her house, and told the king's messengers that some unknown strangers had supped with her a little before sunset but had gone away. They could easily be captured, if they caused any anxiety to the city, or were a danger to the king. 010 Being so tricked by the woman, and suspecting no deceit, these messengers went off without even searching the hotel. They rushed along the roads they thought the men most likely to take, especially those leading to the river, but heard no news of them, and did not bother with any further pursuit. 011 When the fuss was over, Rahab brought the men down and asked them, when they took the land of Canaan, and it was in their power to pay her back for saving them, to remember the risk she had run on their behalf, for if she had been caught hiding them, she could not have escaped a cruel fate, with all her family. 012 So she sent them home, having gotten them to swear to save her and her family when they captured the city and destroyed all its inhabitants, as they had decided to do, for she knew this would happen, through the divine miracles of which she had been informed. 013 They admitted their debt of thanks for what she had done and swore to repay her kindness, not only in words, but in deeds. They advised her that when she saw the city about to be taken, to shut up her goods and all her family securely within her hotel, and hang out scarlet threads at the doors, so that the general would know her house and protect it from harm. 014 "For we will inform him of this," they said, "because of your concern to save us. But if anyone of your family fall in the battle, do not blame us, and we beg God, by whom we have sworn, not to blame us then either, as though we had broken our oaths." 015 With this agreement, they left, letting themselves down by a rope from the wall, and escaped and came and told their own people what they had done in their journey to this city. Joshua told Eleazar the high priest and the elders what the spies had sworn to Rahab, and they ratified the oath.


3.

[16] Δεδιότος δὲ τοῦ στρατοῦ τὴν διάβασιν, μέγας γὰρ ἦν ὁ ποταμὸς τῷ ῥεύματι καὶ οὔτε γεφύραις πορευτός, οὐ γὰρ ἔζευκτο τὸ πρότερον, βουλομένους τε γεφυροῦν οὐχ ἕξειν σχολὴν παρὰ τῶν πολεμίων ὑπελάμβανον πορθμείων τε μὴ τυγχανόντων, διαβατὸν αὐτοῖς ὁ θεὸς ἐπαγγέλλεται ποιήσειν τὸν ποταμὸν μειώσας αὐτοῦ τὸ πλῆθος. [17] καὶ δύο ἐπισχὼν ἡμέρας Ἰησοῦς διεβίβαζε τὸν στρατὸν καὶ τὴν πληθὺν ἅπασαν τοιούτῳ τρόπῳ: προῄεσαν μὲν οἱ ἱερεῖς τὴν κιβωτὸν ἔχοντες, ἔπειτα οἱ Λευῖται τήν τε σκηνὴν καὶ τὰ πρὸς ὑπηρεσίαν ταῖς θυσίαις σκεύη κομίζοντες, εἵποντο δὲ τοῖς Λευίταις κατὰ φυλὰς ὁ πᾶς ὅμιλος μέσους ἔχων παῖδας καὶ γυναῖκας, δεδιὼς περὶ αὐτῶν μὴ βιασθεῖεν ὑπὸ τοῦ ῥεύματος. [18] ὡς δὲ τοῖς ἱερεῦσι πρώτοις ἐμβᾶσι πορευτὸς ἔδοξεν ὁ ποταμός, τοῦ μὲν βάθους ἐπεσχημένου, τοῦ δὲ κάχληκος τῷ μὴ πολὺν εἶναι μηδ' ὀξὺν τὸν ῥοῦν ὥσθ' ὑποφέρειν αὐτὸν τῇ βίᾳ ἀντ' ἐδάφους κειμένου, πάντες ἤδη θαρσαλέως ἐπεραιοῦντο τὸν ποταμόν, οἷον αὐτὸν ὁ θεὸς προεῖπε ποιήσειν τοιοῦτον κατανοοῦντες. [19] ἔστησαν δὲ ἐν μέσῳ οἱ ἱερεῖς ἕως οὗ διαβαίη τὸ πλῆθος καὶ τἀσφαλοῦς ἁψάμενον τύχοι. πάντων δὲ διαβάντων ἐξῄεσαν οἱ ἱερεῖς ἐλεύθερον ἀφέντες ἤδη τὸ ῥεῦμα χωρεῖν κατὰ τὴν συνήθειαν. καὶ ὁ μὲν ποταμὸς εὐθὺς ἐκβάντων αὐτὸν τῶν Ἑβραίων ηὔξετο καὶ τὸ ἴδιον ἀπελάμβανε μέγεθος.

016 He was anxious about the army crossing over, for the river ran with a strong current and could not be crossed with a bridge, for up to this no bridge had been put over it, and suspected that if he tried to build a bridge, the enemy would not let them finish it, and they had no boats to ferry them, but God promised to reduce the river by half, so they could pass over it. 017 Two days later, Joshua made the army and the whole people cross over as we shall describe. The priests went first, bringing the ark; then came the Levites bearing the Tent and the vessels belonging to the sacrifices. After this the entire people followed, according to their tribes, with their children and their wives in the centre, fearing that the current might carry them away. 018 When the priests first entered the river, it appeared fordable, as the depth of the water was restrained and sand was visible at the bottom, for the current was neither strong or swift enough to carry it away with its force. So all crossed the river without fear, finding it in the very state that God had foretold. 019 The priests stood in the middle of the river until the people had crossed and got safely to the bank, and when all had crossed, the priests also came out, allowing the current to run as freely as it used to do. When the Hebrews had come out of it, the river rose again to its usual size.


4.

[20] Οἱ δὲ πεντήκοντα προελθόντες στάδια βάλλονται στρατόπεδον ἀπὸ δέκα σταδίων τῆς Ἱεριχοῦντος, Ἰησοῦς τε τόν τε βωμὸν ἐκ τῶν λίθων ὧν ἕκαστος ἀνείλετο τῶν φυλάρχων ἐκ τοῦ βυθοῦ τοῦ προφήτου κελεύσαντος ἱδρυσάμενος τεκμήριον γενησόμενον τῆς ἀνακοπῆς τοῦ ῥεύματος ἔθυεν ἐπ' αὐτοῦ τῷ θεῷ, καὶ τὴν φάσκα ἑώρταζον ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ χωρίῳ, [21] πάντων ὧν αὐτοῖς πρότερον συνέβαινε σπανίζειν τότε ῥᾳδίως εὐποροῦντες: τόν τε γὰρ σῖτον ἀκμάζοντα ἤδη τῶν Χαναναίων ἐθέριζον καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ λείαν ἦγον: τότε γὰρ αὐτοὺς καὶ ἡ τῆς μάννας ἐπελελοίπει τροφὴ χρησαμένους ἐπὶ ἔτη τεσσαράκοντα.

020 They went on for fifty furlongs and encamped ten furlongs from Jericho, and Joshua built an altar of those stones which all the heads of the tribes, at a prophetic command, had taken from the riverbed, to serve later as a memorial of how the stream of this river divided, and upon it he offered sacrifice to God. 021 In that place they celebrated the passover and had great plenty of all the things they had lacked up to this. They reaped the corn of the Canaanites, which was now ripe and took other things as spoils, and their former food, the manna that they had eaten for forty years, now ceased.


5.

[22] Ὡς δὲ ταῦτα ποιούντων τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν οὐκ ἐπεξῄεσαν οἱ Χαναναῖοι τειχήρεις δ' ἡσύχαζον, πολιορκεῖν αὐτοὺς Ἰησοῦς ἔγνω. καὶ τῇ πρώτῃ τῆς ἑορτῆς ἡμέρᾳ τὴν κιβωτὸν οἱ ἱερεῖς φέροντες, περὶ δ' αὐτὴν ἐν κύκλῳ μέρος τι τῶν ὁπλιτῶν φυλάττον ἦν, [23] οἳ καὶ προῄεσαν ἑπτὰ κέρασιν αὐτῶν σαλπίζοντες παρεκάλουν τὸν στρατὸν εἰς ἀλκὴν, περιώδευόν τε τὸ τεῖχος ἑπομένης τῆς γερουσίας, καὶ σαλπισάντων μόνον τῶν ἱερέων, τούτου γὰρ οὐδὲν ἐποίησαν περισσότερον, ἀνέζευξαν εἰς τὸ στρατόπεδον. [24] καὶ τοῦτο ἐπὶ ἡμέρας ἓξ ποιησάντων τῇ ἑβδόμῃ τὸ ὁπλιτικὸν Ἰησοῦς συναγαγὼν καὶ τὸν λαὸν ἅπαντα τὴν ἅλωσιν αὐτοῖς τῆς πόλεως εὐηγγελίζετο, ὡς κατ' ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν αὐτοῖς τοῦ θεοῦ ταύτην παρέξοντος αὐτομάτως καὶ δίχα [τοῦ] πόνου τοῦ σφετέρου τῶν τειχῶν κατενεχθησομένων. [25] κτείνειν μέντοι πάνθ' ὁντινοῦν εἰ λάβοιεν παρεκελεύετο καὶ μήτε κάμνοντας ἀποστῆναι τοῦ φόνου τῶν πολεμίων, μήτ' ἐλέῳ παραχωρήσαντας μήτε περὶ ἁρπαγὴν γινομένους περιορᾶν φεύγοντας τοὺς ἐχθρούς: [26] ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν ζῷα πάντα διαφθείρειν μηδὲν αὐτοὺς εἰς ἰδίαν ὠφέλειαν λαμβάνοντας, ὅσος δ' ἂν ἄργυρος ᾖ καὶ χρυσός, ταῦτα ἐκέλευσε συγκομίζοντας ἀπαρχὴν ἐξαίρετον τῶν κατωρθωμένων τῷ θεῷ τηρεῖν ἐκ τῆς πρῶτον ἁλισκομένης πόλεως εἰληφότας: σώζειν δὲ μόνην Ῥαάβην καὶ τὴν γενεὰν αὐτῆς διὰ τοὺς γενομένους πρὸς αὐτὴν τοῖς κατασκόποις ὅρκους.

022 As the Canaanites did not attack while the Israelites were doing this, but kept quietly within their own walls, Joshua resolved to besiege them. On the first day of the feast the priests carried the ark round about, guarded by some infantry. 023 They went forward, blowing with their seven trumpets and urging the army to take heart, going around the city, followed by the elders, with only the priests blowing the trumpets, and returned to the camp. 024 After they had done this for six days, on the seventh day Joshua assembled the infantry and all the people and announced the good news that the city would now be taken, for God would give it to them that day, by the walls falling down of their own accord and without effort on their part. 025 He told them to kill everyone they could capture and neither from weariness or pity, to stop slaughtering the enemy, and not to collect the spoil and thereby be distracted from pursuing their fleeing foes. 026 They were to destroy all the animals and take nothing for their personal gain, but to collect all the silver and gold taken from the city they first captured, to be set apart as first-fruits to God from this exploit, but to keep Rahab and her relatives alive, because of the oath the spies had sworn to her.


6.

[27] Ταῦτ' εἰπὼν καὶ διατάξας τὸν στρατὸν προσήγαγεν ἐπὶ τὴν πόλιν: περιῄεσαν δὲ πάλιν τὴν πόλιν ἡγουμένης τῆς κιβωτοῦ καὶ τῶν ἱερέων τοῖς κέρασιν ἐξοτρυνόντων τὴν δύναμιν πρὸς τὸ ἔργον. καὶ περιελθόντων ἑπτάκις καὶ πρὸς ὀλίγον ἠρεμησάντων κατέπεσε τὸ τεῖχος μήτε μηχανῆς μήτε ἄλλης βίας αὐτῷ προσενεχθείσης ὑπὸ τῶν Ἑβραίων.

027 After this and setting his army in order, he brought it against the city. They went around the city again, with the ark before them and the priests encouraging the people to be eager in the action, and when they had gone round it seven times and had stood still a while, the wall fell down, while no instruments of war, nor any other force, was applied to it by the Hebrews.


7.

[28] Οἱ δ' εἰσελθόντες εἰς Ἱεριχοῦντα πάντας ἔκτεινον, τῶν ἐν αὐτῇ πρὸς τὴν παράδοξον τοῦ τείχους ἀνατροπὴν καταπεπληγότων καὶ τοῦ φρονήματος αὐτοῖς πρὸς ἄμυναν ἀχρείου γεγονότος: ἀνῃροῦντο δ' οὖν ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς ἀποσφαττόμενοι καὶ ἐν ταῖς οἰκίαις ἐπικαταλαμβανόμενοι. [29] παρῃτεῖτο δ' οὐδὲν αὐτούς, ἀλλὰ πάντες ἀπώλλυντο ἄχρι γυναικῶν καὶ παιδίων, καὶ νεκρῶν ἡ πόλις ἦν ἀνάπλεως καὶ διέφυγεν οὐδέν. τὴν δὲ πόλιν ἐνέπρησαν ἅπασαν καὶ τὴν χώραν. [30] καὶ τὴν Ῥαάβην σὺν τοῖς οἰκείοις εἰς τὸ καταγώγιον συμφυγοῦσαν ἔσωσαν οἱ κατάσκοποι, καὶ πρὸς αὐτὸν Ἰησοῦς ἀχθείσῃ χάριν ἔχειν ὡμολόγει τῆς σωτηρίας τῶν κατασκόπων καὶ μὴν τῆς εὐεργεσίας ταύτης ἔλεγεν ἐν ταῖς ἀμοιβαῖς οὐχ ἥττονα φανήσεσθαι, δωρεῖται δ' αὐτὴν εὐθὺς ἀγροῖς καὶ διὰ τιμῆς εἶχε τῆς πάσης.

028 So they entered into Jericho and killed all the men in it, as these were shocked at the surprising destruction of the ramparts and their courage failed and they were unable to defend themselves. So they were killed and their throats cut, some in the streets and others caught in their houses. 029 Nothing availed them but they all died, even to the women and the children; the city was filled with corpses and not one person escaped, and they burned the whole city and the region about it. 030 However, they saved the lives of Rahab and her family, who had fled to her hotel. When she was brought to him, Joshua thanked her publicly for saving the spies, and said he would not want to seem less generous than she, in rewarding her. So he immediately gave her some lands and from then on held her in high esteem.


8.

[31] Τῆς δὲ πόλεως εἰ καί τι παρέλθοι τὸ πῦρ κατέσκαπτε καὶ κατὰ τῶν οἰκησόντων, εἴ τις πορθηθεῖσαν ἀνεγείρειν ἐθελήσειεν, ἀρὰς ἔθετο, ὅπως θεμελίους μὲν τειχῶν βαλόμενος στερηθῇ τοῦ πρώτου παιδός, τελειώσας δὲ τὸν νεώτατον τῶν παίδων ἀποβάλῃ. τῆς δὲ ἀρᾶς τὸ θεῖον οὐκ ἠμέλησεν, ἀλλ' ἐν τοῖς ὑστέροις ἀπαγγελοῦμεν τὸ περὶ αὐτὴν πάθος γενόμενον.

031 If any part of the city escaped the fire, he destroyed it from its foundations, and he pronounced this curse against its inhabitants, if any should try to rebuild it: how, upon laying the foundation of the ramparts, he would lose his eldest son, and upon finishing it, he would lose his youngest son. But we shall speak later about what happened on this account.


9.

[32] Ἄπειρον δέ τι πλῆθος ἐκ τῆς ἁλώσεως συναθροίζεται ἀργύρου τε καὶ χρυσοῦ καὶ προσέτι χαλκοῦ μηδενὸς παραβάντος τὰ δεδογμένα μηδ' εἰς ἰδίαν ὠφέλειαν αὐτὰ διαρπασαμένων, ἀλλ' ἀποσχομένων ὡς ἤδη τῷ θεῷ καθιερωμένων. καὶ ταῦτα μὲν Ἰησοῦς τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν εἰς τοὺς θησαυροὺς παραδίδωσι καταθέσθαι. καὶ Ἱεριχοῦς μὲν τοῦτον ἀπώλετο τὸν τρόπον.

032 There was a large amount of silver and gold and brass heaped together from the city when it was taken, for no one broke the decree, or pilfered for their own private gain. These spoils Joshua handed over to the priests, to be laid up among their treasures. So was Jericho destroyed.


10.

[33] Ἄχαρος δέ τις Ζεβεδαίου παῖς ὢν ἐκ τῆς Ἰούδα φυλῆς εὑρὼν χλαμύδα βασίλειον ἐκ χρυσοῦ μὲν πᾶσαν ὑφασμένην, μᾶζαν δὲ χρυσοῦ σταθμὸν ἕλκουσαν σίκλων διακοσίων καὶ δεινὸν ἡγησάμενος, εἰ ὃ κινδυνεύσας ηὕρατο κέρδος, τοῦτο τῆς ἰδίας χρείας ἀφελόμενος δοῦναι φέρων τῷ θεῷ καὶ μὴ δεομένῳ, ὄρυγμα βαθὺ ποιήσας ἐν τῇ αὐτοῦ σκηνῇ κατώρυξεν εἰς τοῦτο, λήσειν νομίζων ὡς τοὺς συστρατιώτας οὕτως καὶ τὸν θεόν.

033 But a man named Achar, the son of Zebedias, of the tribe of Judas, found a royal vestment woven entirely of gold and a piece of gold weighing two hundred shekels. Thinking it very hard that what he had found at some risk to himself, must now be given away to God, who stood in no need of it, while he who needed it must do without it, he dug a deep hole under his own tent and hid it there, thinking to conceal it not only from his fellow soldiers, but also from God himself.


11.

[34] Ἐκλήθη δὲ ὁ τόπος ἐν ᾧ στρατόπεδον ἐβάλετο Ἰησοῦς Γάλγαλα: σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο ἐλευθέριον ὄνομα: διαβάντες γὰρ τὸν ποταμὸν ἐλευθέρους ἑαυτοὺς ἤδη ἀπό τε τῶν Αἰγυπτίων καὶ τῆς ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ταλαιπωρίας ἐγίνωσκον.

034 The place where Joshua encamped was called Galgala, meaning liberty, for since they had crossed the Jordan they now felt free from all they had suffered from the Egyptians and in the wilderness.


12.

[35] Μετὰ δ' ὀλίγας ἡμέρας τῆς Ἱεριχοῦντος συμφορᾶς πέμπει τρισχιλίους ὁπλίτας Ἰησοῦς εἰς Ναιὰν πόλιν ὑπὲρ τῆς Ἱεριχοῦντος κειμένην αἱρήσοντας, οἳ συμβαλόντων αὐτοῖς τῶν Ναιητῶν τραπέντες ἀποβάλλουσιν ἄνδρας ἓξ καὶ τριάκοντα. [36] τοῦτ' ἀγγελθὲν τοῖς Ἰσραηλίταις λύπην τε μεγάλην καὶ δεινὴν ἐποίησεν ἀθυμίαν οὐ κατὰ τὸ οἰκεῖον τῶν ἀπολωλότων, καίτοι γε πάντων ἀνδρῶν ἀγαθῶν καὶ σπουδῆς ἀξίων διεφθαρμένων, ἀλλὰ κατὰ ἀπόγνωσιν: [37] πιστεύοντες γὰρ ἤδη τῆς γῆς ἐγκρατεῖς εἶναι καὶ σῶον ἕξειν ἐν ταῖς μάχαις τὸν στρατὸν οὕτως τοῦ θεοῦ προυπεσχημένου, τεθαρρηκότας παραδόξως ἑώρων τοὺς πολεμίους: καὶ σάκκους ἐπενδύντες ταῖς στολαῖς δι' ὅλης ἡμέρας ἐν δακρύοις ἦσαν καὶ πένθει τροφῆς οὐδεμίαν ἐπιζήτησιν ποιούμενοι, μειζόνως δὲ τὸ συμβεβηκὸς εἶχον ἀχθόμενοι.

035 A few days after the disaster that came upon Jericho, Joshua sent three thousand infantry to take Ai, a city situated above Jericho, but coming in sight of the people of Ai, they were driven back by them and lost thirty-six of their men. 036 When the Israelites heard this it made them very sad and disconsolate, because of their relationship to the men who were killed, though those who were killed were all good men and deserved their esteem, but even more by the despair it caused. 037 They thought themselves already in possession of the land and about to bring the army back from the battles without loss, as God had promised, but now unexpectedly they saw the enemy bold with success, so they put sackcloth over their clothing and continued all day in tears and lamentation, with no interest in food, greatly affected by the disaster.


13.

[38] Βλέπων δὲ οὕτως ὁ Ἰησοῦς τήν τε στρατιὰν καταπεπληγυῖαν καὶ περὶ τῶν ὅλων πονηρὰν ἤδη τὴν ἐλπίδα λαμβάνουσαν παρρησίαν λαμβάνει πρὸς τὸν θεόν: [39] “ἡμεῖς γὰρ εἶπεν οὐχ ὑπ' αὐθαδείας προήχθημεν ὥστε ταύτην ὑπάγεσθαι τοῖς ὅπλοις τὴν γῆν, ἀλλὰ Μωυσέος τοῦ σοῦ δούλου πρὸς τοῦθ' ἡμᾶς ἐξεγείραντος, ᾧ διὰ πολλῶν τεκμηρίων ἐπηγγέλλου κτήσασθαι παρέξειν ἡμῖν τήνδε τὴν γῆν καὶ τὸν στρατὸν ἡμῶν ἀεὶ τῶν πολεμίων ποιήσειν τοῖς ὅπλοις κρείττονα. [40] τινὰ μὲν οὖν κατὰ τὰς ὑποσχέσεις ἡμῖν ἀπήντησε τὰς σάς, νῦν δὲ παρὰ δόξαν ἐπταικότες καὶ τῆς δυνάμεώς τινας ἀποβαλόντες ἐπὶ τούτοις ὡς οὐ βεβαίων τῶν παρὰ σοῦ καὶ ὧν προεῖπε Μωυσῆς ἀχθόμεθα καὶ χεῖρον ἡ τῶν μελλόντων ἐλπὶς ἡμᾶς ἀνιᾷ τῇ πρώτῃ πείρᾳ τοιαύτῃ συντυχόντας. [41] ἀλλὰ σύ, δέσποτα, δύναμις γάρ σοι τούτων ἴασιν εὑρεῖν, τό τε παρὸν ἡμῶν λυπηρὸν νίκην παρασχόμενος καὶ τὸ περὶ τῶν αὖθις δύσελπι διακείμενον οὕτως τῆς διανοίας ἔξελε.”

038 When Joshua saw the army so grieved and full of forebodings of evil about their whole expedition, he spoke freely with God and said, 039 "We have not come so far based on any presumption of our own, as though thinking ourselves able to subdue this land with our own weapons, but at the behest of Moses your servant. It was for this purpose, for you promised us, by many signs, to give us this land as a possession and to make our army always superior in war to our enemies. 040 and indeed we have enjoyed some success already, just as you promised. But now that we are unexpectedly foiled and have lost some men from our army, we are grieved at it, fearing that we cannot depend on what you promised us and what Moses foretold us, and our expectation of the future troubles us the more, having met with such a disaster in this our first attempt. 041 O Lord, free us from these suspicions, for you can resolve these setbacks, by giving us victory, which will both take away our present grief and prevent our distrust as to what is to come."


14.

[42] Ταῦτα μὲν Ἰησοῦς ἐπὶ στόμα πεσὼν ἠρώτα τὸν θεόν: χρηματίσαντος δὲ ἀνίστασθαι τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ καθαίρειν τὸν στρατὸν μιάσματος ἐν αὐτῷ γεγονότος κλοπῆς τε τῶν καθιερωμένων αὐτῷ χρημάτων τετολμημένης, διὰ γὰρ ταῦτα τὴν νῦν αὐτοῖς ἧτταν συμπεσεῖν, ἀναζητηθέντος δὲ τοῦ δράσαντος καὶ κολασθέντος νίκην αὐτοῖς ἀεὶ πορίζεσθαι τῶν πολεμίων, φράζει ταῦτα πρὸς τὸν λαὸν Ἰησοῦς, [43] καὶ καλέσας Ἐλεάζαρον τὸν ἀρχιερέα καὶ τοὺς ἐν τέλει κατὰ φυλὴν ἐκλήρου. τούτου δὲ τὸ τετολμημένον ἐκ τῆς Ἰούδα φυλῆς δηλοῦντος κατὰ φατρίας πάλιν ταύτης προτίθησι τὸν κλῆρον. τὸ δ' ἀληθὲς τοῦ κακουργήματος περὶ τὴν Ἀχάρου συγγένειαν ηὑρίσκετο. [44] κατ' ἄνδρα δὲ τῆς ἐξετάσεως γινομένης λαμβάνουσι τὸν Ἄχαρον: ὁ δ' οὐκ ἔχων ἔξαρνος εἶναι τοῦ θεοῦ δεινῶς αὐτὸν ἐκπεριελθόντος ὡμολόγει τε τὴν κλοπὴν καὶ τὰ φώρια παρῆγεν εἰς μέσον. καὶ οὗτος μὲν εὐθὺς ἀναιρεθεὶς ἐν νυκτὶ ταφῆς ἀτίμου καὶ καταδίκῳ πρεπούσης τυγχάνει.

042 These intercessions Joshua raised up to God, lying prostrate on his face, therefore God replied that he should rise up and purify his army from the pollution that had got into it, for "things consecrated to me have been impudently stolen from me," and "this was why this defeat had happened to them;" and that when they searched out and punished the offender, he would see they had victory over their enemies. This is what Joshua said to the people. 043 Then calling for Eleazar the high priest and the men of authority, he cast lots, tribe by tribe, and when the lot showed that this crime was done by one of the tribe of Judas, he then again used the lots on the various families belonging to it, so the truth of this crime was found to belong to the family of Acharos. 044 When the inquiry was made man by man, they took Achar, who, upon God's bringing him to a terrible state, could not deny the fact. He confessed the theft and produced among them what he had taken, and was therefore instantly put to death, and was granted no more than burial in the night in a disgraceful manner, suitable to a condemned criminal.


15.

[45] Ἰησοῦς δὲ ἁγνίσας τὸν στρατὸν ἐξῆγεν ἐπὶ τὴν Ναιὰν αὐτὸς καὶ νυκτὸς τὰ περὶ τὴν πόλιν ἐνέδραις προλοχίσας ὑπὸ τὸν ὄρθρον συμβάλλει τοῖς πολεμίοις. τῶν δὲ μετὰ θράσους αὐτοῖς διὰ τὴν προτέραν νίκην ἐπιόντων ὑποχωρεῖν προσποιησάμενος ἕλκει τῷ τρόπῳ τούτῳ μακρὰν αὐτοὺς τῆς πόλεως διώκειν οἰομένους καὶ ὡς ἐπὶ νίκῃ καταφρονοῦντας. [46] ἔπειτ' ἀναστρέψας τὴν δύναμιν κατὰ πρόσωπον αὐτοῖς ποιεῖ, σημεῖά τε δοὺς ἃ πρὸς τοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἐνέδραις συνετέτακτο κἀκείνους ἐπὶ τὴν μάχην ἐξανίστησιν. οἱ δ' εἰσεπήδων εἰς τὴν πόλιν τῶν ἔνδον περὶ τοῖς τείχεσιν ὄντων, ἐνίων δὲ καὶ πρὸς θέαν τῶν ἔξω τὴν γνώμην περισπωμένων. [47] καὶ οἱ μὲν τὴν πόλιν ᾕρουν καὶ πάντας τοὺς ἐντυγχάνοντας ἔκτεινον, Ἰησοῦς δὲ τοὺς προσελθόντας εἰς χεῖρας βιασάμενος φυγεῖν τρέπεται, συνελαυνόμενοι δὲ ὡς εἰς ἀκέραιον τὴν πόλιν ἐπεὶ καὶ ταύτην ἐχομένην ἑώρων καὶ καταπιμπραμένην ὁμοῦ γυναιξὶ καὶ τέκνοις κατέλαβον, διὰ τῶν ἀγρῶν σκεδασθέντες καὶ ἀμύνειν αὐτοῖς ὑπὸ μονώσεως οὐ δυνάμενοι . [48] τοιαύτης δὲ τῆς συμφορᾶς τοὺς Ναιτιανοὺς καταλαβούσης, παίδων τε ὄχλος ἑάλω καὶ γυναικῶν καὶ θεραπείας καὶ τῆς ἄλλης ἀποσκευῆς ἄπειρόν τι πλῆθος, ἀγέλας τε βοσκημάτων ἔλαβον οἱ Ἑβραῖοι καὶ χρήματα πολλά, καὶ γὰρ πλούσιον ἦν τὸ χωρίον, καὶ ταῦτα πάντα τοῖς στρατιώταις Ἰησοῦς διένειμεν ἐν Γαλγάλοις γενόμενος.

045 Joshua purified the army and led them against Ai, and having set ambushes round around the city by night, attacked the enemy at daylight. Because of their former victory these advanced boldly on the Israelites, who pretended to flee and so drew them a long way from the city, as they still thought they were in pursuit and scorned their enemies, as they had in the former battle. 046 Then he ordered his forces to turn around and face them and gave the agreed sign to those who lay in ambush and so roused them to fight, while he made a sudden dash to the city. The inhabitants were up on the ramparts and many of them were puzzled and came to see the people outside the gates. 047 These took the city and killed all they met, but Joshua pressed hard on those who came out against him and defeated them and put them to flight, and when they were driven towards the city thinking it had not been touched, as soon as they saw it had been taken and burned, along with their wives and children, they wandered dazed about the fields quite unable to defend themselves, with no one to rally them. 048 When this befell the men of Ai, the Hebrews took many children and women and servants and a large amount of furniture as booty, and herds of livestock and a large amount of money, for this was a rich region. Joshua came to Galgala and divided all these spoils among the soldiers.


16.

[49] Γεβεωνῖται δὲ κατοικοῦντες ἔγγιστα τοῖς Ἱεροσολύμοις τά τε τοῖς Ἱεριχουντίοις συμβεβηκότα πάθη καὶ τὰ τοῖς Ναιτίνοις ὁρῶντες καὶ πρὸς σφᾶς μεταβήσεσθαι τὸ δεινὸν ὑπονοοῦντες, Ἰησοῦν μὲν παρακαλεῖν οὐ διέγνωσαν: οὐδὲ γὰρ τεύξεσθαί τινος τῶν μετρίων ὑπελάμβανον ἐπ' ὀλέθρῳ τοῦ Χαναναίων ἔθνους παντὸς πολεμοῦντος αὐτούς: [50] Κεφηρίτας δὲ καὶ Καριαθιαριμίτας γείτονας ὄντας αὐτοῖς ἐπὶ συμμαχίαν παρεκάλουν, οὐδ' αὐτοὺς διαφεύξεσθαι τὸν κίνδυνον λέγοντες, εἰ φθάσαιεν αὐτοὶ ληφθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν, συνασπίσαντας δὲ αὐτοῖς διέγνωσαν διαδρᾶναι τὴν δύναμιν αὐτῶν. [51] προσδεξαμένων δὲ τοὺς λόγους αὐτῶν πέμπουσι πρέσβεις πρὸς Ἰησοῦν φιλίαν σπεισομένους οὓς μάλιστα τῶν πολιτῶν ἐδοκίμαζον ἱκανοὺς πρᾶξαι τὰ συμφέροντα τῷ πλήθει. [52] οἱ δὲ ὁμολογεῖν αὑτοὺς Χαναναίους ἐπισφαλὲς ἡγούμενοι, διαφεύξεσθαι τὸν διὰ τοῦτο κίνδυνον ὑπολαμβάνοντες, εἰ λέγοιεν αὑτοὺς μὴ προσήκειν κατὰ μηδὲν Χαναναίοις ἀλλὰ πορρωτάτω τούτων κατοικεῖν, ἥκειν τε κατὰ πύστιν τῆς ἀρετῆς αὐτοῦ πολλὴν ἀνύσαντες ὁδὸν ἔφασκον καὶ τεκμήριον τοῦ λόγου τούτου τὸ σχῆμα ὑπεδείκνυον: [53] τὰς γὰρ ἐσθῆτας καινὰς ὅτε ἐξῄεσαν οὔσας ὑπὸ τοῦ χρόνου τῆς ὁδοιπορίας αὐτοῖς τετρῖφθαι: τρυχίνας γὰρ εἰς τὸ ταῦτα πιστοῦσθαι πρὸς αὐτῶν ἐπίτηδες ἔλαβον. [54] στάντες οὖν εἰς μέσους ἔλεγον, ὡς πεμφθεῖεν ὑπὸ τῶν Γεβεωνιτῶν καὶ τῶν περιοίκων πόλεων πλεῖστον ἀπεχουσῶν τῆσδε τῆς γῆς ποιησόμενοι πρὸς αὐτοὺς φιλίαν ἐφ' αἷς πάτριον αὐτοῖς ἐστι συνθήκαις: μαθόντες γὰρ ἐκ θεοῦ χάριτος καὶ δωρεᾶς τὴν Χαναναίων αὐτοῖς γῆν κτήσασθαι δεδόσθαι τούτοις τ' ἔλεγον ἥδεσθαι καὶ πολίτας ἀξιοῦν αὐτῶν γενέσθαι.

[55] καὶ οἱ μὲν ταῦτα λέγοντες καὶ ἐπιδεικνύντες τὰ τεκμήρια τῆς ὁδοιπορίας παρεκάλουν ἐπὶ συνθήκας καὶ φιλίαν τοὺς Ἑβραίους: Ἰησοῦς δὲ πιστεύσας οἷς ἔλεγον, ὡς οὐκ εἰσὶ τοῦ Χαναναίων ἔθνους, ποιεῖται πρὸς αὐτοὺς φιλίαν, καὶ Ἐλεάζαρος ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς μετὰ τῆς γερουσίας ὄμνυσιν ἕξειν τε φίλους καὶ συμμάχους καὶ μηδὲν μοχλεύσεσθαι κατ' αὐτῶν ἄδικον τοῖς ὅρκοις ἐπισυναινέσαντος τοῦ πλήθους. [56] καὶ οἱ μὲν ὧν ἤθελον τυχόντες ἐξ ἀπάτης ἀπῄεσαν πρὸς αὑτούς. Ἰησοῦς δὲ τῆς Χαναναίας στρατεύσας εἰς τὴν ὑπώρειον καὶ μαθὼν οὐ πόρρω τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων τοὺς Γεβεωνίτας κατῳκημένους καὶ τοῦ γένους ὄντας τῶν Χαναναίων, μεταπεμψάμενος αὐτῶν τοὺς ἐν τέλει τῆς ἀπάτης αὐτοῖς ἐνεκάλει. [57] τῶν δ' οὐκ ἄλλην ἀφορμὴν σωτηρίας ἔχειν ἢ ταύτην προφασιζομένων καὶ διὰ τοῦτ' ἐπ' αὐτὴν ἐξ ἀνάγκης καταφυγεῖν συγκαλεῖ τὸν ἀρχιερέα Ἐλεάζαρον καὶ τὴν γερουσίαν, καὶ δημοσίους αὐτοὺς δικαιούντων ποιεῖν ἐπὶ τῷ μὴ παραβῆναι τὸν ὅρκον ἀποδείκνυσιν εἶναι τοιούτους. καὶ οἱ μὲν τῆς καταλαβούσης αὐτοὺς συμφορᾶς τοιαύτην φυλακὴν καὶ ἀσφάλειαν εὕραντο.

049 But the Gibeonites, who lived very near Jerusalem, seeing what woes had befallen the people of Jericho and those of Ai, and suspecting that a similar severe disaster would overtake themselves, did not think fit to ask mercy from Joshua, for they expected to find little mercy from one who made war intending to entirely destroy the Canaanite nation. 050 Instead, they invited the people of Cephirah and Kariathjearim, their neighbours, to join in league with them. They said that none of them could avoid the danger they were all in, if the Israelites should take the initiative and and seize them; persuading them of this, they resolved to try to escape the forces of the Israelites. 051 When they agreed to the proposal, they sent the most reputable citizens, most capable in what was to the people's best advantage, as envoys to Joshua to make a treaty of friendship with him. 052 These felt it dangerous to confess themselves as Canaanites, but thought of this plan to avert the danger, to claim they were not at all related to the Canaanites, but that they lived far away from them; and that because of his reputation for virtue they had come a long way, to prove which they showed him the state of their clothing. 053 they claimed that their clothes were new when they left home, but were worn out by the long time they had been on their journey, and had brought torn clothing with them, to make him believe this. 054 So they stood there claiming to be sent by the people of Gibeon and of the surrounding cities, very far from where they were, to make a treaty of friendship with them, on conditions that were traditional among their ancestors. For understanding that by God's favour and gift they [the Hebrews] were to have possession of the land of Canaan bestowed upon them, they said they were very glad to hear it and asked to be admitted into the number of their citizens.

055 This is what the envoys said. Then showing them the signs of their long journey, they begged the Hebrews to make a treaty of friendship with them. Joshua, believing them when they said they were not of the nation of the Canaanites, entered into friendship with them, and Eleazar the high priest, along with the elders, swore to them to esteem them their friends and associates and undertake nothing unfair against them; the people also assented to the oaths that were made to them. 056 Having obtained their request by deceit they went home. When Joshua led his army to the region at the foot of the mountains in this part of Canaan, he learned that the Gibeonites lived not far from Jerusalem and that they were of Canaanite stock, so he sent for their officers and rebuked them for their deceitfulness. 057 They claimed that they had no other way to save themselves and so were forced to have recourse to it. Then he called for Eleazar the high priest and the elders, who thought it right to make slaves of these people, so as not to break the oath they had made to them, and so they ordained it. This was the method by which these men found safety and security from the disaster that was about to overtake them.


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[58] Τοῦ δὲ τῶν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν βασιλέως χαλεπῶς φέροντος ἐπὶ τῷ μετατάξασθαι πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν τοὺς Γεβεωνίτας καὶ τοὺς τῶν πλησίον ἐθνῶν παρακαλέσαντος βασιλέας συνάρασθαι τῷ κατ' αὐτῶν πολέμῳ, ὡς τούτους τε εἶδον παρόντας σὺν αὐτῷ, τέσσαρες δὲ ἦσαν, οἱ Γεβεωνῖται καὶ στρατοπεδευσαμένους ἐπί τινι πηγῇ τῆς πόλεως οὐκ ἄπωθεν παρασκευάζεσθαι πρὸς πολιορκίαν, ἐπεκαλοῦντο σύμμαχον Ἰησοῦν: [59] ἐν τούτοις γὰρ ἦν αὐτοῖς τὰ πράγματα, ὡς ὑπὸ μὲν τούτων ἀπολεῖσθαι προσδοκᾶν, ὑπὸ δὲ τῶν ἐπ' ὀλέθρῳ τοῦ Χαναναίων γένους στρατευσάντων σωθήσεσθαι διὰ τὴν γενομένην φιλίαν ὑπολαμβάνειν. [60] καὶ Ἰησοῦς πανστρατιᾷ σπεύσας ἐπὶ τὴν βοήθειαν καὶ δι' ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς ἀνύσας ὄρθριος προσμίγνυσι τοῖς πολεμίοις καὶ τραπεῖσιν εἵπετο διώκων διὰ χωρίων ἐπικλινῶν, Βηθωρὰ καλεῖται. ἔνθα καὶ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ συνεργίαν ἔμαθεν ἐπισημήναντος αὐτοῦ βρονταῖς τε καὶ κεραυνῶν ἀφέσει καὶ χαλάζης καταφορᾷ μείζονος τῆς συνήθους: [61] ἔτι γε μὴν καὶ τὴν ἡμέραν αὐξηθῆναι πλέον, ὡς ἂν μὴ καταλαβοῦσα νὺξ ἐπίσχῃ τὸ τῶν Ἑβραίων πρόθυμον, συνέπεσεν, ὥστε καὶ λαμβάνει τοὺς βασιλέας Ἰησοῦς ἔν τινι κρυπτομένους σπηλαίῳ κατὰ Μακχίδα καὶ κολάζει πάντας. ὅτι δὲ τὸ μῆκος τῆς ἡμέρας ἐπέδωκε τότε καὶ τοῦ συνήθους ἐπλεόνασε, δηλοῦται διὰ τῶν ἀνακειμένων ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ γραμμάτων.

058 But the king of Jerusalem, angry that the Gibeonites had gone over to Joshua, called the kings of the neighbouring nations to join in a campaign against them. When the Gibeonites saw how these kings, four in number, besides the king of Jerusalem had encamped at a spring not far from their city and were ready besiege them, they called on Joshua for help. 059 Their situation led them to expect nothing but destruction [from their neighbours], but to expect to be saved by those who came for the destruction of the Canaanites, because of the alliance between them. 060 Joshua hurried to help them with his whole army, and marching day and night, at dawn he attacked the enemy, routed them, and pursued them down the slopes of the place called Bethhora. There too he experienced God's help, declared by thunder and thunderbolts, and by the falling of usually large hailstones. 061 The day was also lengthened so that night did not come on too soon and obstruct the zeal of the Hebrews in pursuing the enemy. Joshua captured the kings, who were hiding in a certain cave at Makkedah, and punished them all. How that day was protracted to be longer than ordinary, is told in the Scriptures laid up in the temple.


18.

[62] Κατεστραμμένων δ' οὕτως τῶν περὶ τοὺς βασιλέας, οἳ τοὺς Γεβεωνίτας πολεμήσοντες ἐστράτευσαν, ἐπανῄει πάλιν τῆς Χαναναίας ἐπὶ τὴν ὀρεινὴν Ἰησοῦς καὶ πολὺν τῶν ἐν αὐτῇ φόνον ἐργασάμενος καὶ λείαν λαβὼν παρῆν εἰς τὸ ἐν Γαλγάλοις στρατόπεδον. [63] τοῦ δὲ περὶ τῆς τῶν Ἑβραίων ἀρετῆς λόγου πολλοῦ φοιτῶντος εἰς τοὺς περιοίκους κατάπληξις εἶχε τοὺς ἀκούοντας τὸ τῶν ἀπολωλότων πλῆθος καὶ στρατεύουσιν ἐπ' αὐτοὺς οἱ περὶ Λίβανον ὄρος βασιλεῖς ὄντες Χαναναῖοι καὶ οἱ ἐν τοῖς πεδίοις τῶν Χαναναίων Παλαιστίνους προσλαβόντες στρατοπεδεύουσι πρὸς Βηρώθῃ πόλει Γαλιλαίας τῆς ἄνω Κεδέσης οὐ πόρρω: Γαλιλαίων δ' ἐστὶ καὶ τοῦτο τὸ χωρίον. [64] τοῦ δὲ στρατοῦ παντὸς ὁπλιτῶν μὲν ἦσαν μυριάδες τριάκοντα μύριοι δ' ἱππεῖς καὶ ἅρματα δισμύρια. καταπλήττει δὲ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν πολεμίων αὐτόν τε Ἰησοῦν καὶ τοὺς Ἰσραηλίτας καὶ πρὸς τὴν ἐλπίδα τοῦ κρείττονος εὐλαβεστέρως εἶχον δι' ὑπερβολὴν τοῦ δέους. [65] τοῦ θεοῦ δ' ἐξονειδίσαντος αὐτοῖς τὸν φόβον καὶ τί πλέον τῆς παρ' αὐτοῦ βοηθείας ποθοῦσιν, ὑποσχομένου τε νικήσειν τοὺς ἐχθροὺς καὶ κελεύσαντος τούς τε ἵππους ἀχρήστους ποιῆσαι καὶ τὰ ἅρματα πυρῶσαι, θαρσαλέος πρὸς τὰς ὑποσχέσεις τοῦ θεοῦ γενόμενος ἐξώρμησεν ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους, [66] καὶ διὰ πέμπτης ἡμέρας ἐπ' αὐτοὺς ἐλθὼν συνάπτει καὶ καρτερὰ μάχη γίνεται καὶ φόνος κρείττων πίστεως παρὰ τοῖς ἀκροωμένοις. διώκων δ' ἐπὶ πλεῖστον ἐξῆλθε καὶ πᾶν τὸ στράτευμα τῶν ἐχθρῶν πλὴν ὀλίγων διέφθειρε, [67] καὶ οἱ βασιλεῖς πάντες ἔπεσον, ὥστε τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐπιλελοιπότων πρὸς τὸ κτείνεσθαι τοὺς ἵππους Ἰησοῦς αὐτῶν ἀνῄρει καὶ τὰ ἅρματα ἐνεπίμπρα, τήν τε χώραν ἐπ' ἀδείας διεπορεύετο μηδενὸς τολμῶντος εἰς μάχην ἐπεξελθεῖν, ἀλλὰ πολιορκίᾳ τὰς πόλεις αἱρῶν καὶ πᾶν ὅ τι λάβοι φονεύων.

062 After defeating those kings who made war on the Gibeonites, Joshua returned to the hill country of Canaan, and after killing many of the people there he took their spoils and came to the camp at Galgala. 063 Word of the courage of the Hebrews went round among the neighbouring peoples, who were greatly fearful on hearing how many they had defeated. So the Canaanite kings who lived about Mount Libanus, and those Canaanites who lived in the plains region, with allies from the land of the Philistines, encamped at Beroth, a city of Upper Galilee, not far from Cadesh, which itself is also in Galilee. 064 The whole army numbered three hundred thousand armed infantry and ten thousand cavalry and twenty thousand chariots, so that the sheer numbers of the enemies seemed fearful to Joshua and the Israelites, and they, instead of expecting success, were stricken with great terror. 065 God reprimanded them for their fear and asked whether they needed more help than he could give them. He promised them that they would overcome their enemies, and also told them to make their enemies' horses useless and burn their chariots. At these promises of God, Joshua regained courage and instantly went out against the enemy. 066 When, after a march of five days he came upon them and fought them, the fight was tremendous and so many were killed that those who heard it could not be believe it. He pursued them a long way and destroyed the entire enemy army, apart from a few, and all the kings fell in the battle. 067 When there were no more men to kill, Joshua killed their horses and burned their chariots and crossed through all their region without opposition, with no one daring to meet him in battle. He still went forward, taking their cities by siege and again killing whatever he took.


19.

[68] Ἔτος δὲ πέμπτον ἤδη παρεληλύθει καὶ Χαναναίων οὐκέτ' οὐδεὶς ὑπολέλειπτο πλὴν εἰ μή τινες ὀχυρότητι τειχῶν διέφυγον. Ἰησοῦς δ' ἐκ τῶν Γαλγάλων ἀναστρατοπεδεύσας εἰς τὴν ὄρειον ἱστᾷ τὴν ἱερὰν σκηνὴν κατὰ Σιλοῦν πόλιν, ἐπιτήδειον γὰρ ἐδόκει τὸ χωρίον διὰ κάλλος, ἕως οἰκοδομεῖν ναὸν αὐτοῖς τὰ πράγματα παράσχοι. [69] καὶ χωρήσας ἐντεῦθεν ἐπὶ Σικίμων σὺν ἅπαντι τῷ λαῷ βωμόν τε ἵστησιν ὅπου προεῖπε Μωυσῆς καὶ νείμας τὴν στρατιὰν ἐπὶ μὲν τῷ Γαριζεῖ ὄρει τὴν ἡμίσειαν ἵστησιν, ἐπὶ δὲ τῷ Ἡβήλῳ τὴν ἡμίσειαν ἐν ᾧ καὶ ὁ βωμός ἐστι καὶ τὸ Λευιτικὸν καὶ τοὺς ἱερέας. [70] θύσαντες δὲ καὶ ἀρὰς ποιησάμενοι καὶ ταύτας ἐπὶ τῷ βωμῷ γεγραμμένας καταλιπόντες εἰς τὴν Σιλοῦν ἀνέζευξαν.

068 By the end of the fifth year none of the Canaanites remained except some who had retreated to places of great strength. So Joshua moved his camp to the mountainous region and placed the Tent in the city of Shiloh, for that seemed a suitable place for it, because of the beauty of its location, until such time as affairs would permit them to build a temple. 069 From there he went with all the people to Sikima, and raised an altar where Moses had previously directed. Then he divided the army and placed one half of them on Mount Garizim and the other half on Mount Ebal, on which the altar stood. He also placed there the tribe of Levi and the priests. 070 When they had sacrificed and proclaimed the curses and had left them engraved upon the altar, they returned to Shiloh.


20.

[71] Ἰησοῦς δ' ἤδη γηραιὸς ὢν καὶ τὰς τῶν Χαναναίων πόλεις ὁρῶν οὐκ εὐαλώτους ὑπό τε τῶν χωρίων ἐν οἷς ἦσαν ὀχυρότητος καὶ τῆς τῶν τειχῶν ἰσχύος, ἃ τῇ φυσικῇ τῶν πόλεων πλεονεξίᾳ προσεπιβαλλόμενοι προσεδόκων τοὺς πολεμίους ἀφέξεσθαι πολιορκίας δι' ἀπόγνωσιν τοῦ λαβεῖν, [72] καὶ γὰρ ἐπ' ὀλέθρῳ τῷ ἑαυτῶν οἱ Χαναναῖοι μαθόντες τοὺς Ἰσραηλίτας ποιησαμένους τὴν ἔξοδον τὴν ἀπ' Αἰγύπτου πρὸς τῷ τὰς πόλεις καρτερὰς ποιεῖν ἐκεῖνον ἅπαντ' ἦσαν τὸν χρόνον, συναγαγὼν τὸν λαὸν εἰς τὴν Σιλοῦν ἐκκλησίαν παρήγγειλε. [73] καὶ σπουδῇ συνδραμόντων τά τε ἤδη κατωρθωμένα καὶ τὰς γεγενημένας πράξεις, ὡς εἰσὶν ἄρισται καὶ τοῦ θείου τοῦ παρασχόντος αὐτὰς ἄξιαι καὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς τῶν νόμων οἷς κατακολουθοῦσιν ἔλεγε, βασιλεῖς τε τριάκοντα καὶ ἕνα τολμήσαντας αὐτοῖς εἰς χεῖρας ἐλθεῖν κεκρατῆσθαι δηλῶν καὶ στρατιὰν ὅση ποτὲ κατελπίσασα τῆς αὐτῶν δυνάμεως εἰς μάχην συνῆψεν ἅπασαν διαφθαρεῖσαν, ὡς μηδὲ γενεὰν αὐτοῖς ὑπολελεῖφθαι. [74] τῶν δὲ πόλεων ἐπειδήπερ αἱ μὲν ἑαλώκεσαν, πρὸς ἃς δὲ δεῖ χρόνου καὶ μεγάλης πολιορκίας διὰ τὴν τῶν τειχῶν ὀχυρότητα καὶ τὴν ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῶν οἰκητόρων πεποίθησιν, ἠξίου τοὺς ἐκ τῆς περαίας τοῦ Ἰορδάνου συνεξορμήσαντας αὐτοῖς καὶ τῶν κινδύνων συναραμένους ὄντας συγγενεῖς ἀπολύειν ἤδη πρὸς τὰ οἰκεῖα χάριν αὐτοῖς ὧν συνέκαμον ὁμολογοῦντας, [75] ἕνα τε κατὰ φυλὴν ἀρετῇ προύχειν μαρτυρηθέντα πέμπειν, οἳ τὴν γῆν ἐκμετρησόμενοι πιστῶς καὶ μηδὲν κακουργήσοντες δηλώσουσιν ἡμῖν ἀδόλως αὐτῆς τὸ μέγεθος”.

071 Joshua was old and saw that the cities of the Canaanites were not to be taken easily, not only because they were situated in such strong places, but because the strength of the ramparts built round them which, along with the naturally strong location of the cities stood, prevented enemies from besieging them and made them despair of taking them. 072 Once the Canaanites learned that the Israelites had come out of Egypt in order to destroy them, they spent all the time busily fortifying their cities; so he gathered the people together to a meeting at Shiloh. 073 When they had willingly and quickly gathered there, he reminded them of the prosperous successes they had already had and what glorious things had been done by those who were worthy of that God who enabled them to do such things and worthy of the virtue of those laws which they followed. He noted also, that thirty-one of those kings who ventured to into battle against them had been overcome and every army, however great, that trusted their own power and fought with them, was utterly destroyed so that none of their descendants remained. 074 Since some of the cities were taken, but others must be still taken by long sieges, due to the strength of their walls and the confidence the inhabitants had in them, he thought it reasonable that, being their own clan, those tribes that came along with them from beyond the Jordan and had shared in dangers with them should now be left free and sent home with thanks for the efforts they had made along with them. 075 He also thought it reasonable to send from every tribe one man of outstanding virtue to faithfully measure the land and tell them its real size without any fraud or deceit.


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[76] Καὶ Ἰησοῦς μὲν τούτους ποιησάμενος τοὺς λόγους συγκάταινον ἔσχε τὸ πλῆθος καὶ ἄνδρας τοὺς ἐκμετρησομένους τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν ἐξέπεμψε παραδοὺς αὐτοῖς τινας γεωμετρίας ἐπιστήμονας, οὓς τἀληθὲς οὐκ ἔμελλε λήσεσθαι διὰ τὴν τέχνην, ἐντολὰς δοὺς ἀποτιμήσασθαι τῆς τε εὐδαίμονος ἰδίᾳ τὸ μέτρον γῆς καὶ τῆς ἧσσον ἀγαθῆς. [77] ἡ γὰρ φύσις τῆς Χαναναίων γῆς τοιαύτη τίς ἐστιν, ὡς ἴδοι τις ἂν πεδία μεγάλα καὶ καρποὺς φέρειν ἱκανώτατα καὶ συγκρινόμενα μὲν ἑτέρᾳ γῇ πανευδαίμονα νομισθησόμενα, τοῖς δ' Ἱεριχουντίων χωρίοις παραβαλλόμενα καὶ τοῖς Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν τὸ μηδὲν ἀναφανησόμενα: [78] καίτοι παντελῶς ὀλίγην αὐτῶν εἶναι τὴν γῆν συμβέβηκε ταύτης δὲ ὀρεινὴν τὴν πολλήν, ἀλλ' ὑπερβολὴν εἰς καρπῶν ἐκτροφήν τε καὶ κάλλος οὐκ ἀπολέλοιπεν ἑτέρᾳ. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο τιμητοὺς μᾶλλον ἢ μετρητοὺς τοὺς κλήρους εἶναι δεῖν ὑπέλαβε πολλάκις ἑνὸς πλέθρου κἂν χιλίων ἀνταξίου γενομένου. [79] οἱ δὲ ἄνδρες οἱ πεμφθέντες, δέκα δὲ ἦσαν, περιοδεύσαντες καὶ τιμησάμενοι τὴν γῆν ἐν ἑβδόμῳ μηνὶ παρῆσαν πρὸς αὐτὸν εἰς Σιλοῦντα πόλιν, ἔνθα τὴν σκηνὴν ἑστάκεσαν.

076 When Joshua had said this to them, the people approved his proposal, so he sent men to measure their region and sent with them geometricians, unlikely to get things wrong, due to their skill in that art. He also told them to estimate what part of the land was most fruitful and what was not so good. 077 For it is the nature of the land of Canaan that one may see large and productive plains, which could be reckoned very fruitful when compared to other parts of the region, but if compared with the fields around Jericho and around Jerusalem, will appear to be worthless. 078 So although it so happens that these people have but a very little of this sort of land and that it is mainly mountainous, yet in its surpassing goodness and beauty it is not inferior to other parts. Therefore Joshua thought the land for the tribes should be divided by estimation of its goodness, rather than just measuring its size, as it often happens that one acre of one sort of land can equal a thousand acres in some other place. 079 The ten men who were sent travelled all around making an estimation of the land and in the seventh month came to him to the city of Shiloh, where they had set up the Tent.


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[80] Καὶ Ἰησοῦς Ἐλεάζαρόν τε καὶ τὴν γερουσίαν σὺν τοῖς φυλάρχοις παραλαβὼν νέμει ταῖς ἐννέα φυλαῖς καὶ τῶν Μανασσητῶν τοῖς ἡμίσεσι, κατὰ μέγεθος ἑκάστης τῶν φυλῶν τὴν μέτρησιν ποιησάμενος. [81] κληρώσαντος δὲ αὐτοῦ, ἡ μὲν Ἰούδα λαχοῦσα πᾶσαν αἱρεῖται τὴν καθύπερθεν Ἰδουμαίαν παρατείνουσαν μὲν ἄχρι τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων τὸ δ' εὖρος ἕως τῆς Σοδομίτιδος λίμνης καθήκουσαν: ἐν δὲ τῷ κλήρῳ τούτῳ πόλεις ἦσαν Ἀσκάλων καὶ Γάζα. [82] Σεμεωνὶς δέ, δευτέρα γὰρ ἦν, ἔλαχε τῆς Ἰδουμαίας τὴν Αἰγύπτῳ τε καὶ τῇ Ἀραβίᾳ πρόσορον οὖσαν. Βενιαμῖται δὲ τὴν ἀπὸ Ἰορδάνου ποταμοῦ ἔλαχον ἄχρι θαλάσσης μὲν τὸ μῆκος, τὸ δὲ πλάτος Ἱεροσολύμοις ὁριζομένην καὶ Βηθήλοις: στενώτατος δὲ ὁ κλῆρος οὗτος ἦν διὰ τὴν τῆς γῆς ἀρετήν: Ἱεριχοῦντα γὰρ καὶ τὴν Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν πόλιν ἔλαβον. [83] ἡ δ' Ἐφρὰν φυλὴ τὴν ἄχρι Γαζάρων ἀπὸ Ἰορδάνου ποταμοῦ μηκυνομένην ἔλαχεν, εὐρεῖαν δὲ ὅσον ἀπὸ Βεθήλων εἰς τὸ μέγα τελευτᾷ πεδίον, τῆς τε Μανασσήτιδος οἱ ἡμίσεις ἀπὸ μὲν Ἰορδάνου μέχρι Δώρων πόλεως, πλάτος δὲ ἐπὶ Βηθησάνων, ἣ νῦν Σκυθόπολις καλεῖται, [84] καὶ μετὰ τούτους Ἰσαχαρὶς Κάρμηλόν τε τὸ ὄρος καὶ τὸν ποταμὸν τοῦ μήκους ποιησαμένη τέρμονα, τὸ δὲ Ἰταβύριον ὄρος τοῦ πλάτους. Ζαβουλωνῖται δὲ τὴν μέχρι Γενησαρίδος καθήκουσαν δὲ περὶ Κάρμηλον καὶ θάλασσαν ἔλαχον. [85] τὴν δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦ Καρμήλου κοιλάδα προσαγορευομένην διὰ τὸ καὶ τοιαύτην εἶναι Ἀσηρῖται φέρονται πᾶσαν τὴν ἐπὶ Σιδῶνος τετραμμένην: Ἄρκη δὲ πόλις ὑπῆρχεν αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ μερίδι ἡ καὶ Ἐκδείπους. [86] τὰ δὲ πρὸς τὰς ἀνατολὰς τετραμμένα μέχρι Δαμασκοῦ πόλεως καὶ τῆς Γαλιλαίας τὰ καθύπερθεν Νεφθαλῖται παρέλαβον ἕως τοῦ Λιβάνου ὄρους καὶ τῶν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου πηγῶν, αἳ τὴν ὁρμὴν ἐκ τοῦ ὄρους ἔχουσιν, ἐκ τοῦ καθήκοντος τοῖς ὅροις κατὰ τὰ βόρεια πόλεως Ἄρκης παροικούσης. [87] Δανῖται δὲ τῆς κοίλης ὅσα πρὸς δυόμενον τέτραπται τὸν ἥλιον λαγχάνουσιν Ἀζώτῳ καὶ Δώροις ὁριζόμενοι Ἰάμνειάν τε πᾶσαν καὶ Γίτταν ἀπ' Ἀκκαρῶνος ἕως τοῦ ὄρους, ἐξ οὗ ἡ Ἰούδα ἦρκτο φυλή.

080 So Joshua took both Eleazar and the elders and with them the heads of the tribes and distributed the land to the nine tribes and the half-tribe of Manasses, appointing the dimensions according to the size of each tribe. 081 When he had cast lots, Judas had assigned him by lot the upper part of Judea, reaching as far as Jerusalem and its breadth extending to the Lake of Sodom. Within the lot of this tribe were the cities of Askalon and Gaza. 082 The lot of Simeon, which was second, included the part of Idumaea bordering on Egypt and Arabia. The territory of the Benjamites extended from the river Jordan to the sea, but its other boundaries were Jerusalem and Bethel, and this lot was the narrowest of all, because of the goodness of the land, for it included Jericho and the city of Jerusalem. 083 The tribe of Ephraim had by lot the land reaching from the river Jordan to Gezer, but its width was from Bethel to the Great Plain. The half-tribe of Manasses had the land from the Jordan to the city of Dora and reached as far as Bethsan, which is now called Scythopolis. 084 After these came Issachar, which stretched from Mount Carmel to the river, and one of its boundaries was Mount Itaburion. The tribe of Zebulon's lot included the land as far as the Lake of Genesareth and the area of Carmel to the sea. 085 The tribe of Asseron had that part called the Valley, for that was its shape, and all the area across from Sidon. The city of Arce, also called Actipus, was part their share. 086 The Nephthalites got the eastern areas from the city of Damascus and the Upper Galilee as far as Mount Libanus and the Jordan springs flowing from it, that is, the portion of it whose limits belong to the nearby city of Arce. 087 The Danites' lot included the section of the valley which points west, with Azotus and Dora as its limits, and all of Jamnia and Gitta, from Akkaron to the mountain where the tribe of Judas begins.


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[88] Καὶ ἓξ μὲν ἔθνη τῶν υἱέων τοῦ Χαναναίου φέροντα τὴν ἐπωνυμίαν διεῖλεν οὕτως Ἰησοῦς καὶ τὴν γῆν ταῖς ἐννέα καὶ τῇ ἡμισείᾳ φυλαῖς ἔδωκε νέμεσθαι: [89] τὴν γὰρ Ἀμορρῖτιν καὶ αὐτὴν οὕτως ἀφ' ἑνὸς τῶν Χαναναίου παίδων καλουμένην Μωυσῆς ἤδη προειληφὼς νενεμήκει ταῖς δυσὶ φυλαῖς καὶ τῷ ἡμίσει: τοῦτο δὲ καὶ πρότερον δεδηλώκαμεν. τὰ δὲ περὶ Σιδῶνα καὶ Ἀρουκαίους καὶ Ἀμαθαίους καὶ Ἀριδαίους ἀδιακόσμητα ἦν.

088 In this way Joshua divided the six nations that bear the name of the sons of Canaan, with their land, as a possession for the nine and a half tribes. 089 Moses had already distributed the land of the Amorites, which itself was so called also from one of the sons of Canaan, to the other two and a half tribes, as we have shown already. But the parts about Sidon, and those belonging to the Arkites and the Amathites and the Aradians, were not yet properly divided out.


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[90] Ἰησοῦς δὲ τοῦ γήρως ἐμποδίζοντος ἤδη πράττειν ὅσα καὶ νοήσειε τῶν τε μετ' αὐτὸν τὴν ἡγεμονίαν παραλαβόντων ἀμελῶς προστάντων τοῦ κοινῇ συμφέροντος, παρήγγειλέ τε φυλῇ ἑκάστῃ τοῦ γένους τῶν Χαναναίων μηδὲν ὑπολιπεῖν ἐν τῇ κατακεκληρωμένῃ γῇ: τὴν γὰρ ἀσφάλειαν αὐτοῖς καὶ τὴν φυλακὴν τῶν πατρίων ἐθῶν ἐν μόνῳ τούτῳ καὶ Μωυσῆν αὐτοῖς εἶναι προειπεῖν καὶ τοῦτ' αὐτοὺς πεπεῖσθαι. [91] καὶ τοῖς Λευίταις δὲ τὰς ὀκτὼ καὶ τριάκοντα πόλεις ἀποδιδόναι: προειλήφεισαν γὰρ ἤδη κατὰ τὴν Ἀμορραίαν τὰς δέκα. τούτων τρεῖς ἀπονέμει τοῖς φυγάσιν οἰκεῖν ἐν αὐταῖς, πολλὴ γὰρ ἦν πρόνοια τοῦ μηδὲν ὧν Μωυσῆς διέταξε παραλιπεῖν, τῆς μὲν οὖν Ἰούδα φυλῆς Ἰέβρωνα, Σίκιμα δὲ τῆς Ἐφραίμ, τῆς Νεφθαλίτιδος δὲ Κεδέσην: ἔστι τῆς καθύπερθεν Γαλιλαίας τοῦτο τὸ χωρίον. [92] νέμει δὲ καὶ τῆς λείας ὅσα ἦν ἔτι λοιπά, πλείστη δ' ἐγεγόνει, καὶ μεγάλους πλούτους περιεβέβληντο καὶ κοινῇ πάντες καὶ κατ' ἰδίαν ἕκαστος χρυσοῦ τε καὶ ἀργύρου καὶ ἐσθήτων καὶ τῆς ἄλλης ἐπισκευῆς ἕνεκα, τετραπόδων τε πλήθους ὅσον οὐδὲ ἀριθμῷ μαθεῖν ἦν προσγενομένου.

090 As Joshua was now hindered by his age from carrying out his plans, and the leaders coming after him cared little for the common good, he called on every tribe to leave no trace of the race of the Canaanites in the land he had apportioned out to them, for as Moses had foretold and they should accept, only so could they be secure and their own laws be observed. 091 He ordered them to give thirty-eight cities to the Levites, for they had already received ten in the region of the Amorites, and three of these he assigned to those who fled from the man-hunters, who were to live there, for he was most anxious that nothing be neglected which Moses had ordained. These cities were: of the tribe of Judas, Hebron, of that of Ephraim, Sikima, and of that of Naphthali, Cadesh, which is a place of the Upper Galilee. 092 He also distributed among them the share of the spoils not yet distributed, which was great; by which they had an affluence of great wealth, both all in general and each one in particular, of gold and of vestments and of other furniture, besides an innumerable amount of livestock.


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[93] Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα συναγαγὼν εἰς ἐκκλησίαν τὸν στρατὸν τοῖς ὑπὲρ τὸν Ἰόρδανον κατὰ τὴν Ἀμορραίαν ἱδρυμένοις, συνεστράτευον δ' αὐτοῖς πεντακισμύριοι ὁπλῖται, ἔλεξε τάδε: “ἐπεὶ ὁ θεός, πατὴρ καὶ δεσπότης τοῦ Ἑβραίων γένους, γῆν τε κτήσασθαι ταύτην ἔδωκε καὶ κτηθεῖσαν εἰς ἅπαν ἡμετέραν φυλάξειν ὑπείσχηται, [94] συνεργίας δὲ τῆς παρ' ὑμῶν κατ' ἐντολὴν τὴν ἐκείνου δεομένοις ἑαυτοὺς εἰς ἅπαν προθύμους ἐδώκατε, δίκαιον ὑμᾶς μηδενὸς ἔτι δυσκόλου περιμένοντος ἀναπαύσεως ἤδη τυχεῖν φειδοῖ τῆς προθυμίας ὑμῶν, ἵν' εἰ καὶ πάλιν δεήσειεν ἡμῖν αὐτῆς ἄοκνον ἔχωμεν εἰς τὰ κατεπείξοντα καὶ μὴ τοῖς νῦν καμοῦσαν αὖθις βραδυτέραν. [95] χάριν τε οὖν ὑμῖν ὧν συνήρασθε κινδύνων καὶ οὐχὶ νῦν μόνον ἀλλ' ἀεὶ πάντως ἕξομεν, ὄντες ἀγαθοὶ μεμνῆσθαι τῶν φίλων καὶ παρὰ τῇ διανοίᾳ κρατεῖν ὅσα παρ' αὐτῶν ἡμῖν ὑπῆρξεν, ὅτι τε τὴν ἀπόλαυσιν τῶν ὑπαρχόντων ὑμῖν ἀγαθῶν δι' ἡμᾶς ἀνεβάλεσθε καὶ πονήσαντες εἰς ἃ νῦν εὐνοίᾳ θεοῦ κατέστημεν ἔπειθ' οὕτως ἐκρίνατε αὐτῶν μεταλαμβάνειν. [96] γέγονε δὲ πρὸς τοῖς ὑπάρχουσιν ἀγαθοῖς ἐκ τῶν σὺν ἡμῖν πόνων πλοῦτος ἄφθονος λείαν τε πολλὴν ἐπαξομένοις καὶ χρυσὸν καὶ ἄργυρον καὶ τὸ τούτων ἔτι πλεῖον, παρ' ἡμῖν εὔνοια καὶ πρὸς ὅ τι βουληθείητε κατ' ἀμοιβὴν πρόθυμον. οὔτε γὰρ ὧν Μωυσῆς προεῖπεν ἀπελείφθητε καταφρονήσαντες ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἀπελθόντος οὔτ' ἔστιν οὐδὲν ἐφ' ᾧ μὴ χάριν ὑμῖν οἴδαμεν. [97] χαίροντας οὖν ὑμᾶς ἐπὶ τὰς κληρουχίας ἀπολύομεν καὶ παρακαλοῦμεν μηδένα τῆς πρὸς ἡμᾶς συγγενείας ὅρον ὑπολαμβάνειν, μηδ' ὅτι μεταξὺ ποταμὸς οὗτός ἐστιν ἑτέρους ἡμᾶς νομίσητε καὶ οὐχὶ Ἑβραίους. Ἁβράμου γὰρ ἅπαντές ἐσμεν οἵ τ' ἐνθάδε κἀκεῖ κατοικοῦντες, θεός τε εἷς, ὃς τούς τε ἡμετέρους προγόνους καὶ τοὺς ὑμῶν αὐτῶν παρήγαγεν εἰς τὸν βίον: [98] οὗ τῆς θρησκείας ἐπιμελεῖσθε καὶ πολιτείας, ἣν αὐτὸς διὰ Μωυσέος διέταξε, φυλακὴν ἔχετε τὴν πᾶσαν, ὡς ἐμμενόντων μὲν τούτοις καὶ τοῦ θεοῦ παρέξοντος εὔνουν εἶναι καὶ σύμμαχον ἑαυτόν, ἐκτραπέντων δὲ εἰς ἑτέρων ἐθνῶν μίμησιν ἀπο [99] στραφησομένου τὸ γένος ὑμῶν.” ταῦτα εἰπὼν καὶ καθ' ἕνα τοὺς ἐν τέλει καὶ κοινῇ τὸ πλῆθος αὐτῶν ἀσπασάμενος αὐτὸς μὲν ὑπέμεινε, προύπεμπε δ' αὐτοὺς ὁ λαὸς οὐκ ἀδακρυτὶ καὶ μόλις ἀλλήλων ἀπελύθησαν.

093 After this he held a meeting of the whole force and to those tribes that had their settlement in the land of the Amorites beyond the Jordan, for fifty thousand of them had armed themselves and had gone to the war along with them, he said: "Since God, who is the Father and Lord of the Hebrew nation, has now given us this land for our own and promised to preserve us in its possession for ever, 094 and since according to his command you have offered yourselves with commitment to help us on all occasions when we needed that help, it is only fair, now that all our ordeals are over, to allow you to enjoy rest and that we no longer trespass on your willingness to help us. So, if we should again need it in future emergency, we may readily have it and not now weary you so much as to make you slower in assisting us another time. 095 We thank you therefore, for the dangers you have borne with us and we do it not only for the present, but shall always be so disposed and remember our friends and keep in mind the advantages we have had from them; 096 how you posponed the enjoyment of your own prosperity for our sakes and have laboured for what now, by the goodwill of God, we have obtained and resolved not to enjoy your own prosperity until you had given us that help. However, by joining your toil with ours, you have gotten plenty of wealth and will bring home with you much booty, with gold and silver, and, more than all these, our goodwill towards you and a mind disposed to reward your kindness to us, whenever you need it. You have left nothing undone which Moses asked of you before, nor have you despised him when he is dead and gone from you, so that there is nothing to lessen the gratitude we owe to you. 097 We therefore send you joyfully to your own inheritances, and ask you to believe there is no limit to the close link between us. Do not imagine, just because this river is between us, that you are of a different race from us and not Hebrews, for we are all descendants of Abraham, both we living here and you living there, and it is the same God who gave life to our ancestors and to yourselves. 098 We must carefully observe his worship and form of government as he has appointed us. While you continue in those laws, God will also show himself merciful and supportive to you, but if you imitate the other nations and forsake those laws, he will reject your nation." 099 When he had said this and greeted them all, individually those in authority and the whole people in general, he stayed where he was, but the people sent those tribes on their way, not without tears in their eyes, and indeed they hardly knew how to separate from each other.


26.

[100] Διαβᾶσα δὲ τὸν ποταμὸν ἥ τε Ῥουβηλὶς φυλὴ καὶ Γαδὶς καὶ ὅσοι τῶν Μανασσητῶν αὐτοῖς συνείποντο βωμὸν ὑπὲρ τῆς ὄχθης ἱδρύονται τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, μνημεῖον τοῖς ἔπειτα γενησόμενον [σύμβολον] τῆς πρὸς τοὺς πέραν κατῳκημένους οἰκειότητος. [101] ἀκούσαντες δὲ οἱ πέραν βωμὸν ἱδρῦσθαι τοὺς ἀπολυθέντας οὐ μεθ' ἧς ἐκεῖνοι γνώμης ἀνέστησαν αὐτόν, ἀλλ' ἐπὶ νεωτερισμῷ καὶ ξενικῶν εἰσαγωγῇ θεῶν, οὐκ ἤθελον ἀπιστεῖν, ἀλλὰ περὶ θείαν θρησκείαν τὴν διαβολὴν πιθανὴν νομίζοντες ἐν ὅπλοις ἦσαν, ὡς ἐπ' ἀμύνῃ τῶν τὸν βωμὸν ἱδρυσαμένων περαιωσόμενοι τὸν ποταμὸν καὶ κολάσοντες αὐτοὺς τῆς παρατροπῆς τῶν πατρίων ἐθῶν. [102] οὐ γὰρ ἐδόκει τὴν συγγένειαν αὐτοὺς λογίζεσθαι καὶ τὸ ἀξίωμα τῶν τὴν αἰτίαν εἰληφότων, ἀλλὰ τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ βουλητὸν καὶ ᾧ τρόπῳ τιμώμενος χαίρει. [103] καὶ οἱ μὲν ἐστράτευσαν ὑπ' ὀργῆς, ἐπέσχε δ' αὐτοὺς Ἰησοῦς καὶ ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς Ἐλεάζαρος καὶ ἡ γερουσία λόγοις συμβουλεύοντες ἀπόπειραν αὐτῶν τῆς γνώμης λαβεῖν πρῶτον, ἔπειτ' ἂν κακοήθη μάθωσι τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν τότε τοῖς. ὅπλοις χωρεῖν ἐπ' αὐτούς. [104] πέμπουσιν οὖν πρεσβευτὰς πρὸς αὐτοὺς Φινεέσην τὸν υἱὸν Ἐλεαζάρου καὶ δέκα σὺν αὐτῷ τῶν ἐν τιμῇ παρὰ τοῖς Ἑβραίοις μαθησομένους, τί καὶ φρονήσαντες τὸν βωμὸν ἐπὶ τῆς ὄχθης τοῦ ποταμοῦ διαβάντες ἔστησαν. [105] ὡς δὲ περαιωσαμένων καὶ πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἀφικομένων ἐκκλησία συνελέγη, στὰς Φινεέσης μείζω μὲν αὐτοὺς ἁμαρτεῖν ἔλεγεν, ἢ ὥστε λόγοις ἐπιτιμηθέντας νενουθετῆσθαι πρὸς τὰ μέλλοντα πλὴν οὐ πρὸς τὸ μέγεθος τῆς παρανομίας ἀπιδόντας εὐθὺς ἐφ' ὅπλα καὶ τὴν ἐκ χειρῶν τιμωρίαν ὁρμῆσαι, πρὸς δὲ τὸ συγγενὲς καὶ τὸ τάχα καὶ λόγοις ἂν σωφρονῆσαι σκοπήσαντας οὕτω ποιήσασθαι τὴν πρεσβείαν, [106] ἵνα τὴν αἰτίαν μαθόντες ὑφ' ἧς προήχθητε τὸν βωμὸν κατασκευάσαι μήτε προπετεῖς δοκῶμεν ὅπλοις μετιόντες ὑμᾶς κατὰ λογισμὸν ὅσιον ποιησαμένους τὸν βωμόν, κατι δικαίως ἀμυνώμεθα τῆς διαβολῆς ἐλεγχθείσης ἀληθοῦς. [107] οὐ γὰρ ἠξιοῦμεν ὑμᾶς πείρᾳ τῆς τοῦ θεοῦ γνώμης ἐντὸς γεγενημένους καὶ νόμων ὧν αὐτὸς ἡμῖν δέδωκεν ἀκροατὰς ὑπάρχοντας, διαζευχθέντας ἡμῶν καὶ παρόντας εἰς τὸν ἴδιον κλῆρον, ὃν κατὰ χάριν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τῆς ἐκείνου περὶ ἡμᾶς προνοίας ἐλάχετε, λήθην λαβεῖν αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν σκηνὴν καὶ τὴν κιβωτὸν καταλιπόντας καὶ βωμὸν ὃς ἡμῖν πάτριος ξενικοὺς θεοὺς ἐπιφέρειν τοῖς Χαναναίων κακοῖς προσκεχωρηκότας. [108] ἀλλ' οὐδὲν ἀδικεῖν δόξετε μετανοήσαντες καὶ μὴ περαιτέρω μανέντες νόμων δὲ πατρίων αἰδῶ καὶ μνήμην λαβόντες. ἂν δ' ἐπιμένητε τοῖς ἡμαρτημένοις, οὐ περιστησόμεθα τὸν ὑπὲρ τῶν νόμων πόνον, ἀλλὰ περαιωσάμενοι τὸν Ἰόρδανον τούτοις βοηθήσομεν καὶ πρὸ αὐτῶν τῷ θεῷ, μηδὲν ὑμᾶς Χαναναίων διαφέρειν ὑπολαμβάνοντες ἀλλ' ὁμοίως ἐκείνοις διαφθείροντες. [109] μὴ γὰρ νομίσητε τῷ διαβεβηκέναι τὸν ποταμὸν καὶ τῆς τοῦ θεοῦ δυνάμεως ἔξω γεγονέναι πανταχοῦ δ' ἐν τοῖς τούτου ἐστὲ καὶ ἀποδρᾶναι τὴν ἐξουσίαν αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν ἀπὸ ταύτης δίκην ἀδύνατον. εἰ δ' οἴεσθε τὴν ἐνθάδε παρουσίαν ὑμῖν ἐμπόδιον εἶναι τοῦ σωφρονεῖν, οὐδὲν κωλύει πάλιν τὴν γῆν ὑμᾶς ἀναδάσασθαι καὶ ταύτην ἀνεῖναι μηλόβοτον. [110] ἀλλ' εὖ ποιήσετε σωφρονήσαντες καὶ ἐπὶ νεαροῖς μετατιθέμενοι τοῖς ἁμαρτήμασι. καὶ παρακαλοῦμεν ὑμᾶς πρὸς παίδων καὶ γυναικῶν μὴ παρασχεῖν ἡμῖν ἀνάγκην ἀμύνασθαι. ὡς οὖν τῆς ὑμετέρας αὐτῶν σωτηρίας καὶ τῶν φιλτάτων ὑμῖν ἐν τῇδε τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ κειμένης οὕτω βουλεύεσθε, λόγοις ἡττηθῆναι συμφέρειν ὑπολαμβάνοντες ἢ πεῖραν ἔργων καὶ πολέμου περιμένειν”.

100 When the tribes of Rubel and Gad and the Manassites who followed them, had crossed the river, they built an altar on the banks of the Jordan as a monument for their descendants and a sign of their relationship with those who living on the other side. 101 When those on the other [western]
side heard how those they had sent away had built an altar, but did not hear with what intention they built it, they supposed it to be by way of novelty and to introduce foreign gods. 102 They were not inclined to doubt it, so giving credence to this libel that it was built for divine worship, they appeared in arms, to take revenge on those who built the altar. 103 They were even about to pass over the river to punish them for subverting their ancestral laws, for instead of respecting as relatives those who had done this thing, they gave priority to the will of God and how He wished to be worshipped, and so they got ready for war. But Joshua and Eleazar the high priest and the elders restrained them, persuading them to first test the others' intention by words and only after that to proceed to war against them, if them intending to do evil. 104 So they sent as envoys Phineas the son of Eleazar and ten others well-esteemed Hebrews, to learn from them what they meant when, having crossed the river, they built an altar upon its banks. 105 When these envoys had crossed over and come to them and held a meeting, Phineas stood up and said that the offense they had committed was too grievous to be punished by mere words, or only to be amended by them in the future; still, they did not regard the gravity of their transgression as so grave that they need instantly take up arms and go to war to punish them, but that, due to their kinship and the prospect of their conversion, they chose this method of sending them an embassy, 106 "So that when we have learned the true reasons that moved you to build this altar, we may not too rashly attack you with weapons of war, if it proves that you made the altar for justifiable reasons, and still may justly punish you if the accusation prove true. 107 For we can hardly suppose that you, who are aware of the will of God and have heard those laws which he himself has given us, can forget him now that you are separated from us and gone to your patrimony, which through the grace of God and his providence over you, you have obtained by lot, and abandon the ark and altar that are special to us, in order to introduce foreign gods and imitate the wicked practices of the Canaanites. 108 This will be a significant crime even if you repent now and proceed no further in your madness and pay due reverence and keep in mind the ancestral laws, but if you persist in your sins, we will spare no effort to preserve our laws; we will cross across the Jordan and defend them, and God too, treating you no way differently from the Canaanites, and destroying you just as we destroyed them. 109 Do not imagine that, because you have crossed the river, you are beyond the reach of God's power; everywhere you are in places belonging to him and it is impossible to outrun his power and the punishment he will thereby bring upon people. If you think that your settling here can save you from conversion to what is good, there is nothing to hinder us from dividing the land anew and leaving this old area merely to feed sheep. 110 You will do well to return to your duty and to leave aside these wicked novelties, and we beg you, by your children and wives, not to force us to punish you. Take measures in this assembly, knowing that it affects your own safety and the safety of your dear ones, and realise that it is better for you to be conquered by words than to continue in your purpose and so to experience battle and war."


27.

[111] Τοσαῦτα τοῦ Φινεέσου διαλεχθέντος οἱ προεστῶτες τῆς ἐκκλησίας καὶ τὸ πλῆθος αὐτὸ πᾶν ἤρξαντο περὶ τῶν ἐγκεκλημένων αὐτοῖς ἀπολογεῖσθαι, καὶ μήτε συγγενείας τῆς πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἀποστήσεσθαι μήτε κατὰ νεωτερισμὸν ἀναστῆσαι τὸν βωμὸν λέγειν, [112] ἀλλὰ θεόν τε ἕνα γινώσκειν τὸν Ἑβραίοις ἅπασι κοινὸν καὶ τὸν πρὸ τῆς σκηνῆς βωμὸν χάλκεον, ᾧ τὰς θυσίας ποιήσειν: τὸν μέντοι γε νῦν ἀνασταθέντα, δι' ὃν καὶ ὕποπτοι γεγόνασιν, οὐ κατὰ θρησκείαν ἱδρῦσθαι, σύμβολον δὲ ὅπως εἴη καὶ τεκμήριον εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τῆς πρὸς ὑμᾶς οἰκειότητος καὶ ἀνάγκη τοῦ σωφρονεῖν καὶ τοῖς πατρίοις ἐμμένειν, ἀλλ' οὐχὶ παραβάσεως ἀρχήν, ὡς ὑπονοεῖτε. [113] μάρτυς δ' ἡμῖν τοῦ ἐπὶ τοιαύτῃ τὸν βωμὸν αἰτίᾳ κατασκευάσαι γένοιτο ὁ θεὸς ἀξιόχρεως, ὅθεν ἀμείνονα περὶ ἡμῶν ἔχοντες ὑπόληψιν μηδὲν καταγινώσκετε τούτων, ἐφ' οἷς ἐξώλεις εἶναι δίκαιοι πάντες ὅσοι τοῦ Ἁβράμου γένους ὄντες νεωτέροις ἐπιχειροῦσιν ἔθεσι καὶ τοῦ συνήθους τρόπου παρηλλαγμένοις”.

111 When Phineas had said this, the officers of the assembly and the whole population began to defend themselves against the accusation. They said they had no wish to abandon their relationship with them, nor had they built the altar by way of revolt. 112 They professed loyalty to one and the same God in common with all the Hebrews and to the bronze altar in front of the Tent, on which they would offer their sacrifices; that the altar they had raised, on whose account they were so suspected, was not intended for worship, 113 "but as a sign and a memorial of our relationship to you for ever and an essential caution to us to act wisely and continue in the our ancestral laws, not an excuse for neglecting them, as you suspect. Let God be our true witness, that this was the reason we built this altar. Therefore we beg you to think better of us and not impute such a thing to us as would be damnable in any of Abraham's descendants, if they attempted to bring in new rites, different from our usual practices."


28.

[114] Ταῦτα εἰπόντας ἐπαινέσας ὁ Φινεέσης παρῆν πρὸς Ἰησοῦν καὶ τὰ παρ' αὐτῶν ἀνήγγειλε τῷ λαῷ. ὁ δὲ χαίρων, ὅτι μηδεμία στρατολογεῖν αὐτοὺς ἀνάγκη μέλλει μηδ' εἰς ὅπλα καὶ πόλεμον ἐξαγαγεῖν κατὰ ἀνδρῶν συγγενῶν, χαριστηρίους ὑπὲρ τούτων τῷ θεῷ θυσίας ἐπιτελεῖ. καὶ διαλύσας μετὰ ταῦτα τὸ πλῆθος εἰς τὰς ἰδίας κληρουχίας Ἰησοῦς αὐτὸς ἐν Σικίμοις διῆγεν. [115] ἔτει δ' ὕστερον εἰκοστῷ ὑπέργηρως ὢν μεταπεμψάμενος τοὺς ἐπ' ἀξιώματος μάλιστα τῶν πόλεων καὶ τὰς ἀρχὰς καὶ τὴν γερουσίαν καὶ τοῦ πλήθους ὅσον ἦν ἐφικτὸν αὐτῷ συναγαγών, ἐπεὶ παρῆσαν, τάς τε εὐεργεσίας τοῦ θεοῦ ἁπάσας ἀνεμίμνησκεν αὐτούς, πολλαὶ δὲ ἦσαν τοῖς ἐκ ταπεινοῦ σχήματος εἰς τοῦτο δόξης καὶ περιουσίας προελθοῦσι, [116] φυλάττειν τε τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ προαίρεσιν οὕτως ἔχουσαν πρὸς αὐτοὺς παρεκάλει καὶ τῇ εὐσεβείᾳ, ᾗ γε μόνῃ φίλον αὐτοῖς διαμένειν τὸ θεῖον: αὐτῷ γὰρ καλῶς ἔχειν ἀπιέναι μέλλοντι τοῦ ζῆν παραίνεσιν αὐτοῖς τοιαύτην καταλιπεῖν κἀκείνους ἠξίου διὰ μνήμης ποιήσασθαι τὴν παρακέλευσιν.

114 Phineas commended them for saying this, and came to Joshua and explained before the people the answer they had received. Now Joshua was glad not to have to lead them into battle and shed blood and make war against their own relatives, and accordingly offered thank-offerings to God for this. After that Joshua dissolved this great assembly of the people and sent them to their own inheritances, while he himself lived in Sikima. 115 In the twentieth year after this, when he was very old, he sent for those of the greatest dignity in the various cities, with those in authority and the elders and as many of the common people as could be present. When they had come, he reminded them of all the benefits God had given to them, which must be many, since from a low estate they were advanced to such high glory and plenty. 116 He urged them to hold to God's election, who had been so gracious towards them. He told them that God would continue as their friend simply because of their piety, and that it was his duty, now that he was about to depart from this life, to leave such an admonition to them, and he asked them to keep in mind his exhortation to them.


29.

[117] Καὶ ὁ μὲν τοσαῦτα πρὸς τοὺς παρόντας διαλεχθεὶς τελευτᾷ βιοὺς ἑκατὸν ἔτη καὶ δέκα, ὧν Μωυσεῖ μὲν ἐπὶ διδασκαλίᾳ τῶν χρησίμων συνδιέτριψεν τεσσαράκοντα, στρατηγὸς δὲ μετὰ τὴν ἐκείνου τελευτὴν γίνεται πέντε καὶ εἴκοσιν, [118] ἀνὴρ [δὲ] μήτε συνέσεως ὢν ἐνδεὴς μήτε τοῦ τὰ νοηθέντα πρὸς τοὺς πολλοὺς σαφῶς ἐξενεγκεῖν ἄπειρος, ἀλλ' ἐν ἀμφοτέροις ἄκρος πρός τε τὰ ἔργα καὶ τοὺς κινδύνους εὔψυχος καὶ μεγαλότολμος πρυτανεῦσαί τε τὰ κατὰ τὴν εἰρήνην δεξιώτατος καὶ πρὸς ἅπαντα καιρὸν τὴν ἀρετὴν ἡρμοσμένος. [119] θάπτεται δὲ ἐν πόλει Θαμνᾶ τῆς Ἐφραίμου φυλῆς. θνήσκει δὲ ὑπ' αὐτὸν τὸν καιρὸν καὶ Ἐλεάζαρος ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς Φινεέσῃ τῷ παιδὶ τὴν ἱερωσύνην καταλιπών, καὶ μνημεῖον αὐτῷ καὶ τάφος ἐν Γαβαθᾶ πόλει τυγχάνει.

117 After telling them all this, Joshua died, having lived a hundred and ten years; forty of them in company with Moses, in order to learn what would benefit him later; and after Moses's death he commanded them for twenty-five years. 118 He was a man not lacking in wisdom or eloquence and excellent in declaring his mind to the people. He was very brave and magnanimous in action and amid danger, wise in securing the peace of the people, and great in virtue on all occasions. 119 He was buried in the city of Timnab, belonging to the tribe of Ephraim. About the same time Eleazar the high priest died, leaving the high priesthood to his son Phineas. His monument and burial vault are in the city of Gabatha.

Chapter 2. [120-174]
After Joshua's death, great lawlessness, for which the people suffer

1.

[120] Μετὰ δὲ τὴν τούτων τελευτὴν Φινεέσης προφητεύει κατὰ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ βούλησιν ἐπ' ἐξωλείᾳ τοῦ Χαναναίων γένους τῇ Ἰούδα φυλῇ παρασχεῖν τὴν ἡγεμονίαν: καὶ γὰρ τῷ λαῷ διὰ σπουδῆς ἦν μαθεῖν τί καὶ τῷ θεῷ δοκεῖ. καὶ προσλαβοῦσα τὴν Σεμεωνίδα, ἐφ' ᾧτε ἐξαιρεθέντων τῶν ἐκείνης ὑποτελῶν καὶ τοὺς ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ κληρουχίᾳ τοῦτο ποιῶσιν

120 When they had died, Phineas prophesied that in order to wipe out the Canaanite race God willed them to entrust the leadership to the tribe of Judas, for at that time the people wanted to learn what was the will of God. They also enlisted the tribe of Simeon so that when those assigned to Judas's tribe had been uprooted, the tribe of Simeon should do likewise.


2.

[121] Χαναναῖοι δ' ἀκμαζόντων αὐτοῖς κατ' ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρὸν τῶν πραγμάτων στρατῷ μεγάλῳ κατὰ Ζεβέκην αὐτοὺς ὑπέμενον τῷ βασιλεῖ τῶν Ζεβεκηνῶν Ἀδωνιζεβέκῳ τὴν ἡγεμονίαν ἐπιτρέψαντες: τὸ δὲ ὄνομα τοῦτο σημαίνει Ζεβεκηνῶν κύριος: ἀδωνὶ γὰρ τῇ Ἑβραίων διαλέκτῳ κύριος γίνεται: ἤλπιζόν τε κρατήσειν τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν διὰ τὸ τεθνάναι Ἰησοῦν. [122] συμμίξαντες δὲ αὐτοῖς Ἰσραηλῖται ταῖς δυσὶ φυλαῖς αἷς προεῖπον ἐμαχέσαντο λαμπρῶς καὶ κτείνουσι μὲν αὐτῶν ὑπὲρ μυρίους, τρεψάμενοι δὲ τὸ λοιπὸν καὶ διώκοντες αἱροῦσι τὸν Ἀδωνιζέβεκον, [123] ὃς ἀκρωτηριασθεὶς ὑπ' αὐτῶν φησιν, “ἀλλ' οὐκ εἰς τὸ πᾶν ἄρα λήσεσθαι θεὸν ἔμελλον τάδε πεπονθώς, ἃ κατὰ δυοῖν [124] καὶ ἑβδομήκοντα βασιλέων πρᾶξαι πρότερον οὐκ ἐνετράπην.” καὶ ζῶντα μὲν κομίζουσιν ἕως Ἱεροσολύμων, τελευτήσαντα δὲ γῇ θάπτουσι. καὶ διεξῄεσαν αἱροῦντες τὰς πόλεις, πλείστας τε λαβόντες ἐπολιόρκουν Ἱεροσόλυμα: καὶ τὴν μὲν κάτω λαβόντες σὺν χρόνῳ πάντας ἔκτεινον τοὺς ἐνοικοῦντας, χαλεπὴ δ' ἦν ἡ καθύπερθεν αὐτοῖς αἱρεθῆναι τειχῶν ὀχυρότητι καὶ φύσει τοῦ χωρίου.

121 But the Canaanites were flourishing at that time and with a large army they waited for the Israelites at the city of Bezek, having assigned the leadership to Adonibezek, a name denoting Lord of Bezek, for Adoni in the Hebrew tongue means Lord, expecting to get the better of the Israelites now that Joshua was dead. 122 But the Israelites, through the two above-named tribes, attacked and fought gloriously and killed over ten thousand of them and put the rest to flight, and took Adonibezek during the pursuit. As they cut off his fingers and toes he said, 123 "I could not to lie hidden from God forever, as I find by what I now endure, for I was not ashamed to do likewise to seventy two kings." 124 So they brought him alive to Jerusalem, where he died and was buried in the earth. They continued capturing the cities and after taking most of them they besieged Jerusalem. When they had taken the lower city, which took a long time, they killed all the inhabitants, but the upper city could not be taken without great difficulty because of the strength of its walls and the nature of the place.


3.

[125] Ὅθεν μετεστρατοπέδευσαν εἰς Νεβρῶνα καὶ ταύτην ἑλόντες κτείνουσι πάντας: ὑπελείπετο δὲ τῶν γιγάντων ἔτι γένος, οἳ διὰ σωμάτων μεγέθη καὶ μορφὰς οὐδὲν τοῖς ἄλλοις ἀνθρώποις παραπλησίας παράδοξον ἦσαν θέαμα καὶ δεινὸν ἄκουσμα. δείκνυται δὲ καὶ νῦν ἔτι τούτων ὀστᾶ μηδὲν τοῖς ὑπὸ πύστιν ἐρχομένοις ἐοικότα. [126] καὶ τοῦτο μὲν τοῖς Λευίταις ἐξαίρετον γέρας ἔδοσαν μετὰ καὶ τῶν δισχιλίων πηχῶν, τὴν δὲ γῆν Χαλέβῳ δωρεὰν ἔδοσαν κατὰ Μωυσέος ἐντολάς: οὗτος δ' ἦν τῶν κατασκόπων εἷς ὧν ἔπεμψε Μωυσῆς εἰς τὴν Χαναναίαν. [127] διδόασι δὲ καὶ τοῖς Ἰέθρου τοῦ Μαδιανίτου ἀπογόνοις, Μωυσέος γὰρ ἦν γαμβρός, γῆν ἵνα νέμοιντο: τὴν γὰρ πατρίδα καταλιπόντες ἠκολούθησαν ἐκείνοις καὶ συνῆσαν αὐτοῖς ἐπὶ τῆς ἐρήμου.

125 For this reason they moved camp to Hebron and having captured it, they killed them all. At that time a race of giants still lived there, with bodies so large and faces so totally different from other men, that they were dreadful to see and frightful to hear. The bones of these are still shown to this day, unlike anything one could imagine. 126 The city was given to the Levites as a special reward, with an extension of two thousand feet out from it, but following the instructions of Moses gave its lands as a gift to Caleb, one of the spies whom Moses sent into the land of Canaan. 127 They also gave dwelling land to the descendants of Jethro the Madianite, the father-in-law of Moses, who had left their own region to follow and accompany them in the wilderness.


4.

[128] Ἡ δὲ Ἰούδα φυλὴ καὶ Σεμεωνὶς τὰς μὲν κατὰ τὴν ὀρεινὴν τῆς Χαναναίας πόλεις εἷλον, τῶν δ' ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ καὶ πρὸς θαλάσσῃ Ἀσκάλωνά τε καὶ Ἄζωτον. διαφεύγει δ' αὐτοὺς Γάζα καὶ Ἀκκάρων: πεδίων γὰρ ὄντων καὶ πολλῆς ἁρμάτων εὐπορίας κακῶς ἐποίουν τοὺς ἐπελθόντας. καὶ αἵδε μὲν αἱ φυλαὶ μεγάλως ἐκ τοῦ πολεμεῖν εὐδαιμονήσασαι ἀνεχώρησαν εἰς τὰς ἑαυτῶν πόλεις καὶ κατατίθενται τὰ ὅπλα.

128 The tribes of Judas and Simeon took the cities in the mountain district of Canaan, and Askalon and Azotus of those on the plain near the sea, though Gaza and Ekron escaped them, for being in the plan and having many chariots, they made it hard for the invaders. Much enriched by this war, these tribes retreated to their own cities and laid down their arms.


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[129] Βενιαμῖται δέ, τούτων γὰρ ἦν Ἱεροσόλυμα, τοῖς οἰκήτορσιν αὐτῶν συνεχώρησαν φόρους τελεῖν. καὶ οὕτως παυσάμενοι πάντες οἱ μὲν τοῦ κτείνειν οἱ δὲ κινδυνεύειν, ἐργάζεσθαι τὴν γῆν εὐσχόλουν. τὸ δ' αὐτὸ καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ φυλαὶ τὴν Βενιαμῖτιν μιμησάμεναι ἐποίουν καὶ τοῖς τελουμένοις ἀρκούμενοι φόροις ἐπέτρεπον τοῖς Χαναναίοις ἀπολέμοις εἶναι.

129 The Benjamites however, to whom Jerusalem belonged, let its inhabitants off with a tax. So they all ceased killing and risking danger and had time to cultivate the land. The other tribes imitated Benjamin and did likewise, and let the Canaanites live in peace, satisfied with the tributes being paid to them.


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[130] Ἡ δ' Ἐφρὰν πολιορκοῦσα Βήθηλα τέλος οὐδὲν ἄξιον τοῦ χρόνου καὶ τῶν πόνων ηὕρισκε τῆς πολιορκίας, οἱ δὲ καίπερ ἀχθόμενοι τῇ καθέδρᾳ προσεκαρτέρουν. [131] ἔπειτα συλλαβόντες τινὰ τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει προελθόντα ἐπὶ κομιδῇ τῶν ἀναγκαίων τινὰς πίστεις ἔδοσαν αὐτῷ παραδιδόντι τὴν πόλιν σώσειν αὐτόν τε καὶ τοὺς συγγενεῖς αὐτοῦ. κἀκεῖνος ἐπὶ τούτοις ὤμνυε τὴν πόλιν αὐτοῖς ἐγχειριεῖν. καὶ ὁ μὲν οὕτως προδοὺς σώζεται μετὰ τῶν οἰκείων, οἱ δὲ ἀποκτείναντες ἅπαντας τοὺς ἐνοικοῦντας εἶχον τὴν πόλιν.

130 The tribe of Ephraim besieged Bethel, but achieved nothing worthy of the time and effort they put into it though they persisted in it, camped in front of the city despite the great trouble it cost them. 131 After a while they captured one of its citizens who came out to get provisions and promised to spare him and his relatives if he delivered the city to them, and on those terms he agreed to hand it over. So the traitor was saved with his family, but they killed all the inhabitants and occupied the city.


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[132] Καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα πρὸς μὲν τοὺς πολεμίους μαλακῶς εἶχον οἱ Ἰσραηλῖται, τῆς δὲ γῆς καὶ τῶν ταύτης ἔργων ἐπεμελοῦντο. τῶν δὲ κατὰ τὸν πλοῦτον αὐτοῖς ἐπιδιδόντων ὑπὸ τρυφῆς καὶ ἡδονῆς τοῦ κόσμου ὠλιγώρουν καὶ τῆς πολιτείας τῶν νόμων οὐκέτ' ἦσαν ἀκριβεῖς ἀκροαταί. [133] παροξυνθὲν δ' ἐπὶ τούτοις τὸ θεῖον ἀναιρεῖ, πρῶτον μὲν ὡς φείσαιντο παρὰ τὴν αὐτοῦ γνώμην τῶν Χαναναίων, ἔπειθ' ὡς ἐκεῖνοι χρήσοιντο πολλῇ κατ' αὐτῶν ὠμότητι καιροῦ λαβόμενοι. [134] οἱ δὲ καὶ πρὸς τὰ παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ δυσθύμως εἶχον καὶ πρὸς τὸ πολεμεῖν ἀηδῶς πολλά τε παρὰ τῶν Χαναναίων λαβόντες καὶ πρὸς τοὺς πόνους ἤδη διὰ τὴν τρυφὴν ἐκλελυμένοι. [135] καὶ συνέβαινεν ἤδη τὴν ἀριστοκρατίαν διεφθάρθαι, καὶ τὰς γερουσίας οὐκ ἀπεδείκνυσαν οὐδ' ἀρχὴν ἄλλην οὐδεμίαν τῶν πρότερον νενομισμένων, ἦσαν δὲ ἐν τοῖς ἀγροῖς ἡδονῇ τοῦ κερδαίνειν προσδεδεμένοι. καὶ διὰ τὴν πολλὴν ἄδειαν στάσις αὐτοὺς πάλιν καταλαμβάνει δεινὴ καὶ προήχθησαν εἰς τὸ πολεμεῖν ἀλλήλοις ἐκ τοιαύτης αἰτίας.

132 Then the Israelites grew too soft to fight their enemies, but applied themselves to working the land, and as it produced great plenty and wealth for them, they neglected their constitution and no longer listened to their laws. 133 The Deity was provoked to anger and reminded them how against his directions they had spared the Canaanites, and how these had taken their chance to ill-treat them. 134 Though saddened by God's words they were still reluctant to go to war, since they got so much from the Canaanites and luxury had made them unfit for effort, 135 and they let their aristocracy wither and did not appoint a council or the other officers formerly required by their laws, but devoted themselves pleasantly to tilling their fields to gain wealth. Their great indolence led to a terrible malaise which went so far as to cause internal strife for reasons I shall explain.


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[136] Λευίτης ἀνὴρ τῶν δημοτικωτέρων τῆς Ἐφράνου κληρουχίας ὢν καὶ ἐν ἐκείνῃ κατοικῶν ἄγεται γύναιον ἀπὸ Βηθλέμων, τῆς δὲ Ἰούδα φυλῆς τοῦτ' ἔστι τὸ χωρίον. ἐρῶν δὲ σφόδρα τῆς γυναικὸς καὶ τοῦ κάλλους αὐτῆς ἡττημένος ἠτύχει τῶν παρ' ἐκείνης οὐχ ὁμοίων πειρώμενος. [137] ἀλλοτρίως δ' αὐτῆς ἐχούσης καὶ διὰ τοῦτο μᾶλλον ἐκκαιομένου τῷ πάθει μέμψεις συνεχεῖς αὐτοῖς ἐγίνοντο καὶ τέλος ἡ γυνὴ πρὸς αὐτὰς βαρυνομένη καταλιποῦσα τὸν ἄνδρα πρὸς τοὺς γονεῖς παραγίνεται μηνὶ τετάρτῳ. χαλεπῶς δὲ φέρων ὁ ἀνὴρ ἐπὶ τῷ ἔρωτι ἧκε πρὸς τοὺς πενθεροὺς καὶ διαλυσάμενος τὰς μέμψεις καταλλάττεται πρὸς αὐτήν. [138] καὶ τέτταρας μὲν ἡμέρας προσαυτόθι διαιτᾶται φιλοφρονουμένων αὐτὸν τῶν γονέων, τῇ δὲ πέμπτῃ δόξαν ἀπιέναι πρὸς αὑτὸν περὶ δείλην ἔξεισι: βράδιον γὰρ ἀπέλυον οἱ γονεῖς τὴν θυγατέρα καὶ τῆς ἡμέρας τριβὴν ἐποιοῦντο. θεράπων δ' αὐτοῖς εἷς εἵπετο καὶ ὄνος ἦν αὐτοῖς, ἐφ' ἧς ὠχεῖτο τὸ γύναιον. [139] γενομένων δ' αὐτῶν κατὰ Ἱεροσόλυμα, σταδίους δ' ἐληλύθεσαν ἤδη τριάκοντα, συνεβούλευεν ὁ θεράπων καταχθῆναί που, μὴ καί τι τῆς νυκτὸς αὐτοὺς ὁδεύοντας καταλάβῃ δύσκολον καὶ ταῦτα οὐδὲ πόρρω πολεμίων ὄντας, τοῦ καιροῦ πολλάκις ἐπισφαλῆ καὶ ὕποπτα ποιοῦντος καὶ τὰ φίλα. [140] τῷ δ' οὐκ ἤρεσεν ἡ γνώμη παρ' ἀλλοφύλοις ἀνδράσι ξενοῦσθαι, Χαναναίων γὰρ ἦν ἡ πόλις, ἀλλὰ προελθόντας εἴκοσι στάδια εἰς οἰκείαν ἠξίου κατάγεσθαι πόλιν, καὶ κρατήσας τῇ γνώμῃ παρῆν εἰς Γαβὰν φυλῆς τῆς Βενιαμίτιδος ἤδη ὀψίας οὔσης. [141] καὶ μηδενὸς ἐπὶ ξενίαν τῶν κατὰ τὴν ἀγορὰν αὐτὸν παρακαλοῦντος πρεσβύτης ἐξ ἀγροῦ κατιὼν τῆς μὲν Ἐφράμιος φυλῆς ὢν ἐν δὲ τῇ Γάβῃ διαιτώμενος συντυγχάνων αὐτῷ, τίς τε ὢν ἤρετο καὶ δι' ἃς αἰτίας στελλόμενος σκότους ἤδη τὰ πρὸς τὸ δεῖπνον αὑτῷ λαμβάνοι. [142] ὁ δὲ Λευίτης μὲν ἔφησεν εἶναι, γύναιον δὲ παρὰ τῶν γονέων ἄγων πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀπιέναι, τὴν δ' οἴκησιν ἐδήλου τυγχάνειν ἐν τῇ Ἐφράμου κληρουχίᾳ. ὁ δὲ πρεσβύτης καὶ διὰ συγγένειαν καὶ διὰ τὸ τὴν αὐτὴν φυλὴν νέμειν καὶ διὰ τὴν συντυχίαν παρ' αὐτὸν ξενισθησόμενον ἦγε. [143] νεανίαι δέ τινες τῶν Γαβαηνῶν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀγορᾶς τὸ γύναιον θεασάμενοι καὶ τὴν εὐπρέπειαν θαυμάσαντες, ἐπεὶ παρὰ τῷ πρεσβύτῃ κατηγμένην ἔμαθον καταφρονήσαντες τῆς ἀσθενείας καὶ τῆς ὀλιγότητος ἧκον ἐπὶ τὰς θύρας. τοῦ δὲ πρεσβύτου παρακαλοῦντος ἀπαλλάττεσθαι καὶ μὴ προσφέρειν βίαν μηδὲ ὕβριν ἠξίουν αὐτὸν παρασχόντα τὴν ξένην πραγμάτων ἀπηλλάχθαι. [144] συγγενῆ δὲ λέγοντος καὶ Λευῖτιν τοῦ πρεσβύτου καὶ δράσειν αὐτοὺς δεινὰ ὑφ' ἡδονῆς εἰς τοὺς νόμους ἐξαμαρτάνοντας ὠλιγώρουν τοῦ δικαίου καὶ κατεγέλων, ἠπείλουν δὲ ἀποκτείνειν αὐτὸν ἐμποδίζοντα ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις αὐτῶν. [145] εἰς δ' ἀνάγκην περιηγμένος καὶ μὴ βουλόμενος τοὺς ξένους περιιδεῖν ὑβρισθέντας τῆς ἑαυτοῦ θυγατρὸς αὐτοῖς παρεχώρει, πληρώσειν τε τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν αὐτοὺς λέγων νομιμώτερον δίχα τῆς εἰς τοὺς ξένους ὕβρεως αὐτός τε μηδὲν ἀδικήσειν οὓς ὑπεδέξατο τούτῳ τῷ τρόπῳ νομίζων. [146] ὡς δ' οὐδὲν τῆς σπουδῆς τῆς ἐπὶ τὴν ξένην ἐνεδίδοσαν, ἀλλὰ ἐνέκειντο ταύτην παραλαβεῖν ἀξιοῦντες, ὁ μὲν ἱκέτευε μηδὲν τολμᾶν παράνομον, οἱ δ' ἁρπασάμενοι καὶ προσθέμενοι μᾶλλον τῷ βιαίῳ τῆς ἡδονῆς ἀπήγαγον πρὸς αὑτοὺς τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ δι' ὅλης νυκτὸς ἐμπλησθέντες τῆς ὕβρεως ἀπέλυσαν περὶ ἀρχομένην ἡμέραν. [147] ἡ δὲ τεταλαιπωρημένη τοῖς συμβεβηκόσι παρῆν ἐπὶ τὴν ξενίαν καὶ ὑπὸ λύπης ὧν ἐπεπόνθει καὶ τοῦ μὴ τολμᾶν ὑπ' αἰσχύνης εἰς ὄψιν ἐλθεῖν τἀνδρί, τοῦτον γὰρ μάλιστα τοῖς γεγενημένοις ἔχειν ἀνιάτως ἐλογίζετο, καταπεσοῦσα τὴν ψυχὴν ἀφίησιν. [148] ὁ δὲ ἀνὴρ αὐτῆς οἰόμενος ὕπνῳ βαθεῖ κατεισχῆσθαι τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ μηδὲν σκυθρωπὸν ὑφορώμενος ἀνεγείρειν ἐπειρᾶτο παραμυθήσασθαι διεγνωκώς, ὡς οὐκ ἐξ ἑκουσίου γνώμης αὑτὴν παράσχοι τοῖς καθυβρίσασιν, ἀλλ' ἁρπασαμένων ἐπὶ τὴν ξενίαν ἐλθόντων αὐτῶν. [149] ὡς δὲ τελευτήσασαν ἔμαθε, σωφρόνως πρὸς τὸ μέγεθος τῶν κακῶν ἐπιθέμενος τῷ κτήνει νεκρὰν τὴν γυναῖκα κομίζει πρὸς αὑτόν, καὶ διελὼν αὐτὴν κατὰ μέλος εἰς μέρη δώδεκα διέπεμψεν εἰς ἑκάστην φυλὴν ἐντειλάμενος τοῖς κομίζουσι λέγειν τοὺς αἰτίους τῆς τελευτῆς τῇ γυναικὶ καὶ τὴν παροινίαν τῆς φυλῆς.

136 A Levite of lower rank from the district of Ephraim who lived there married a woman from Bethlehem, a place that belongs to the tribe of Judas. While deeply in love with his wife and captivated by her beauty, he was unhappy that she did not return his affection. 137 Her alienation further inflamed his passion for her, so that they were always quarrelling until finally the woman was so weary that she left her husband in the fourth month, to return to her parents. The husband took it badly and, still fond of her, went to his parents-in-law and resolved their quarrels and was reconciled with her. 138 He spent four days with them, cordially treated by her parents. On the fifth day he decided to go home and left at evening, as the parents had delayed them all day, loath to part with their daughter. They were attended by one servant and an ass on which the woman rode. 139 When, having travelled thirty furlongs, they were near Jerusalem, the servant advised them to find some lodgings, in case some misfortune might happen them if they travelled at night, as they were not far from enemies and that hour often makes one suspect dangers even from people who are friends. 140 The husband did not like this advice, and was unwilling to take lodging among strangers, for the city belonged to the Canaanites, but wished to go on another twenty furlongs to decent lodgings. His wishes prevailed and they reached Gaba, a city of the tribe of Benjamin, when evening had fallen. 141 As nobody in the public square offered him lodgings, he met an old man coming from the fields, of the tribe of Ephraim but residing in Gaba, who asked him who he was and why he arrived so late and was looking for supper when it was already dark. 142 He replied that he was a Levite and was bringing his wife back from her parents and was going home, and that he lived in the tribe of Ephraim. The old man, because of their ties of kinship and because of their chance meeting, took him to lodge with him. 143 Now some young men living in Gaba, after seeing the woman in the public square and admiring her beauty, knew she was lodging with the old man and came to the doors, scorning the weakness and smallness of her company. When the old man implored them to go away and not to resort to violence or abuse, they said he must hand over his female guest to them if he wished to avoid trouble. 144 When the old man said the Levite was related to him and that it would be an outrage if lust caused them to sin against the laws, they scorned what was right and laughed at him, threatening to kill him if he thwarted their desires. 145 Being in a dilemma and yet unwilling to let his guests be abused, he offered them his own daughter, as it was a lesser crime to satisfy their lust with her than to abuse his guests, thinking that this would prevent them from being harmed in any way. 146 As their desire for the visiting woman did not abate but they insisted on having her, he implored them not to commit any outrage, but they took her away by force and fully indulging the force of their lust, took the woman to their house and after satisfying their wanton desires all night they let her go about daybreak. 147 Humiliated by her experience, she came to the lodging house and was so upset with grief that she was ashamed to look at her husband. Then, thinking that he would never forgive her for this episode, she fell down and her life slipped away. 148 Her husband thought his wife was only asleep and not suspecting anything worse, tried to waken her, intending to speak words of comfort to her, since she had not freely exposed herself to these men's lust but had been raped by them when they came to the inn. 149 When he saw that she was dead, he acted as prudently as his great woes would allow and put his wife's corpse upon the beast and brought her home. Then cutting her, limb by limb, into twelve pieces, he sent them to every tribe getting the bearers to tell them about those responsible for his wife's death and about that tribe's decadence.


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[150] Οἱ δ' ὑπό τε τῆς ὄψεως καὶ τῆς ἀκοῆς τῶν βεβιασμένων κακῶς διατεθέντες πρότερον οὐδενὸς τοιούτου πεῖραν εἰληφότες, ὑπ' ὀργῆς ἀκράτου καὶ δικαίας εἰς τὴν Σιλοῦν συλλεγέντες καὶ πρὸ τῆς σκηνῆς ἀθροισθέντες εἰς ὅπλα χωρεῖν εὐθὺς ὥρμηντο καὶ χρήσασθαι τοῖς Γαβαηνοῖς ὡς πολεμίοις. [151] ἐπέσχε δ' αὐτοὺς ἡ γερουσία πείσασα μὴ δεῖν ὀξέως οὕτως πρὸς τοὺς ὁμοφύλους ἐκφέρειν πόλεμον πρὶν ἢ λόγοις διαλεχθῆναι περὶ τῶν ἐγκλημάτων, τοῦ νόμου μηδ' ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀλλοτρίους ἐφιέντος δίχα πρεσβείας καὶ τοιαύτης πρὸς τὸ μετανοῆσαι πείρας τοὺς δόξαντας ἀδικεῖν στρατιὰν ἀγαγεῖν: [152] καλῶς οὖν ἔχει τῷ νόμῳ πειθομένους πρὸς τοὺς Γαβαηνοὺς ἐξαιτοῦντας τοὺς αἰτίους ἐκπέμψαι καὶ παρεχομένων μὲν ἀρκεῖσθαι τῇ τούτων κολάσει, καταφρονησάντων δὲ τότε τοῖς ὅπλοις αὐτοὺς ἀμύνασθαι. [153] πέμπουσιν οὖν πρὸς τοὺς Γαβαηνοὺς κατηγοροῦντες τῶν νεανίσκων τὰ περὶ τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ πρὸς τιμωρίαν αἰτοῦντες τοὺς δράσαντας μὲν οὐ νόμιμα, γενομένους δὲ δικαίους ἀντ' αὐτῶν ἐκείνων ἀποθανεῖν. [154] οἱ δὲ Γαβαηνοὶ οὔτε τοὺς νεανίσκους ἐξέδοσαν καὶ δεινὸν ἀλλοτρίοις ὑπακούειν προστάγμασιν ἡγοῦντο πολέμου φόβῳ μηδενὸς ἀξιοῦντες εἶναι χείρους ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις μήτε διὰ πλῆθος μήτε δι' εὐψυχίαν. ἦσαν δὲ ἐν παρασκευῇ μεγάλῃ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων φυλετῶν, συναπενοήθησαν γὰρ αὐτοῖς ὡς ἀμυνούμενοι βιαζομένους.

150 Shocked by what they had seen and heard, as they had never before known anything like it, moved by strong and righteous anger they gathered at Shiloh and meeting before the Tent, resolved to take to arms instantly and treat the people of Gaba as enemies. 151 The elders tried to stop them doing so and not go to war so quickly against people of their own nation, without first accusing them verbally about the charge, for it was part of their law not to bring an army even against foreigners who seem to have offended, without first sending envoys to see whether or not they would repent. 152 So they urged them to act according to their laws, and send to the people of Gaba to find if they would hand over the offenders, and if so to limit themselves to punishing them, but if they scorned them, then to punish them with war. 153 So they sent to the people of Gaba accusing the young men of the wrong they had done to the Levite's wife and demanding that the lawbreakers be punished, as they deserved death for what they had done. 154 The people of Gaba would not hand over the young men unwilling to submit to others' threats and demands for fear of war. They prided themselves as inferior to none in arms, in terms of numbers or courage. With the rest of their tribe they set to preparing for war, roused by the idea of defending themselves against aggression.


10.

[155] Ὡς δὲ τοιαῦτα τοῖς Ἰσραηλίταις τὰ παρὰ τῶν Γαβαηνῶν ἀπηγγέλθη, ὅρκους ποιοῦνται μηδένα σφῶν ἀνδρὶ Βενιαμίτῃ δώσειν πρὸς γάμον θυγατέρα στρατεύσειν τε ἐπ' αὐτούς, μᾶλλον αὐτοῖς δι' ὀργῆς ὄντες ἢ τοῖς Χαναναίοις τοὺς προγόνους ἡμῶν παρειλήφαμεν γενομένους. [156] παραχρῆμά τε ἐξῆγον ἐπ' αὐτοὺς τὸ στρατόπεδον μυριάδας τεσσαράκοντα ὁπλιτῶν: καὶ Βενιαμιτῶν τὸ ὁπλιτικὸν ἦν ὑπὸ δισμυρίων καὶ πεντακισχιλίων καὶ ἑξακοσίων, ὧν ἦσαν εἰς πεντακοσίους ταῖς λαιαῖς τῶν χειρῶν σφενδονᾶν ἄριστοι, [157] ὥστε καὶ μάχης πρὸς τῇ Γαβᾷ γενομένης τρέπουσι τοὺς Ἰσραηλίτας οἱ Βενιαμῖται ἄνδρες τε πίπτουσιν ἐξ αὐτῶν εἰς δισμυρίους καὶ δισχιλίους, ἐφθάρησαν δὲ ἴσως ἂν καὶ πλείονες, εἰ μὴ νὺξ αὐτοὺς ἐπέσχε καὶ διέλυσε μαχομένους. [158] καὶ οἱ μὲν Βενιαμῖται χαίροντες ἀνεχώρουν εἰς τὴν πόλιν, οἱ δ' Ἰσραηλῖται καταπεπληγότες ὑπὸ τῆς ἥττης εἰς τὸ στρατόπεδον. τῇ δ' ἐπιούσῃ πάλιν συμβαλόντων οἱ Βενιαμῖται κρατοῦσι καὶ θνήσκουσι τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν ὀκτακισχίλιοι καὶ μύριοι, καὶ δείσαντες τὸν φόνον ἐξέλιπον τὸ στρατόπεδον. [159] παραγενόμενοι δὲ εἰς Βέθηλα πόλιν ἔγγιστα κειμένην καὶ νηστεύσαντες κατὰ τὴν ὑστεραίαν τὸν θεὸν ἱκέτευον διὰ Φινεέσου τοῦ ἀρχιερέως παύσασθαι τῆς ὀργῆς τῆς πρὸς αὐτοὺς καὶ ταῖς δυσὶν αὐτῶν ἥτταις ἀρκεσθέντα δοῦναι νίκην καὶ κράτος κατὰ τῶν πολεμίων. ὁ δὲ θεὸς ἐπαγγέλλεται ταῦτα διὰ Φινεέσου προφητεύσαντος.

155 When news of the people of Gaba was reported to the Israelites they swore that none of them would give his daughter in marriage to a Benjamite, but make war on them even more fiercely than our ancestors did against the Canaanites. 156 Instantly they sent an army against them, four hundred thousand strong, while the Benjamites' army was twenty five thousand six hundred, of whom five hundred could sling stones left-handed. 157 In the battle fought at Gaba the Benjamites defeated the Israelites, two thousand of whom fell, and probably more would have been killed if nightfall had not separated the fighters. 158 The Benjamites went back happy to the city and the Israelites returned to their camp shocked by their defeat. The following day, when they attacked again, the Benjamites again won and eighteen thousand of the Israelites were killed and the rest abandoned their camp, afraid of being slaughtered. 159 So they came to Bethel, the nearest city, and fasted on the following day, imploring God, through Phineas the high priest, to cease his anger against them and, satisfied with these two defeats, to grant them victory and power over their enemies; and by a prophecy of Phineas, God promised to do so.


11.

[160] Ποιήσαντες οὖν τὴν στρατιὰν δύο μέρη τὴν μὲν ἡμίσειαν προλοχίζουσι νυκτὸς περὶ τὴν πόλιν, οἱ δ' ἡμίσεις συνέβαλον τοῖς Βενιαμίταις ὑπεχώρουν τε ἐγκειμένων, καὶ ἐδίωκον οἱ Βενιαμῖται τῶν Ἑβραίων ὑποφευγόντων ἠρέμα καὶ ἐπὶ πολὺ θελόντων εἰς ἅπαν αὐτοὺς ἐξελθεῖν ἀναχωροῦσιν εἵποντο, [161] ὡς καὶ τοὺς ἐν τῇ πόλει πρεσβύτας καὶ νέους ὑπολειφθέντας διεκδραμεῖν δι' ἀσθένειαν αὐτοῖς πασσυδὶ βουλομένους χειρώσασθαι τοὺς πολεμίους. ὡς δὲ πολὺ τῆς πόλεως ἀπέσχον, ἐπαύσαντο μὲν φεύγοντες οἱ Ἑβραῖοι, ἐπιστραφέντες δ' ἵστανται πρὸς μάχην καὶ τοῖς ἐν ταῖς ἐνέδραις οὖσι τὸ σημεῖον αἴρουσιν ὃ συνέκειτο. [162] οἱ δ' ἐξαναστάντες μετὰ βοῆς ἐπῄεσαν τοῖς πολεμίοις. οἱ δὲ ἅμα τε ἠπατημένους αὑτοὺς ᾔσθοντο καὶ ἐν ἀμηχανίᾳ συνεστήκεσαν, καὶ εἴς τι κοῖλον συνελαθέντας καὶ φαραγγῶδες χωρίον περιστάντες κατηκόντισαν, ὥστε πάντας διαφθαρῆναι πλὴν ἑξακοσίων. [163] οὗτοι δὲ συστραφέντες καὶ πυκνώσαντες ἑαυτοὺς καὶ διὰ μέσων ὠσάμενοι τῶν πολεμίων ἔφυγον ἐπὶ τὰ πλησίον ὄρη, καὶ κατασχόντες ἱδρύθησαν. οἱ δ' ἄλλοι πάντες περὶ δισμυρίους ὄντες καὶ πεντακισχιλίους ἀπέθανον. [164] οἱ δ' Ἰσραηλῖται τήν τε Γάβαν ἐμπιπρᾶσι καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας καὶ τῶν ἀρρένων τοὺς μὴ ἐν ἀκμῇ διεχρήσαντο, τάς τε ἄλλας τῶν Βενιαμιτῶν πόλεις ταὐτὰ δρῶσιν, οὕτως τε ἦσαν παρωξυμμένοι, ὡς καὶ Ἰάβησον τῆς Γαλαδίτιδος οὖσαν, ὅτι μὴ συμμαχήσειεν αὐτοῖς κατὰ τῶν Βενιαμιτῶν, πέμψαντες μυρίους καὶ δισχιλίους ἐκ τῶν τάξεων ἐκέλευσαν ἀνελεῖν. [165] καὶ φονεύουσι τὸ μάχιμον τῆς πόλεως οἱ πεμφθέντες σὺν τέκνοις καὶ γυναιξὶ πλὴν τετρακοσίων παρθένων. ἐπὶ τοσοῦτον ὑπ' ὀργῆς προήχθησαν τῷ κατὰ τὴν γυναῖκα πάθει προσλαβόντες καὶ τὸ κατὰ τὴν ἀναίρεσιν τῶν ὁπλιτῶν.

160 They divided the army into two parts, and set one half of them in ambush by night around the city of Gaba, while the other half attacked the Benjamites. As they drew back the Benjamites pursued them, while the Hebrews, seeking to draw them all away from the city retreated by slow stages, with others pursuing them, 161 until even the weak old men and children who were left behind in the city joined in the rush, wanting to beat down the enemy. But when they were well out from the city the Hebrews ceased running away, but turned back to fight them and gave the agreed signal to those who lay in ambush. 162 Rising up with a roar these attacked the enemy, who, seeing themselves misled, did not know what to do, and were driven into a steep valley and shot at by the men surrounding them until they were all destroyed, apart from six hundred. 163 These formed themselves into a close rank and forced their way through the enemy and fled to the neighbouring mountains, which they took and where they established themselves, while all the others, about twenty-five thousand of them, were killed. 164 The Israelites burned Gaba and killed the women and the males who were under age. They did the same to the other cities of the Benjamites and were so furious that they sent twelve thousand from their ranks with orders to destroy Jabesh Gilead, because it had not joined them in fighting the Benjamites. 165 Those who were sent killed the warriors, with their children and wives, except four hundred virgins, avenging in their rage not only the suffering of the Levite's wife but the murder of their own soldiers.


12.

[166] Μετάνοια δ' αὐτοὺς λαμβάνει τῆς τῶν Βενιαμιτῶν συμφορᾶς καὶ νηστείαν ἐπ' αὐτοῖς προέθεντο καίτοι δίκαια παθεῖν αὐτοὺς ἀξιοῦντες εἰς τοὺς νόμους ἐξαμαρτάνοντας, καὶ τοὺς διαφυγόντας αὐτῶν ἑξακοσίους διὰ πρεσβευτῶν ἐκάλουν: καθίδρυντο γὰρ ὑπὲρ πέτρας τινὸς Ῥοᾶς καλουμένης κατὰ τὴν ἔρημον. [167] οἱ δὲ πρέσβεις ὡς οὐκ ἐκείνοις τῆς συμφορᾶς μόνοις γεγενημένης ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτοῖς τῶν συγγενῶν ἀπολωλότων ὀδυρόμενοι πρᾴως ἔπειθον φέρειν καὶ συνελθεῖν εἰς ταὐτὸ καὶ μὴ παντελῆ τῆς Βενιαμίτιδος φυλῆς ὄλεθρον τό γε ἐπ' αὐτοῖς καταψηφίσασθαι. “συγχωροῦμεν δὲ ὑμῖν, ἔλεγον, τὴν ἁπάσης τῆς φυλῆς γῆν καὶ λείαν ὅσην ἂν ἄγειν δυνηθῆτε”. [168] οἱ δὲ τῶν καθ' ἑαυτοὺς θεοῦ ψήφῳ γεγονότων καὶ κατ' ἀδικίαν τὴν αὐτῶν γνωσιμαχήσαντες κατῄεσαν εἰς τὴν πάτριον φυλὴν πειθόμενοι τοῖς προκαλουμένοις. οἱ δ' Ἰσραηλῖται γυναῖκας αὐτοῖς τὰς τετρακοσίας ἔδοσαν παρθένους τὰς Ἰαβίτιδας, περὶ δὲ τῶν διακοσίων ἐσκόπουν, ὅπως κἀκεῖνοι γυναικῶν εὐπορήσαντες παιδοποιῶνται. [169] γεγενημένων δὲ αὐτοῖς ὅρκων ὥστε μηδενὶ Βενιαμίτῃ συνοικίσαι θυγατέρα πρὸ τοῦ πολέμου, οἱ μὲν ὀλιγωρεῖν συνεβούλευον τῶν ὀμωμοσμένων ὡς ὑπ' ὀργῆς ὀμόσαντες οὐ γνώμῃ καὶ κρίσει, τῷ δὲ θεῷ μηδὲν ἐναντίον ποιήσειν εἰ φυλὴν ὅλην κινδυνεύουσαν ἀπολέσθαι σῶσαι δυνηθεῖεν, τάς τε ἐπιορκίας οὐχ ὅταν ὑπὸ ἀνάγκης γένωνται χαλεπὰς εἶναι καὶ ἐπισφαλεῖς, ἀλλ' ὅταν ἐν κακουργίᾳ τολμηθῶσι. [170] τῆς δὲ γερουσίας πρὸς τὸ τῆς ἐπιορκίας ὄνομα σχετλιασάσης ἔφη τις τούτοις τε γυναικῶν εὐπορίαν ἔχειν εἰπεῖν καὶ τήρησιν τῶν ὅρκων. ἐρομένων δὲ τὴν ἐπίνοιαν, “ἡμῖν, εἶπεν, τρὶς τοῦ ἔτους εἰς Σιλὼ συνιοῦσιν ἕπονται κατὰ πανήγυριν αἱ γυναῖκες καὶ αἱ θυγατέρες. [171] τούτων κατὰ ἁρπαγὴν ἐφείσθω γαμεῖν Βενιαμίτας ἃς ἂν δυνηθεῖεν ἡμῶν οὔτε προτρεπομένων οὔτε κωλυόντων. πρὸς δὲ τοὺς πατέρας αὐτῶν δυσχεραίνοντας καὶ τιμωρίαν λαμβάνειν ἀξιοῦντας φήσομεν αὐτοὺς αἰτίους φυλακῆς ἀμελήσαντας τῶν θυγατέρων, ὅτι δὲ δεῖ τῆς ὀργῆς ἐπὶ Βενιαμίτας ὑφεῖναι χρησαμένους αὐτῇ καὶ θᾶττον ἀμέτρως”. [172] καὶ οἱ μὲν τούτοις πεισθέντες ψηφίζονται τὸν διὰ τῆς ἁρπαγῆς γάμον τοῖς Βενιαμίταις. ἐνστάσης δὲ τῆς ἑορτῆς οἱ μὲν διακόσιοι κατὰ δύο καὶ τρεῖς πρὸ τῆς πόλεως ἐνήδρευον παρεσομένας τὰς παρθένους ἔν τε ἀμπελῶσι καὶ χωρίοις ἐν οἷς λήσειν ἔμελλον, [173] αἱ δὲ μετὰ παιδιᾶς οὐδὲν ὑφορώμεναι τῶν μελλόντων ἀφυλάκτως ὥδευον: οἱ δὲ σκεδασθεισῶν εἴχοντο ἐξαναστάντες. καὶ οὗτοι μὲν οὕτως γαμήσαντες ἐπ' ἔργα τῆς γῆς ἐχώρησαν καὶ πρόνοιαν ἐποιήσαντο πάλιν εἰς τὴν προτέραν εὐδαιμονίαν ἐπανελθεῖν. [174] Βενιαμιτῶν μὲν οὖν ἡ φυλὴ κινδυνεύσασα τελέως ἐκφθαρῆναι τῷ προειρημένῳ τρόπῳ κατὰ τὴν Ἰσραηλιτῶν σοφίαν σώζεται ἤνθησέ τε παραχρῆμα καὶ ταχεῖαν εἴς τε πλῆθος καὶ τὰ ἄλλα πάντα ἐποιήσατο τὴν ἐπίδοσιν. οὗτος μὲν οὖν ὁ πόλεμος οὕτως παύεται.

166 Even though they believed the Benjamites had suffered justly for their lawlessness, they later regretted the disaster they had inflicted on them and ordered a fast on account of it, and sent envoys to recall the six hundred fugitives who had taken refuge at a rock called Rhoas, in the wilderness. 167 The envoys expressed regret not only for the loss these had suffered but for their own loss too, as the dead were their relatives. They persuaded them to bear it patiently, and to come and join them and not cause the utter destruction of the tribe of Benjamin. They said, "We allow you to retain the whole land of Benjamin and as much booty as you can take away with you." 168 So these men confessed with regret that their woes had come by God's decree for their own injustice, and were persuaded by the invitation and came down to their ancestral tribe. The Israelites also gave them as wives the four hundred virgins of Jabesh Gilead, and sought to provide wives for the remaining two hundred, so that they might have children. 169 While they had sworn before the war began that no one would let his daughter marry a Benjamite, some advised them to disregard the oath, as sworn not wisely or judiciously but in a passion; and thought it would not offend God if they could save a whole tribe in danger of extinction, for perjury was only bad and dangerous when not done out of necessity, but out of malice. 170 However, as the elders objected to the very hint of perjury, someone said there was a way to get wives for the Benjamites while keeping their oath. When they asked about his idea he said, "Three times a year, when we meet in Shiloh, our wives and our daughters accompany us. 171 At that time let the Benjamites be allowed to seize and marry such of them as they can catch, while we neither incite nor forbid them, and if their parents take it badly and want us to punish them, we will blame it on themselves for neglecting to guard the daughters and that they must not be too angry at the Benjamites, since that anger had already overflowed." 172 They were persuaded by this advice and voted that the Benjamites be allowed to marry by stealing wives. When the festival was near, these two hundred Benjamites lay in ambush outside the city in twos and threes, and hid in the vineyards and other places for the coming of the young women. 173 The girls arrived in a merry mood, not suspecting what lay in store and going on their way without a care, when the men who were scattered by the roadside rose up and caught them; and that is how they took wives for themselves and set to farming, working to regain their former prosperity. 174 So the tribe of Benjamin, after being in danger of dying out as described, was saved by the wisdom of the Israelites, and soon flourished and grew in numbers and in all other ways. And that was how this war ended.

Chapter 3. [175-184]
Israel under harsh Assyrian rule.Saved by God, through Keniaz

1.

[175] Ὅμοια δὲ τούτοις παθεῖν καὶ τὴν Δάνην συνέβη φυλὴν ἐξ αἰτίας τοιαύτης εἰς τοῦτο προαχθεῖσαν. [176] τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν ἐκλελοιπότων ἤδη τὴν ἐν τοῖς πολέμοις ἄσκησιν καὶ πρὸς τοῖς ἔργοις ὄντων τῆς γῆς Χαναναῖοι καταφρονήσαντες αὐτῶν συνεποιήσαντο δύναμιν, οὐδὲν μὲν αὐτοὶ πείσεσθαι προσδοκῶντες, ὡς δὲ βεβαίαν τὴν τοῦ ποιήσειν κακῶς τοὺς Ἑβραίους ἐλπίδα λαβόντες ἐπ' ἀδείας τὸ λοιπὸν οἰκεῖν τὰς πόλεις ἠξίουν. [177] ἅρματά τε οὖν παρεσκευάζοντο καὶ τὸ ὁπλιτικὸν συνεκρότουν αἵ τε πόλεις αὐτῶν συνεφρόνουν καὶ τῆς Ἰούδα φυλῆς τὴν Ἀσκάλωνα καὶ Ἀκαρῶνα παρεσπάσαντο ἄλλας τε πολλὰς τῶν ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ καὶ Δανίτας εἰς τὸ ὄρος ἠνάγκασαν συμφυγεῖν οὐδὲ ὀλίγον αὐτοῖς ἐπιβατὸν τοῦ πεδίου καταλιπόντες. [178] οἱ δ' οὔτε πολεμεῖν ὄντες ἱκανοὶ γῆν τε οὐκ ἔχοντες ἀρκοῦσαν πέμπουσιν ἐξ αὐτῶν πέντε ἄνδρας εἰς τὴν μεσόγειον κατοψομένους γῆν, εἰς ἣν μετοικήσαιντο. οἱ δ' οὐ πόρρω τοῦ Λιβάνου ὄρους καὶ ἐλάσσονος Ἰορδάνου τῶν πηγῶν κατὰ τὸ μέγα πεδίον Σιδῶνος πόλεως ὁδὸν ἡμέρας μιᾶς προελθόντες καὶ κατασκεψάμενοι γῆν ἀγαθὴν καὶ πάμφορον σημαίνουσι τοῖς αὑτῶν: οἱ δ' ὁρμηθέντες στρατῷ κτίζουσιν αὐτόθι πόλιν Δάνα ὁμώνυμον τῷ Ἰακώβου παιδὶ φυλῆς δ' ἐπώνυμον τῆς αὐτῶν.

175 The tribe of Dan suffered in the same way as the tribe of Benjamin, for the following reason. 176 When the Israelites had abandoned the practise of war and took to farming the land, the Canaanites looked down on them and mustered an army, not because any trouble was brewing but wanting to be able to ill-treat the Hebrews as they pleased, and so live the more securely in their own cities. 177 They got ready their chariots and gathered their soldiers, and their cities were in alliance and won over Askalon and Ekron from the tribe of Judas and many other cities in the plain, and forced the Danites to flee into the mountains, leaving them not the smallest place to settle in the lowlands. 178 Since these could not fight them in war and had not enough land to live on, they sent five of their men into the midlands to look for somewhere to move to. They went to a place near Mount Libanus and the sources of the Lesser Jordan, near the great plain of Sidon, a day's journey from the city. Then, reviewing the land and finding it good and fruitful, they reported it to their people, who invaded it in force and built there the city of Dan, named after the son of Jacob and their own tribal name.


2.

[179] Τοῖς δ' Ἰσραηλίταις προύβαινεν ὑπό τε ἀπειρίας τοῦ πονεῖν τὰ κακὰ καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς περὶ τὸ θεῖον ὀλιγωρίας: μετακινηθέντες γὰρ ἅπαξ τοῦ κόσμου τῆς πολιτείας ἐφέροντο πρὸς τὸ καθ' ἡδονὴν καὶ βούλησιν ἰδίαν βιοῦν, ὡς καὶ τῶν ἐπιχωριαζόντων παρὰ τοῖς Χαναναίοις ἀναπίμπλασθαι κακῶν. [180] ὀργίζεται τοίνυν αὐτοῖς ὁ θεὸς καὶ ἣν σὺν πόνοις μυρίοις εὐδαιμονίαν ἐκτήσαντο, ταύτην ἀπέβαλον διὰ τρυφήν. στρατεύσαντος γὰρ ἐπ' αὐτοὺς Χουσαρσάθου τοῦ τῶν Ἀσσυρίων βασιλέως πολλούς τε τῶν παραταξαμένων ἀπώλεσαν καὶ πολιορκούμενοι κατὰ κράτος ᾑρέθησαν, [181] εἰσὶ δ' οἳ διὰ φόβον ἑκουσίως αὐτῷ προσεχώρησαν, φόρους τε τοῦ δυνατοῦ μείζονας ἐπιταγέντες ἐτέλουν καὶ ὕβρεις παντοίας ὑπέμενον ἕως ἐτῶν ὀκτώ, μεθ' ἃ τῶν κακῶν οὕτως ἠλευθερώθησαν.

179 Things began to go badly for the Israelites due to losing the habit of effort and neglecting the divinity. After falling away from their orderly way of life they took to living for pleasure according to each one's caprice, until they were full of the vices practiced by the local Canaanites. 180 God was therefore angry with them because of their luxury and they lost the happy state they had won with such difficulty. When invaded by Chusarathos, king of the Assyrians, they lost many of their soldiers in battle and were taken by force after a siege. 181 Some were willing to yield to him from fear, and submitted to an unbearable tax and to all kinds of indignities for eight years, until they were set free as follows.


3.

[182] Τῆς Ἰούδα φυλῆς τις Κενίαζος ὄνομα δραστήριος ἀνὴρ καὶ τὸ φρόνημα γενναῖος, χρησθὲν αὐτῷ μὴ περιορᾶν ἐν τοιαύτῃ τοὺς Ἰσραηλίτας ἀνάγκῃ κειμένους ἀλλ' εἰς ἐλευθερίαν αὐτοὺς ἐξαιρεῖσθαι τολμᾶν, παρακελευσάμενος συλλαμβάνεσθαι τῶν κινδύνων αὐτῷ τινάς, ὀλίγοι δ' ἦσαν, οἷς αἰδὼς ἐπὶ τοῖς τότε παροῦσιν ἐτύγχανε καὶ προθυμία μεταβολῆς, [183] πρῶτον μὲν τὴν παρ' αὐτοῖς οὖσαν φρουρὰν τοῦ Χουσαρσάθου διαφθείρει, προσγενομένων δὲ πλειόνων τῶν συναγωνιζομένων ἐκ τοῦ μὴ διαμαρτεῖν περὶ τὰ πρῶτα τῆς ἐπιχειρήσεως, μάχην τοῖς Ἀσσυρίοις συνάπτουσι καὶ πρὸς τὸ παντελὲς αὐτοὺς ἀπωσάμενοι περαιοῦσθαι τὸν Εὐφράτην ἐβιάζοντο. [184] Κενίαζος δὲ ὡς ἔργῳ πεῖραν αὐτοῦ δεδωκὼς τῆς ἀνδραγαθίας γέρας ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς λαμβάνει παρὰ τοῦ πλήθους ἀρχήν, ὥστε κρίνειν τὸν λαόν. καὶ ἄρξας ἐπ' ἔτη τεσσαράκοντα καταστρέφει τὸν βίον.

182 There was an active and brave man, Keniaz, of the tribe of Judas, who felt inspired not to leave the Israelites in such a plight but to to take a risk to help them regain their freedom; and he found some others to share in this dangerous undertaking, since they too were eager for change, being ashamed at their present state. 183 First he destroyed the garrison Chushan had imposed on them, and more people came to help him when they saw that his first attempt was not in vain. So they fought the Assyrians and drove them all before them, across the Euphrates. 184 After such proofs of his bravery, Keniaz received the authority to judge the people, and after ruling them for forty years, he died.

Chapter 4. [185-197]
Under the Moabite Rule for eighteen years.Saved by Judes, who reigned for eighty years

1.

[185] Τελευτήσαντος δὲ τούτου πάλιν τὰ τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν ὑπὸ ἀναρχίας ἐνόσει πράγματα, καὶ τῷ μὴ διὰ τιμῆς ἄγειν τὸν θεὸν μηδὲ τοῖς νόμοις ὑπακούειν ἔτι μᾶλλον ἐκακοῦτο, [186] ὡς καταφρονήσαντα αὐτῶν τῆς ἀκοσμίας τῆς κατὰ τὴν πολιτείαν Ἐγλῶνα τὸν Μωαβιτῶν βασιλέα πόλεμον πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἐξενεγκεῖν καὶ πολλαῖς μάχαις αὐτῶν κρατήσαντα καὶ τοὺς φρονήματι τῶν ἄλλων διαφέροντας ὑποτάξαντα πρὸς τὸ παντελὲς αὐτῶν τὴν δύναμιν ταπεινῶσαι καὶ φόρους αὐτοῖς ἐπιτάξαι τελεῖν. [187] καθιδρύσας δ' αὐτῷ ἐν Ἱεριχοῦντι βασίλειον ταύτην ἀποδείξας οὐδὲν τῆς εἰς τὸ πλῆθος κακώσεως παρέλιπεν εἴς τε πενίαν αὐτοὺς κατέστησεν ἐπὶ ὀκτωκαίδεκα ἔτη. λαβὼν δ' οἶκτον ὁ θεὸς τῶν [Ἰσραηλιτῶν] ἐφ' οἷς ἔπασχον καὶ ταῖς ἱκετείαις αὐτῶν ἐπικλασθεὶς ἀπήλλαξε τῆς ὑπὸ τοῖς Μωαβίταις ὕβρεως. ἠλευθερώθησαν δὲ τούτῳ τῷ τρόπῳ.

185 When he died the affairs of the Israelites again fell into anarchy and things grew worse for them because they neither paid due honour to God nor obeyed the laws, 186 until Eglon the king of the Moabites so despised the disorder of their government that he went to war with them and overcame them in several battles and defeated their bravest men and entirely humbled their army and forced them to pay him tribute. 187 He built a palace in Jericho and omitted no means of oppressing the people and kept them in penury for eighteen years. Then God took pity of the sufferings of the Israelites, moved to pity by their prayers and set them free from their harsh treatment under the Moabites. This is how He set them free.


2.

[188] Τῆς Βενιαμίτιδος φυλῆς νεανίας Ἰούδης μὲν τοὔνομα Γήρα τε πατρὸς τολμῆσαί τε ἀνδρειότατος καὶ τῷ σώματι πρὸς τὰ ἔργα χρῆσθαι δυνατὸς τῶν χειρῶν τὴν ἀριστερὰν ἀμείνων κἀπ' ἐκείνης τὴν ἅπασαν ἰσχὺν ἔχων κατῴκει μὲν ἐν Ἱεριχοῦντι καὶ αὐτός, [189] συνήθης δὲ γίνεται τῷ Ἐγλῶνι δωρεαῖς αὐτὸν θεραπεύων καὶ ὑπερχόμενος, ὡς διὰ τοῦτο καὶ τοῖς περὶ τὸν βασιλέα προσφιλῆ τυγχάνειν αὐτόν. [190] καί ποτε σὺν δυσὶν οἰκέταις δῶρα τῷ βασιλεῖ φέρων ξιφίδιον κρύφα τῷ δεξιῷ σκέλει περιδησάμενος εἰσῄει πρὸς αὐτόν. ὥρα δ' ἦν θέρους καὶ τῆς ἡμέρας ἤδη μεσούσης ἀνεῖντο αἱ φυλακαὶ ὑπό τε τοῦ καύματος καὶ πρὸς ἄριστον τετραμμένων. [191] δοὺς οὖν τὰ δῶρα τῷ Ἐγλῶνι ὁ νεανίσκος, διέτριβε δ' ἔν τινι δωματίῳ δεξιῶς πρὸς θέρος ἔχοντι, πρὸς ὁμιλίαν ἐτράποντο. μόνοι δ' ἦσαν τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ τοὺς ἐπεισιόντας τῶν θεραπόντων ἀπιέναι κελεύσαντος διὰ τὸ πρὸς Ἰούδην ὁμιλεῖν. [192] καθῆστο δ' ἐπὶ θρόνου καὶ δέος εἰσῄει τὸν Ἰούδην, μὴ διαμάρτῃ καὶ μὴ δῷ καιρίαν πληγήν. ἀνίστησιν οὖν αὐτὸν ὄναρ εἰπὼν ἔχειν ἐκ προστάγματος αὐτῷ δηλῶσαι τοῦ θεοῦ. [193] καὶ ὁ μὲν πρὸς τὴν χαρὰν τὴν τοῦ ὀνείρατος ἀνεπήδησεν ἀπὸ τοῦ θρόνου, πλήξας δ' αὐτὸν Ἰούδης εἰς τὴν καρδίαν καὶ τὸ ξιφίδιον ἐγκαταλιπὼν ἔξεισι προσκλίνας τὴν θύραν. οἵ τε θεράποντες ἠρέμουν εἰς ὕπνον τετράφθαι νομίζοντες τὸν βασιλέα.

188 A young man of the tribe of Benjamin, named Judes son of Gera, was living in Jericho, a man very daring and physically strong and active and especially proficient with his left hand, where all his strength was concentrated. 189 He became friendly with Eglon through gifts by which he obtained his favour and won his good opinion and also made him popular with the king's companions. 190 Once when along with two servants he was bringing gifts to the king he had a dagger hidden on his right thigh as he went in to him. It was at the middle of the day in summertime, when the guards were not alert on their watch because of the heat and were having their lunch. 191 So the young man, having offered his gifts to Eglon, who was staying in a special chamber to avoid the heat, got into private conversation with him, as the king had sent his attendants away in order to talk with Judes. 192 He was seated on his throne and Judes was afraid to miss his stroke and not give him a deadly wound, so he got up and said he had a dream to tell him at God's command. 193 Full of joy about the dream, the king jumped up from his throne and Judes struck him to the heart and leaving his dagger in his body, went out and shut the door behind him. But the king's servants did not stir, thinking that the king had settled himself for sleep.


3.

[194] Ὁ δ' Ἰούδης τοῖς Ἱεριχουντίοις ἀποσημαίνων κρυπτῶς παρεκάλει τῆς ἐλευθερίας ἀντιλαμβάνεσθαι. οἱ δ' ἀσμένως ἀκούσαντες αὐτοί τε εἰς τὰ ὅπλα ᾔεσαν καὶ διέπεμπον εἰς τὴν χώραν τοὺς ἀποσημαίνοντας κέρασιν οἰῶν: τούτοις γὰρ συγκαλεῖν τὸ πλῆθος πάτριον. [195] οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν Ἐγλῶνα πολὺν μὲν χρόνον ἠγνόουν τὸ συμβεβηκὸς αὐτῷ πάθος, ἐπεὶ δὲ πρὸς ἑσπέραν ἦν, δείσαντες μή τι νεώτερον εἴη περὶ αὐτὸν γεγονός, εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὸ δωμάτιον καὶ νεκρὸν εὑρόντες ἐν ἀμηχανίᾳ καθειστήκεσαν, καὶ πρὶν τὴν φρουρὰν συστραφῆναι τὸ τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν αὐτοῖς ἐπέρχεται πλῆθος. [196] καὶ οἱ μὲν παραχρῆμα ἀναιροῦνται, οἱ δ' εἰς φυγὴν τρέπονται ὡς ἐπὶ τὴν Μωαβῖτιν σωθησόμενοι, ἦσαν δὲ ὑπὲρ μυρίους. καὶ Ἰσραηλῖται προκατειληφότες τοῦ Ἰορδάνου τὴν διάβασιν διώκοντες ἔκτεινον καὶ κατὰ τὴν διάβασιν πολλοὺς αὐτῶν ἀναιροῦσι, διέφυγέ τε οὐδεὶς τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῶν. [197] καὶ οἱ μὲν Ἑβραῖοι τούτῳ τῷ τρόπῳ τῆς ὑπὸ τοῖς Μωαβίταις δουλείας ἀπηλλάγησαν, Ἰούδης δ' ἐκ τῆς αἰτίας ταύτης τιμηθεὶς τῇ τοῦ πλήθους παντὸς ἡγεμονίᾳ τελευτᾷ τὴν ἀρχὴν ἔτεσιν ὀγδοήκοντα κατασχών, ἀνὴρ καὶ δίχα τῆς προειρημένης πράξεως ἐπαίνου δίκαιος τυγχάνειν. καὶ μετὰ τοῦτον Σαάγαρος ὁ Ἀνάθου παῖς αἱρεθεὶς ἄρχειν ἐν τῷ πρώτῳ τῆς ἀρχῆς ἔτει κατέστρεψε τὸν βίον.

194 Judes reported it privately to the people of Jericho and urged them to regain their liberty. They heard it gladly and went for their armour and sent messengers over the region to sound trumpets of rams' horns, for it was our custom to call the people together in this way. 195 For a long while Eglon's attendants were unaware of what had happened to him; but towards evening, suspecting something was amiss, they entered his parlor and finding him dead they were greatly troubled, not knowing what to do, and before the guards could be gathered, the people of Israel came upon them. 196 Some of them were killed instantly and more than ten thousand were put to flight and fled for their lives toward the region of Moab. The Israelites seized the ford of the Jordan and pursued and massacred them, killing many at the ford, and not one escaped their hands. 197 In this way the Hebrews were freed from slavery under the Moabites. On this account too Judes was honoured as leader of the whole people and died after being leading them for eighty years. He was a man worthy of praise, apart from the merits of the aforesaid exploit. After him Sanagar, the son of Anath, was elected as ruler, but died in the first year of his government.

Chapter 5. [198-208]
Rescued from Canaanite rule, by Barak and Deborah

1.

[198] Ἰσραηλῖται δὲ πάλιν, οὐδὲν γὰρ ἐπὶ διδαχῇ τοῦ κρείττονος ἐλάμβανον τῶν πρότερον ἠτυχημένων ὑπό τε τοῦ μήτε σέβειν τὸν θεὸν μήθ' ὑπακούειν τοῖς νόμοις, πρὶν ἢ καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ Μωαβίταις ἀναπνεῦσαι δουλείας πρὸς ὀλίγον Ἀβίτω τοῦ Χαναναίων βασιλέως δουλοῦνται. [199] οὗτος γὰρ ἐξ Ἀσώρου πόλεως ὁρμώμενος, αὕτη δ' ὑπέρκειται τῆς Σεμαχωνίτιδος λίμνης, στρατοῦ μὲν ὁπλιτῶν τριάκοντα ἔτρεφε μυριάδας μυρίους δὲ ἱππέας, τρισχιλίων δὲ ἁρμάτων ηὐπόρει. ταύτης οὖν στρατηγὸς τῆς δυνάμεως Σισάρης τιμῆς πρώτης παρὰ τῷ βασιλεῖ τυγχάνων συνελθόντας πρὸς αὐτὸν τοὺς Ἰσραηλίτας ἐκάκωσε δεινῶς, ὥστε αὐτοῖς ἐπιτάξαι τελεῖν φόρους.

198 Even before they had recovered after their slavery to the Moabites, and failing to learn from their former troubles to amend their manners, and not honouring God or obeying the laws, the Israelites were brought under slavery by Jabin, the king of the Canaanites. 199 This man stormed down from Hazor, a city above lake Semechonitis, with an army of three hundred infantry and ten thousand cavalry and no fewer than three thousand chariots. In the battle, Sisera, who commanded all his army and was high in the king's favour, beat the Israelites so soundly that they had to pay tribute.


2.

[200] Εἴκοσι μὲν οὖν ἔτη ταῦτα πάσχοντες ἤνυσαν μήτε αὐτοὶ φρονεῖν ὑπὸ τῆς δυστυχίας ὄντες ἀγαθοὶ καὶ τοῦ θεοῦ πλέον δαμάσαι ἔτι θέλοντος αὐτῶν τὴν ὕβριν διὰ τὴν περὶ αὐτὸν ἀγνωμοσύνην, ἵνα μεταθέμενοι τοῦ λοιποῦ σωφρονῶσιν διδαχθέντες τὰς συμφορὰς αὐτοῖς ἐκ τῆς περιφρονήσεως τῶν νόμων ὑπάρξαι, Δαβώραν [δέ] τινα προφῆτιν, [201] μέλισσαν δὲ σημαίνει τοὔνομα κατὰ τὴν Ἑβραίων γλῶσσαν, ἱκέτευον δεηθῆναι τοῦ θεοῦ λαβεῖν οἶκτον αὐτῶν καὶ μὴ περιιδεῖν ἀπολλυμένους αὐτοὺς ὑπὸ Χαναναίων. ὁ δὲ θεὸς ἐπένευσε σωτηρίαν αὐτοῖς καὶ στρατηγὸν αἱρεῖται Βάρακον τῆς Νεφθαλίδος ὄντα φυλῆς: βάρακος δέ ἐστιν ἀστραπὴ κατὰ τὴν Ἑβραίων γλῶσσαν.

200 They continued in that plight for twenty years, unable to learn wisdom from the troubles by which God willed to further subdue their pride and ingratitude. When finally they repented and wisely learned that their troubles arose from their contempt of the laws, they begged Deborah, a prophetess among them, (her name in the Hebrew tongue means a Bee,) 201 to pray God to take pity on them and not ignore how the Canaanites were destroying them. So God promised them salvation and chose them a general, Barak, who was of the tribe of Naphtali. Now Barak in the Hebrew tongue means Lightning.


3.

[202] Μεταπεμψαμένη δ' ἡ Δαβώρα τὸν Βάρακον ἐπιλέξαντα τῶν νέων μυρίους ἐκέλευε χωρεῖν ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους: ἀποχρῆναι γὰρ τοσούτους τοῦ θεοῦ προειρηκότος καὶ νίκην ἀποσημήναντος. [203] Βαράκου δὲ φαμένου οὐ στρατηγήσειν μὴ κἀκείνης αὐτῷ συστρατηγούσης ἀγανακτήσασα, “σὺ μέν, εἶπε, γυναικὶ παραχωρεῖς ἀξίωμα ὃ σοὶ δέδωκεν ὁ θεός, ἐγὼ δὲ οὐ παραιτοῦμαι”. καὶ συναριθμήσαντες μυρίους ἐστρατοπεδεύσαντο πρὸς Ἰταβυρίῳ ὄρει. [204] ἀπήντα δ' αὐτοῖς ὁ Σισάρης τοῦ βασιλέως κελεύσαντος καὶ στρατοπεδεύονται τῶν πολεμίων οὐκ ἄπωθεν. τοὺς δ' Ἰσραηλίτας καὶ τὸν Βάρακον καταπλαγέντας τὸ πλῆθος τῶν πολεμίων καὶ ἀναχωρεῖν διεγνωκότας ἡ Δεβώρα κατεῖχε τὴν συμβολὴν ποιεῖσθαι κατ' ἐκείνην κελεύουσα τὴν ἡμέραν: νικήσειν γὰρ αὐτοὺς καὶ συλλήψεσθαι τὸν θεόν.

202 Deborah sent for Barak with orders to choose ten thousand young men to go against the enemy, since God had said that this was a sufficient number and had promised them victory. 203 When Barak would not take charge unless she took charge with him, she said angrily, "It is ignoble for you to hand over to a woman the authority God has given you, but I do not reject it!" So they collected ten thousand men and pitched their camp at Mount Itaburion. 204 At the king's command, Sisera went against them and camped not far from the enemy. The Israelites, and Barak himself, were so fearful at the number of the enemy, that they thought of leaving, but Deborah held them back with orders to fight the battle that day, for with God's help they would defeat them.


4.

[205] Συνῄεσαν οὖν καὶ προσμιγέντων ὄμβρος ἐπιγίνεται μέγας καὶ ὕδωρ πολὺ καὶ χάλαζα, τόν τε ὑετὸν κατὰ πρόσωπον ἤλαυνε τῶν Χαναναίων ἄνεμος ταῖς ὄψεσιν αὐτῶν ἐπισκοτῶν, ὡς τὰς τοξείας ἀχρήστους αὐτοῖς εἶναι καὶ τὰς σφενδόνας: οἵ τε ὁπλῖται διὰ τὸ κρύος χρῆσθαι τοῖς ξίφεσιν οὐκ εἶχον. [206] τοὺς δ' Ἰσραηλίτας ἧττόν τε ἔβλαπτε κατόπιν γινόμενος ὁ χειμὼν καὶ πρὸς τὴν ἔννοιαν τῆς βοηθείας τοῦ θεοῦ θάρσος ἐλάμβανον, ὥστε εἰς μέσους ὠσάμενοι τοὺς πολεμίους πολλοὺς αὐτῶν ἀπέκτειναν. καὶ οἱ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν, οἱ δ' ὑπὸ τῆς οἰκείας ἵππου ταραχθέντες ἔπεσον, ὡς ὑπὸ τῶν ἁρμάτων πολλοὺς αὐτῶν ἀποθανεῖν. [207] Σισάρης δὲ καταπηδήσας τοῦ ἅρματος ὡς εἶδε τὴν τροπὴν γινομένην, φυγὼν ἀφικνεῖται παρά τινα τῶν Κενελίδων γυναῖκα Ἰάλην ὄνομα, ἣ κρύψαι τε ἀξιώσαντα δέχεται καὶ ποτὸν αἰτήσαντι δίδωσι γάλα διεφθορὸς ἤδη. [208] ὁ δὲ πιὼν τοῦ μέτρου δαψιλέστερον εἰς ὕπνον τρέπεται. ἡ δὲ Ἰάλη κοιμωμένου σιδήρεον ἧλον ἐλάσασα σφύρῃ κατὰ τοῦ στόματος καὶ τοῦ χελυνίου διέπειρε τὸ ἔδαφος καὶ τοῖς περὶ τὸν Βάρακον μικρὸν ὕστερον ἐλθοῦσιν ἐπεδείκνυε τῇ γῇ προσηλωμένον. [209] καὶ οὕτως μὲν ἡ νίκη αὕτη περιέστη κατὰ τὰ ὑπὸ Δαβώρας εἰρημένα εἰς γυναῖκα. Βάρακος δὲ στρατεύσας ἐπ' Ἄσωρον Ἰοαβινόν τε ὑπαντιάσαντα κτείνει καὶ τοῦ στρατηγοῦ πεσόντος καθελὼν εἰς ἔδαφος τὴν πόλιν στρατηγεῖ τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν ἐπ' ἔτη τεσσαράκοντα.

205 So they did, and when it came to close fighting there came down from heaven a great storm, with huge amounts of rain and hail, and the wind blew the rain in the faces of the Canaanites and dimmed their sight so that their arrows and slings were of no advantage to them, nor did the freezing air allow the soldiers to use their swords. 206 This storm troubled the Israelites less, as it came in their backs. They were also took so encouraged by their belief in God's help that they attacked the very centre of the enemy and killed many of them. Some were felled by the Israelites, and some by their own horses, which were panicking, and not a few were killed by their own chariots. 207 Sisera, seeing what was going on, jumped down from his chariot and fled. He came to a woman named Jael, a Kenite, who welcomed him when he asked to hide, and gave him sour milk when he asked for something to drink. 208 He drank so unrestrainedly that he fell asleep, and as he slept, Jael took an iron nail and with a hammer drove it through his temples into the floor. When Barak came a little later, she showed him the man nailed to the ground. 209 And so this victory was gained by a woman, as Deborah had foretold. Barak also fought Jabin at Hazor, and meeting him, killed him and after the general had fallen, destroyed the city to its foundations, and was commander of the Israelites for forty years.

Chapter 6. [210-232]
Rescued by Gideon, from the Madianites

1.

[210] Τελευτήσαντος δὲ Βαράκου καὶ Δαβώρας κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν καιρὸν μετὰ ταῦτα Μαδιηνῖται παρακαλέσαντες Ἀμαληκίτας τε καὶ Ἄραβας στρατεύουσιν ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἰσραηλίτας καὶ μάχῃ τε νικῶσι τοὺς συμβαλόντας καὶ τὸν καρπὸν δῃώσαντες τὴν λείαν ἐπήγοντο. [211] τοῦτο δὲ ποιούντων ἐπ' ἔτη ἑπτὰ εἰς τὰ ὄρη τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν ἀνεστάλη τὸ πλῆθος καὶ τῶν πεδίων ἐξεχώρουν ὑπονόμους τε καὶ σπήλαια ποιησάμενοι πᾶν ὅ τι τοὺς πολεμίους διέφυγεν ἐν τούτοις εἶχον φυλάττοντες. [212] οἱ γὰρ Μαδιηνῖται κατὰ ὥραν θέρους στρατεύοντες τὸν χειμῶνα γεωργεῖν τοῖς Ἰσραηλίταις ἐπέτρεπον, ὅπως ἔχωσι πεπονηκότων αὐτῶν εἰς ἃ βλάπτωσι. λιμὸς δ' ἦν καὶ σπάνις τροφῆς καὶ τρέπονται πρὸς ἱκετείαν τοῦ θεοῦ σώζειν αὐτοὺς παρακαλοῦντες.

210 After Barak and Deborah died around the same time, the Madianites, with help from the Amalekites and the Arabs, made war on the Israelites and defeated them in battle, and after burning the fruits of the earth, they went off with booty. 211 When this had gone on for seven years, the people of Israel retreated to the mountains and forsook the area of the plain. They also made themselves hollows under ground and caves, to store whatever had escaped the enemy. 212 For the Madianites made expeditions in harvest-time, but let them plough the land in winter, so that after the others had done the work, they could steal away the crops, resulting in food scarcity and famine. At this point, they turned to God in prayer and implored him to save them.


2.

[213] Καὶ Γεδεὼν ὁ Ἰάσου παῖς Μανασσίδος φυλῆς ἐν ὀλίγοις δράγματα σταχύων φερόμενος κρυπτῶς εἰς τὴν ληνὸν ἔκοπτε: τοὺς γὰρ πολεμίους ἐδεδίει φανερῶς τοῦτο ποιεῖν ἐπὶ τῆς ἅλωος. φαντάσματος δὲ αὐτῷ παραστάντος νεανίσκου μορφῇ καὶ φήσαντος εὐδαίμονα καὶ φίλον τῷ θεῷ, ὑποτυχών “τοῦτο γοῦν, ἔφη, τεκμήριον τῆς εὐμενείας αὐτοῦ μέγιστον τῇ ληνῷ με νῦν ἀντὶ ἅλωος χρῆσθαι”. [214] θαρσεῖν δὲ παρακελευσαμένου καὶ πειρᾶσθαι τῆς ἐλευθερίας ἀνασώζειν ἀδυνάτως ἔχειν ἔλεγε: τήν τε γὰρ φυλὴν ἐξ ἧς ὑπῆρχε πλήθους ὑστερεῖν καὶ νέον αὐτὸν εἶναι καὶ τηλικούτων πραγμάτων ἀσθενέστερον. ὁ δὲ θεὸς αὐτὸς ἀναπληρώσειν τὸ λεῖπον ἐπηγγέλλετο καὶ νίκην παρέξειν Ἰσραηλίταις αὐτοῦ στρατηγοῦντος.

213 Gideon, son of Jasos, one of the distinguished few in the tribe of Manasses, brought his sheaves of corn secretly and threshed them at the wine-press, too fearful of the enemy to do so publicly in the threshing-floor. An apparition came to him in the shape of a young man to tell him that he was fortunate and beloved of God. Instantly he replied, "What a sign of his favour that I am forced to use this wine-press instead of a threshing-floor!" 214 The apparition urged him to take heart and strive to recover their freedom, but he replied that it was impossible, as the tribe he belonged to was small and he himself was too young and insignificant to think of deeds so great. The other promised him that God would supply whatever he was lacking and give the Israelites victory under his leadership.


3.

[215] Τοῦτ' οὖν διηγούμενος ὁ Γεδεὼν τισὶ τῶν νέων ἐπιστεύετο, καὶ παραχρῆμα πρὸς τοὺς ἀγῶνας ἕτοιμον ἦν τὸ στρατόπεδον μυρίων ἀνδρῶν. ἐπιστὰς δὲ κατὰ τοὺς ὕπνους ὁ θεὸς τῷ Γεδεῶνι τὴν ἀνθρωπίνην φύσιν αὐτῷ φίλαυτον οὖσαν ἐδήλου καὶ πρὸς τοὺς ἀρετῇ διαφέροντας ἀπεχθανομένην, ὅπως τε τὴν νίκην παρέντες τοῦ θεοῦ δοκεῖν νομίζουσιν ἰδίαν ὡς πολὺς στρατὸς ὄντες καὶ πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους ἀξιόμαχος. [216] ἵνα μάθωσιν οὖν βοηθείας τῆς αὐτοῦ τὸ ἔργον, συνεβούλευε περὶ μεσοῦσαν τὴν ἡμέραν ἐν ἀκμῇ τοῦ καύματος ὄντος ἄγειν τὴν στρατιὰν ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμὸν καὶ τοὺς μὲν κατακλιθέντας καὶ οὕτως πίνοντας εὐψύχους ὑπολαμβάνειν, ὅσοι δ' ἂν ἐσπευσμένως καὶ μετὰ θορύβου πίνοντες τύχοιεν τούτους δειλοὺς νομίζειν καὶ καταπεπληγότας τοὺς πολεμίους. [217] ποιήσαντος δὲ τοῦ Γεδεῶνος κατὰ τὰς ὑποθήκας τοῦ θεοῦ τριακόσιοι ἄνδρες εὑρέθησαν ταῖς χερσὶ μετὰ φόβου προσενεγκάμενοι τὸ ὕδωρ τεταραγμένως, ἔφησέ τε ὁ θεὸς τούτους ἐπαγόμενον ἐπιχειρεῖν τοῖς πολεμίοις. ἐστρατοπεδεύοντο δὲ ὑπὲρ τοῦ Ἰορδάνου μέλλοντες εἰς τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν περαιοῦσθαι.

215 When Gideon told this to some young men they believed him and without delay an army of ten thousand men got ready for the fight. God came to Gideon in his sleep to say that human nature was too fond of itself and opposed those who excelled in virtue, and instead of assigning the victory to God, they would imagine it was due to their own power, their large numbers and their skill against the enemy. 216 So, to learn that it was due to his help, he told him to bring his army to the river at the hottest time of day, about noon, and to count as valiant the men who bent down on their knees to drink, but if any drank hastily and noisily, he should reckon they were doing so out of fear and dread of the enemy. 217 When Gideon did as God prompted him three hundred men were found who knelt and took water from their hands fearfully and noisily, and God told him to take these men to attack the enemy. So they encamped at the Jordan, ready to cross over it the next day.


4.

[218] Γεδεῶνος δ' ἐν φόβῳ καθεστῶτος, καὶ γὰρ νυκτὸς ἐπιχειρεῖν αὐτῷ ὁ θεὸς προειρήκει, τοῦ δέους αὐτὸν ἀπαγαγεῖν βουλόμενος κελεύει προσλαβόντα ἕνα τῶν στρατιωτῶν πλησίον χωρεῖν ταῖς Μαδιηνιτῶν σκηναῖς: παρ' αὐτῶν γὰρ ἐκείνων λήψεσθαι φρόνημα καὶ θάρσος. [219] πεισθεὶς δὲ ᾔει Φρουρὰν τὸν ἑαυτοῦ θεράποντα παραλαβών, καὶ πλησιάσας σκηνῇ τινι καταλαμβάνει τοὺς ἐν αὐτῇ ἐγρηγορότας καὶ τὸν ἕτερον ὄναρ διηγούμενον τῷ συσκηνοῦντι, ὥστε ἀκούειν τὸν Γεδεῶνα. τὸ δὲ τοιοῦτον ἦν: μᾶζαν ἐδόκει κριθίνην ὑπ' εὐτελείας ἀνθρώποις ἄβρωτον διὰ τοῦ στρατοπέδου κυλιομένην τὴν τοῦ βασιλέως σκηνὴν καταβαλεῖν καὶ τὰς τῶν στρατιωτῶν πάντων. [220] ὁ δὲ σημαίνειν ὄλεθρον τοῦ στρατοῦ τὴν ὄψιν ἔκρινε λέγων, ὅθεν τοῦτ' αὐτῷ συνιδεῖν ἐπῆλθε, πᾶν τὸ σπέρμα τὸ καλούμενον κρίθινον εὐτελέστατον ὁμολογεῖσθαι τυγχάνειν, τοῦ δ' Ἀσιανοῦ παντὸς τὸ Ἰσραηλιτῶν ἔστιν ἰδεῖν ἀτιμότερον νῦν γεγενημένον ὅμοιον δὲ τῷ κατὰ κριθὴν γένει. [221] καὶ τὸ παρὰ τοῖς Ἰσραηλίταις νῦν μεγαλοφρονοῦν τοῦτ' ἂν εἴη Γεδεὼν καὶ τὸ σὺν αὐτῷ στρατιωτικόν. ἐπεὶ οὖν τὴν μᾶζαν φῂς ἰδεῖν τὰς σκηνὰς ἡμῶν ἀνατρέπουσαν, δέδια μὴ θεὸς Γεδεῶνι τὴν καθ' ἡμῶν νίκην ἐπινένευκε.”

218 Gideon was afraid, for he had been told by God to attack his enemies in the night, so to free him from his fear God told him to take one of his soldiers and approach the Madianites' tents, which would give him insight and courage. 219 He obeyed and went, along with his servant Phurah, and as he approached one of the tents he found that those who were in it were awake and one of them was telling his fellow soldier a dream he had, so clearly that Gideon could hear him. The dream was this. He thought he saw a barley-cake, so vile that people could hardly eat it, rolling through the camp and knocking down the royal tent and the tents of all the soldiers. 220 The other soldier explained this vision to mean the destruction of the army, and why he thought so. The seed called barley was reckoned as the lowliest of seeds and the Israelites were known as the lowliest of all the people of Asia, like the seed of barley. 221 What seemed to look big among the Israelites was this Gideon and the army with him; "and since you say you saw the cake overturning our tents, I am afraid that God has given Gideon victory over us."


5.

[222] Γεδεῶνα δ' ἀκούσαντα τὸ ὄναρ ἐλπὶς ἀγαθὴ καὶ θάρσος ἔλαβε καὶ προσέταξεν ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις εἶναι τοὺς οἰκείους διηγησάμενος αὐτοῖς καὶ τὴν τῶν πολεμίων ὄψιν, οἱ δ' ἕτοιμοι πρὸς τὰ παραγγελλόμενα φρονηματισθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν δεδηλωμένων ἦσαν. [223] καὶ κατὰ τετάρτην μάλιστα φυλακὴν προσῆγε τὴν ἑαυτοῦ στρατιὰν Γεδεὼν εἰς τρία μέρη διελὼν αὐτήν, ἑκατὸν δὲ ἦσαν ἐν ἑκάστῳ. ἐκόμιζον δὲ πάντες ἀμφορέας κενοὺς καὶ λαμπάδας ἡμμένας ἐν αὐταῖς, ὅπως μὴ κατάφωρος τοῖς πολεμίοις ἡ ἔφοδος αὐτῶν γένηται, καὶ ἐν τῇ δεξιᾷ κριοῦ κέρας: ἐχρῶντο δὲ τούτοις ἀντὶ σάλπιγγος. [224] χωρίον δὲ πολὺ κατεῖχε τὸ τῶν πολεμίων στράτευμα, πλείστην γὰρ αὐτοῖς εἶναι συνέβαινε κάμηλον, καὶ κατὰ τὰ ἔθνη νεμηθέντες ὑφ' ἑνὶ κύκλῳ πάντες ἦσαν. [225] οἱ δ' Ἑβραῖοι, προειρημένον αὐτοῖς ὁπόταν γένωνται πλησίον τῶν πολεμίων ἐκ συνθήματος σάλπιγξί τε ἠχήσαντας καὶ τοὺς ἀμφορέας κατεάξαντας ὁρμῆσαι μετὰ τῶν λαμπάδων ἀλαλάξαντας καὶ νικᾶν θεοῦ Γεδεῶνι βοηθήσοντος, τοῦτ' ἐποίησαν. [226] ταραχὴ δὲ λαμβάνει τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἔτι [τε] ὑπνοῦντας καὶ δείματα: νὺξ γὰρ ἦν καὶ ὁ θεὸς τοῦτο ἤθελεν. ἐκτείνοντο δὲ ὀλίγοι μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν πολεμίων, οἱ δὲ πλείους ὑπὸ τῶν συμμάχων διὰ τὸ τῇ γλώσσῃ διαφωνεῖν. ἅπαξ δὲ καταστάντες εἰς ταραχὴν πᾶν τὸ προστυχὸν ἀνῄρουν νομίζοντες εἶναι πολέμιον, φόνος τε πολὺς ἦν. [227] καὶ φήμῃ πρὸς τοὺς Ἰσραηλίτας τῆς Γεδεῶνος νίκης ἀφικομένης ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις ἦσαν, καὶ διώξαντες λαμβάνουσι τοὺς πολεμίους ἐν κοίλῳ τινὶ χαράδραις περιειλημμένῳ οὐ δυναμέναις διαπερᾶναι χωρίῳ καὶ περιστάντες κτείνουσιν ἅπαντας καὶ δύο τῶν βασιλέων Ὤρηβόν τε καὶ Ζῆβον. [228] οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ τῶν ἡγεμόνων τοὺς περιλειφθέντας τῶν στρατιωτῶν ἐνάγοντες, ἦσαν δὲ μύριοι καὶ ὀκτακισχίλιοι, στρατοπεδεύονται πολὺ τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν ἄπωθεν. Γεδεὼν δὲ οὐκ ἀπηγορεύκει πονῶν, ἀλλὰ διώξας μετὰ παντὸς τοῦ στρατοῦ καὶ συμβαλὼν ἅπαντας διέφθειρε τοὺς πολεμίους καὶ τοὺς λοιποὺς ἡγεμόνας Ζεβὴν καὶ Ζαρμούνην αἰχμαλώτους λαβὼν ἀνήγαγεν. [229] ἀπέθανον δ' ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ μάχῃ Μαδιηνιτῶν τε καὶ τῶν συστρατευσάντων αὐτοῖς Ἀράβων περὶ μυριάδας δώδεκα, λεία τε πολλὴ χρυσὸς καὶ ἄργυρος καὶ ὕφη καὶ κάμηλος καὶ ὑποζύγια λαμβάνεται τοῖς Ἑβραίοις. Γεδεὼν δὲ παραγενόμενος εἰς Ἐφρὰν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ πατρίδα κτείνει τοὺς τῶν Μαδιηνιτῶν βασιλέας.

222 Hearing this dream, he took new hope and courage and ordered his men to get armed, telling them of this vision of their enemies. They were ready to do as he told them, encouraged by what he had said. 223 So Gideon divided his army into three parts and about the fourth watch of the night he led them out, each part containing a hundred men, all carrying empty pitchers and lighted lamps in their hands, that their attack might not be noted by the enemiy. Each of them also had a ram's horn in his right hand, to use as a trumpet. 224 The enemy's camp took up a large space of ground, for they had many camels; and though divided into different nations, they were all in one great circle. 225 The Hebrews had orders that when approaching the enemy, at a given signal to sound their trumpets and break the pitchers and attack their enemy with their lamps and shouting aloud: "Victory to Gideon, with the help of God!" 226 Disorder and fear seized the others while they were half asleep, for it was night-time as God willed. Some of them were killed by the enemy, but most by their own soldiers, due to their diversity of languages, and when once they were put into disorder, they killed anyone they met thinking them to be enemies also, and so there was a great slaughter. 227 When the Israelites got the news of Gideon's victory they took their weapons and pursued the enemy and overtook them in a certain valley surrounded with torrents, a place which these could not get over, so they surrounded them and killed them all, with their kings, Oreb and Zeeb. 228 Their remaining officers led the surviving soldiers, about eighteen thousand of them, and camped far from the Israelites. But Gideon spared no pains, but pursued them with all his army and joining battle with them, cut off the whole enemy army and took the other officers, Zeba and Zalmuna, as prisoners. 229 In this battle about a hundred and twenty thousand of the Madianites and of their allies the Arabs were killed, and the Hebrews took a huge booty of gold and silver and clothing and camels and donkeys. When Gideon arrived at his own region of Ophrah, he killed the kings of the Madianites.


6.

[230] Ἡ δ' Ἐφράμιδος φυλὴ τῇ Γεδεῶνος εὐπραγίᾳ δυσχεραίνουσα στρατεύειν ἐπ' αὐτὸν διεγνώκει, τὸ μὴ προαγγεῖλαι τὴν ἐπιχείρησιν αὐτοῖς τὴν κατὰ τῶν πολεμίων ἐγκαλοῦντες. Γεδεὼν δὲ μέτριος ὢν καὶ πᾶσαν ἀρετὴν ἄκρος οὐκ αὐτὸς ἔλεγεν αὐτοκράτορι χρησάμενος λογισμῷ τοῖς ἐχθροῖς ἐπιθέσθαι χωρὶς αὐτῶν, ἀλλὰ τοῦ θεοῦ κελεύσαντος: τὴν δὲ νίκην οὐχ ἧττον αὐτῶν ἔφασκεν ἰδίαν ἢ τῶν ἐστρατευκότων εἶναι. [231] καὶ τούτοις παρηγορήσας αὐτῶν τὴν ὀργὴν τοῖς λόγοις μᾶλλον τοὺς Ἑβραίους ὠφέλησε τῆς ἐπὶ τῶν πολεμίων εὐπραξίας [φήσας αἰτίους]: ἐμφυλίου γὰρ αὐτοὺς στάσεως ἄρχειν μέλλοντας ἐρρύσατο. τῆς μέντοι ὕβρεως ταύτης ἡ φυλὴ δίκην ἐξέτισεν, ἣν δηλώσομεν κατὰ καιρὸν ἴδιον.

230 But the tribe of Ephraim was so displeased at Gideon's success that they resolved to make war on him, accusing him of not telling them of his expedition against their enemies. As a man of good temperament excelling in every virtue, Gideon pleaded that it was not by his own authority or plan that he had attacked the enemy without them, but at God's command, and that the victory still belonged to them as well as those in the army. 231 By so cooling their tempers, he brought the Hebrews even more benefit than by his success against they enemy, for he thereby saved them from a revolt arising among them. Still this tribe later suffered the punishment of this rash treatment of Gideon, as in due time we will report.


7.

[232] Γεδεὼν δὲ τὴν ἀρχὴν ἀποθέσθαι βουλόμενος βιασθεὶς ἔσχεν αὐτὴν ἐπ' ἔτη τεσσαράκοντα βραβεύων αὐτοῖς τὰ δίκαια καὶ περὶ τῶν διαφορῶν ἐπ' αὐτὸν βαδιζόντων κύρια πάντα ἦν τὰ ὑπ' αὐτοῦ λεγόμενα. καὶ ὁ μὲν γηραιὸς τελευτήσας ἐν Ἐφρὰν τῇ πατρίδι θάπτεται.

232 At this, Gideon wanted to lay aside the leadership but was persuaded to keep it, which he did for forty years, dispensing justice as the people came to him with their differences, and what he decided was reckoned valid by all. When he died, he was buried in his own region of Ophrah.

Chapter 7. [233-274]
Other Judges: Abimelech, Jephtha, Jair and Abdon

1.

[233] Παῖδες δὲ ἦσαν αὐτῷ γνήσιοι μὲν ἑβδομήκοντα, πολλὰς γὰρ ἔγημε γυναῖκας, νόθος δ' εἷς ἐκ παλλακῆς Δρούμας Ἀβιμέλεχος τοὔνομα, ὃς μετὰ τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς τελευτὴν ἀναχωρήσας εἰς Σίκιμα πρὸς τοὺς ἀπὸ μητρὸς συγγενεῖς, ἐντεῦθεν γὰρ ἦν, καὶ λαβὼν ἀργύριον παρ' αὐτῶν, οἳ διὰ πλῆθος ἀδικημάτων ἦσαν ἐπίσημοι, [234] ἀφικνεῖται σὺν αὐτοῖς εἰς τὸν πατρῷον οἶκον καὶ κτείνει πάντας τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς πλὴν Ἰωθάμου: σώζεται γὰρ οὗτος διαφυγεῖν εὐτυχήσας. Ἀβιμέλεχος δὲ εἰς τυραννίδα τὰ πράγματα μεθίστησι κύριον αὑτὸν ὅ τι βούλεται ποιεῖν ἀντὶ τῶν νομίμων ἀποδείξας καὶ δεινῶς πρὸς τοὺς τοῦ δικαίου προισταμένους ἐκπικραινόμενος.

233 Gideon had seventy legitimate sons, for he had many wives, but by his concubine Drumah he also had one who was illegimate, named Abimelech, who, after his father's death, retreated to his mother's relatives in their native Sikima. When he had got money from people who were noted for many cases of injustice, 234 he came with them to his father's house and killed all his brothers, except Jotham, who had the good fortune to escape and save his life. Abimelech conducted a tyranny and instead of obeying the laws, made himself master to do whatever he pleased, and acted most severely against the supporters of justice.


2.

[235] Καί ποτε δημοτελοῦς Σικίμοις οὔσης ἑορτῆς καὶ τοῦ πλήθους παντὸς ἐκεῖ συνειλεγμένου ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ Ἰωθάμης, ὃν καὶ διαφυγεῖν ἔφαμεν, ἀνελθὼν ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τὸ Γαριζείν, ὑπέρκειται δὲ τῆς Σικιμίων πόλεως, ἐκβοήσας εἰς ἐπήκοον τοῦ πλήθους ἡσυχίαν αὐτῷ παρασχόντος ἠξίου μαθεῖν τὰ ὑπ' αὐτοῦ λεγόμενα. [236] γενομένης δὲ σιγῆς εἶπεν, ὡς τὰ δένδρα φωνὴν ἀνθρώπειον προιέμενα συνόδου γενομένης αὐτῶν δεηθείη συκῆς ἄρχειν αὐτῶν. ἀρνησαμένης δ' ἐκείνης διὰ τὸ τιμῆς τῆς ἐπὶ τοῖς καρποῖς οἰκείας οὔσης ἀπολαύειν οὐχ ὑπ' ἄλλων ἔξωθεν προσγινομένης, τὰ δένδρα τῆς ἐπὶ τῷ ἄρχεσθαι φροντίδος οὐκ ἀπελείπετο, ἐδόκει δ' αὐτοῖς ἀμπέλῳ τὴν τιμὴν παρασχεῖν. [237] καὶ ἡ ἄμπελος χειροτονουμένη τοῖς τῆς συκῆς χρησαμένη λόγοις παρῃτεῖτο τὴν ἀρχήν. τὸ δ' αὐτὸ καὶ τῶν ἐλαιῶν ποιησαμένων ῥάμνος, ἐδεήθη γὰρ αὐτῆς ὥστε παραλαβεῖν τὴν βασιλείαν τὰ δένδρα, [238] πυρεῖα δὲ ἀγαθὴ παρασχεῖν τῶν ξύλων ἐστίν, ὑπισχνεῖται τὴν ἀρχὴν ἀναλήψεσθαι καὶ ἀόκνως ἔχειν. δεῖ μέντοι συνιζάνειν αὐτὰ ὑπὸ τὴν σκιάν, εἰ δ' ὄλεθρον ἐπ' αὐτῇ φρονοῖεν, ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐνόντος πυρὸς διαφθαρεῖεν. [239] ταῦτα δ' οὐ γέλωτος ἕνεκα, φησί, λέγω, ὅτι δὲ πολλῶν ἀγαθῶν ἐκ Γεδεῶνος πεπειραμένοι περιορῶσιν Ἀβιμέλεχον ἐπὶ τῶν ὅλων ὄντα πραγμάτων σὺν αὐτῷ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ἀποκτείναντες, ὃν πυρὸς οὐδὲν διοίσειν. καὶ ὁ μὲν ταῦτα εἰπὼν ὑπεχώρησε καὶ διῃτᾶτο λανθάνων ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσι δεδιὼς ἐπ' ἔτη τρία τὸν Ἀβιμέλεχον.

235 One day, when there was a public festival at Sikima and all the people were assembled there, his brother Jotham, whose escape we have already reported, went up on Mount Garizim, which overlooks the city of Sikima, and cried aloud so as to be heard by the people, who were listening attentively, and asked them to consider what he was about to say. 236 When there was silence, he told them that when the trees had a human voice a group of them got together and asked the fig-tree to rule over them. As that tree refused to do so, since it was content to enjoy the special honour due to its fruit, over any that could come from elsewhere, the trees did not give up their plan to have a ruler, so they decided to offer that honour to the vine. 237 When the vine was chosen, it used the same words as the fig-tree earlier, refusing the leadership. After the olive-tree had done the same, and the trees offered the kingdom to the briar, 238 a sort of wood good only for burning, it promised to take up the leadership and exercise it with vigour, but that they must sit down under its shadow, and if they should plot to destroy it, the fiery force within it would destroy them. 239 He told them that what he said was no joke; that after they had experienced many blessings from Gideon, they condoned Abimelech, who lorded over all, and though he was no better than a fire, they had even joined in killing his brothers. Saying this, he went away and lived secretly in the mountains for three years, for fear of Abimelech.


3.

[240] Μετ' οὐ πολὺ δὲ τῆς ἑορτῆς Σικιμῖται, μετενόησαν γὰρ ἐπὶ τοῖς Γεδεῶνος υἱοῖς πεφονευμένοις, ἐξελαύνουσι τὸν Ἀβιμέλεχον τῆς πόλεως καὶ τῆς φυλῆς: ὁ δὲ κακοῦν τὴν πόλιν ἐφρόντιζε. τῆς δ' ὥρας τῆς τοῦ τρυγᾶν γενομένης ἐδεδίεσαν συλλέγειν τὸν καρπὸν προιόντες μή τι δράσῃ κακὸν Ἀβιμέλεχος εἰς αὐτούς. [241] ἐπιδημήσαντος δὲ πρὸς αὐτοὺς τῶν ἀρχόντων τινὸς Γυάλου σὺν ὁπλίταις καὶ συγγενέσι τοῖς αὐτοῦ φυλακὴν οἱ Σικιμῖται δέονται παρασχεῖν αὐτοῖς, ἕως ἂν τρυγήσωσι. προσδεξαμένου δ' ἐκείνου τὴν ἀξίωσιν προῄεσαν καὶ Γυάλης σὺν αὐτοῖς τὸ οἰκεῖον ἄγων ὁπλιτικόν. [242] ὅ τε οὖν καρπὸς μετὰ ἀσφαλείας συνάγεται καὶ δειπνοῦντες κατὰ συμμορίαν φανερῶς ἀπετόλμων ἤδη βλασφημεῖν τὸν Ἀβιμέλεχον, οἵ τε ἄρχοντες ἐνέδραις καταλαμβανόμενοι τὰ περὶ τὴν πόλιν πολλοὺς τῶν Ἀβιμελέχου συλλαμβάνοντες ἀνῄρουν.

240 Shortly after this festival, the Sikimites, who now regretted having killed the sons of Gideon, expelled Abimelech from their city and their tribe; so he plotted against their city. So at the season of vintage, the people were afraid to go out and gather their fruits, for fear of the harm Abimelech might do to them. 241 Now a man of authority, named Gaal, had come and lodged with them, accompanied by his infantry and his relatives, so the Sikimites asked him to protect them during their vintage; when he agreed, the people went out and Gaal with them at the head of his soldiers. 242 So they gathered their fruit in safety, and when they were at supper in various groups, they ventured to openly curse Abimelech, and the officers set ambushes in places around the city and caught and killed many of Abimelech's followers.


4.

[243] Ζάβουλος δέ τις τῶν Σικιμιτῶν ἄρχων ξένος ὢν Ἀβιμελέχου ὅσα παροξύνειεν Γυάλης τὸν δῆμον πέμπων ἀγγέλους ἐμήνυεν αὐτῷ καὶ παρῄνει λοχᾶν πρὸ τῆς πόλεως: πείσειν γὰρ Γυάλην ἐξελθεῖν ἐπ' αὐτόν, καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν ἐπ' ἐκείνῳ τυγχάνειν ὥστε ἀμύνασθαι: γενομένου γὰρ τούτου διαλλαγὰς αὐτῷ μνηστεύσεσθαι πρὸς τὸν δῆμον. [244] ὅ τε οὖν Ἀβιμέλεχος ἐκάθισεν ἐνεδρεύων καὶ ὁ Γυάλης ἀφυλακτοτέρως διέτριβεν ἐπὶ τοῦ προαστείου καὶ Ζάβουλος σὺν αὐτῷ. ἰδὼν δὲ ὁπλίτας ἐπιφερομένους Γυάλης πρὸς Ζάβουλον ἔλεγεν ἄνδρας αὐτοῖς ἐπιέναι καθωπλισμένους. [245] τοῦ δὲ σκιὰς εἶναι φαμένου τῶν πετρῶν, πλησίον ἤδη γινομένων τὸ ἀκριβὲς κατανοῶν οὐ σκιὰς ἔλεγε ταῦτ' εἶναι, λόχον δ' ἀνδρῶν. καὶ Ζάβουλος, “οὐ σὺ μέντοι, φησίν, Ἀβιμελέχῳ κακίαν ἐπεκάλεις; τί οὖν οὐκ ἐπιδεικνύεις τὸ τῆς ἀρετῆς μέγεθος εἰς μάχην αὐτῷ συμβαλών”; [246] Γυάλης δὲ θορυβούμενος συνάπτει τοῖς Ἀβιμελέχου καὶ πίπτουσι μέν τινες τῶν σὺν αὐτῷ, φεύγει δ' αὐτὸς εἰς τὴν πόλιν τοὺς ἄλλους ἀγόμενος. καὶ Ζάβουλος πολιτεύεται Γυάλην ἐκβληθῆναι τῆς πόλεως κατηγορήσας, ὡς μαλακῶς πρὸς τοὺς Ἀβιμελέχου στρατιώτας ἀγωνίσαιτο. [247] Ἀβιμέλεχος δὲ πυθόμενος ἐξελευσομένους αὖθις κατὰ τρύγητον τοὺς Σικιμίους ἐνέδραις προλοχίζεται τὰ περὶ τὴν πόλιν, καὶ προελθόντων ἡ μὲν τρίτη μοῖρα τῆς στρατιᾶς καταλαμβάνει τὰς πύλας ἀφαιρησομένη τὴν εἴσοδον τοὺς πολίτας, οἱ δ' ἄλλοι σκιδναμένους μεταθέουσι, πανταχοῦ τε φόνος ἦν. [248] καὶ κατασκάψας εἰς ἔδαφος τὴν πόλιν, οὐ γὰρ ἀντέσχε πρὸς τὴν πολιορκίαν, ἅλας κατὰ τῶν ἐρειπίων σπείρας προῆγε. καὶ Σικιμῖται πάντες οὕτως ἀπώλοντο: ὅσοι δὲ κατὰ τὴν χώραν σκεδασθέντες διέφυγον τὸν κίνδυνον, οὗτοι πέτραν ὀχυρὰν εὑρόντες ἐπ' αὐτῆς ἱδρύονται τειχίσαι τε ταύτην παρεσκευάζοντο. [249] ἔφθη τε τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν Ἀβιμέλεχος μαθὼν ἐλθεῖν ἐπ' αὐτοὺς μετὰ τῆς δυνάμεως καὶ φακέλλους ὕλης ξηρᾶς περιβαλὼν τῷ χωρίῳ δι' αὐτοῦ φέρων ταῦτα ποιεῖν τὴν στρατιὰν παρεκελεύσατο. καὶ ταχέως περιληφθείσης ἐν κύκλῳ τῆς πέτρας τοῖς ξύλοις πῦρ ἐμβάλλουσιν ὅσα τε μᾶλλον ἐξάπτειν φύσιν ἔχει καὶ μεγίστην αἴρουσι φλόγα. [250] καὶ διαφεύγει μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς πέτρας οὐθείς, ἀλλ' ἅμα γυναιξὶ καὶ τέκνοις ἀπώλοντο, ἄνδρες μὲν περὶ πεντακοσίους καὶ χιλίους, τὸ δὲ ἄλλο πλῆθος ἱκανόν. καὶ Σικιμίταις μὲν τοιαύτη συμφορὰ συνέπεσε μείζων καὶ τῆς ἐπ' αὐτῇ λύπης γενομένη πλὴν ὅτι κατὰ δίκην ἐπ' ἀνδρὸς εὐεργέτου συνθεῖσι κακὸν τηλικοῦτον.

243 Zebul, a leading Sikimite who had entertained Abimelech, sent messengers telling him how much Gaal had roused the people against him and urging him to set ambushes before the city, and then persuade Gaal to go out against him, which would enable him to take revenge on him; when it was done, he would ensure he was reconciled to the people. 244 So Abimelech lay in wait for Gaal who lived in the suburbs with little little protection, in the company of Zebul. When he saw the infantry on their way Gaal told Zebul that some armed men were coming towards them. 245 The other replied that they were just the shadows of huge stones, but when they had come nearer, Gaal saw the reality and said that they were not shadows, but men lying in ambush. Then Zebul said, "Did you not accuse Abimelech of cowardice? Then why not show the extent of your courage and go and fight him?" 246 Somewhat shaken, Gaal fought Abimelech and some of his men fell, so he fled into the city, bringing the others with him. But Zebul arranged for them to banish Gaal from the city, accusing him of cowardice in this action with the soldiers of Abimelech. 247 Abimelech, when he had learned that the Sikimites were again coming out to gather their grapes, set ambushes near the city and when they were coming out, one third of his army captured the gates, to block the citizens from getting back in, while the rest followed those who were outside and so there was slaughter everywhere. 248 As the city could not withstand a siege and he had destroyed it to its very foundations, and had sown its ruins with salt, he went on with his army until all the Sikimites were killed. Those who had been scattered about the region and so escaped the danger gathered at a strong rock where they settled and prepared to fortify it with a wall. 249 when Abimelech learned their intentions, he forestalled them and attacked them with his forces and set torches of dry wood round the place, bringing some of these himself and by his example encouraging the soldiers to do the same. When the rock was fully surrounded with these torches, they lit them, throwing in the most combustible materials so that a mighty fire flared up. 250 Nobody could escape from the rock, but all were lost with their wives and children, about fifteen hundred men plus all the others. This disaster befell the Sikimites, and people would have grieved more for them if they had not deserved it by what they did to a man who had done them such good.


5.

[251] Ἀβιμέλεχος δὲ τοῖς Σικιμιτῶν κακοῖς καταπλήξας τοὺς Ἰσραηλίτας μειζόνων ἐφιέμενος δῆλος ἦν καὶ μηδαμοῦ περιγράψων τὴν βίαν, εἰ μὴ πάντας ἀπολέσειεν. ἤλαυνεν οὖν ἐπὶ Θήβας καὶ τὴν μὲν πόλιν ἐξ ἐπιδρομῆς αἱρεῖ, πύργου δ' ὄντος ἐν αὐτῇ μεγάλου, εἰς ὃν πᾶν τὸ πλῆθος συνέφυγε, πολιορκεῖν τοῦτον παρεσκευάζετο. [252] καὶ αὐτὸν πλησίον ὁρμῶντα τῶν πυλῶν γυνὴ θραύσματι μύλης βαλοῦσα κατὰ τῆς κεφαλῆς τυγχάνει, πεσὼν δὲ Ἀβιμέλεχος τὸν ὑπασπιστὴν παρεκάλει κτείνειν αὐτόν, μὴ τῆς γυναικὸς ὁ θάνατος αὐτοῦ δόξειεν ἔργον. καὶ ὁ μὲν τὸ προσταχθὲν ἐποίει. [253] ὁ δὲ τοιαύτην ὑπὲρ τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς παρανομίας ποινὴν ἐξέτισε καὶ τῶν εἰς Σικιμίους αὐτῷ τετολμημένων: τούτοις δὲ κατὰ τὴν Ἰωθάμου μαντείαν ἡ συμφορὰ συνέπεσε. τὸ μέντοι σὺν Ἀβιμελέχῳ στράτευμα πεσόντος αὐτοῦ σκεδασθὲν ἀνεχώρησεν ἐπὶ τὰ οἰκεῖα.

251 Having terrified the Israelites with what he did to the Sikimites, Abimelech was clearly seeking greater authority and seemed to set no bounds to his violence, short of destroying them all. He marched to Thebes and took the city in one assault, and when the whole population fled to a great tower he prepared to besiege it. 252 As he came rushing near the gates, a woman threw a piece of a millstone upon his head and as he fell down Abimelech asked his armour-bearer to kill him, so that his death should not be thought the act of a woman, and the man did as he was ordered. 253 He suffered this death in punishment for his crime against his brothers and his brutality to the Sikimites; and their disaster was in accordance with the prediction of Jotham. After Abimelech's fall his army split up and went to their own homes.


6.

[254] Τῶν δὲ Ἰσραηλιτῶν τὴν ἡγεμονίαν Ἰάρης ὁ Γαλαδηνὸς ἐκ τῆς Μανασσίτιδος φυλῆς παραλαμβάνει ἀνὴρ τά τε ἄλλα εὐδαίμων καὶ παῖδας ἀγαθοὺς πεποιημένος τριάκοντα μὲν τὸν ἀριθμὸν ἱππεύειν δὲ ἀρίστους καὶ τῶν κατὰ τὴν Γαλαδηνὴν πόλεων ἀρχὰς ἐγκεχειρισμένους. οὗτος δύο καὶ εἴκοσι ἔτη τὴν ἀρχὴν κατασχὼν τελευτᾷ γηραιὸς καὶ ταφῆς ἐν Καμμὼν πόλει τῆς Γαλαδηνῆς ἀξιοῦται.

254 Then Jair the Galadene, of the tribe of Manasses, took up the leadership. He was a fortunate man in many ways but particularly in his thirty children of good character, who were superb with horses and were entrusted with ruling the cities of Gilead. Having held the leadership for twenty-two years he died an old man, and was buried in Kamon, a city of Gilead.


7.

[255] Πάντα δὲ τὰ τῶν Ἑβραίων εἰς ἀκοσμίαν καὶ ὕβριν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τῶν νόμων ὑπεφέρετο, καὶ καταφρονήσαντες αὐτῶν Ἀμμανῖται καὶ Παλαιστῖνοι στρατῷ μεγάλῳ διήρπαζον τὴν χώραν καὶ τὴν Περαίαν ἅπασαν κατασχόντες καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν τῶν λοιπῶν ἤδη κτῆσιν διαβαίνειν ἐτόλμων. [256] Ἑβραῖοι δὲ σωφρονισθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν κακῶν εἰς ἱκετείαν ἐτράποντο τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ θυσίας ἐπέφερον παρακαλοῦντες αὐτὸν μετριάσαντα καὶ πρὸς τὴν δέησιν αὐτῶν ὑπαχθέντα παύσασθαι τῆς ὀργῆς: ὁ δὲ θεὸς μεταβαλόμενος εἰς τὸ ἡμερώτερον ἔμελλεν αὐτοῖς βοηθεῖν.

255 All the affairs of the Hebrews were drifting and disorderly, tending to despise God and the laws; and the Ammanites and Philistines looked down on them and ravaged the region with a large army, and having taken all of Perea, they boldly attempted to cross over and take the rest. 256 But the Hebrews were sobered by their losses and turned to imploring God, offering sacrifices and imploring him not to spare them, and hear their prayers and set aside his anger against them. So God returned to mildness and prepared to help them.


8.

[257] Ἀμμανιτῶν δ' ἐστρατευκότων ἐπὶ τὴν Γαλαδηνὴν ὑπήντων οἱ ἐπιχώριοι πρὸς τὸ ὄρος δεόμενοι τοῦ στρατηγήσοντος. ἦν δέ τις Ἰαφθᾶς ἀνὴρ διὰ τὴν πατρῴαν ἀρετὴν δυνατὸς καὶ δι' οἰκείαν αὐτοῦ στρατιὰν ἣν ἔτρεφεν αὐτὸς μισθοφόρων. [258] πρὸς τοῦτον οὖν πέμψαντες ἠξίουν αὐτὸν συμμαχεῖν ἐπαγγελλόμενοι παρασχεῖν εἰς ἅπαντ' αὐτῷ τὸν χρόνον τὴν ἰδίαν ἡγεμονίαν. ὁ δ' οὐ προσίεται τὴν παράκλησιν αὐτῶν ἐγκαλῶν, ὅτι μὴ βοηθήσειαν αὐτῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἀδικουμένῳ περιφανῶς: [259] οὐ γὰρ ὄντα ὁμομήτριον αὐτοῖς ἀλλὰ ξένον περὶ τὴν μητέρα δι' ἐρωτικὴν ἐπιθυμίαν ἐπαχθεῖσαν αὐτοῖς ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐξέβαλον καταφρονήσαντες τῆς αὐτοῦ ἀσθενείας. [260] καὶ ὁ μὲν διέτριβεν ἐν τῇ Γαλαδίτιδι καλουμένῃ χώρᾳ πάντας τοὺς ὁποθενοῦν παραγινομένους πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐπὶ μισθῷ δεχόμενος. ἐκλιπαρησάντων δ' αὐτῶν καὶ ὀμοσάντων εἰς ἀεὶ παρέξειν αὐτῷ τὴν ἡγεμονίαν ἐστράτευε.

257 When the Ammanites invaded the land of Galaditis, the local people prepared to meet them in the mountains but were in need of a leader. A man called Jephtha had some claim to power due to his ancestors' virtue and the army which he maintained at his own expense. 258 The Israelites sent to beg him to come to their help and promised that he could be their ruler for the rest of his life, but he refused their petition, accusing them of not coming to his help when he was publicly wronged by his brothers, 259 who had scorned him as a weakling for being of a different mother, an outsider whom his father had foisted on them out of erotic passion. 260 So he lived in the region of Galaditis, as it is called, and received as mercenaries all who came to him from any place whatever. Now, when they pressed him to accept the leadership and swore to let him rule over them forever, he led them to the war.


9.

[261] Καὶ ποιησάμενος ὀξεῖαν τὴν τῶν πραγμάτων ἐπιμέλειαν ἐν πόλει Μασφαθῇ καθίσας τὸν στρατὸν πρεσβείαν πέμπει παρὰ τὸν Ἀμμανίτην αἰτιώμενος τῆς ἁλώσεως. ὁ δὲ ἀντιπέμψας ᾐτιᾶτο τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν τὴν ἔξοδον τὴν ἀπ' Αἰγύπτου καὶ τῆς Ἀμορραίας αὐτοὺς ἠξίου παραχωρεῖν ὡς πατρῴας οὔσης ἀρχῆθεν. [262] ἀποκρινάμενος δὲ ὁ Ἰαφθᾶς, ὡς οὔτε τῆς Ἀμορραίας τοῖς προγόνοις αὐτῶν εὐλόγως ἐγκαλοῦσι χάριν τε μᾶλλον τῆς Ἀμμανίτιδος αὐτοῖς ἔχειν ὀφείλουσι παρεθείσης, δυνατὸν γὰρ Μωυσεῖ καὶ ταύτην λαβεῖν Παραχωρεῖν τε ἰδίας εἰπὼν γῆς, ἣν θεοῦ κατακτησαμένου μετὰ τριακόσια ἔτη νέμονται, μάχεσθαι πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἔφησεν.

261 He immediately took charge, stationed his army at the city of Masphath and sent a message to the Ammanite, objecting to the occupation. The latter retorted by complaing of the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt and demanding that they leave the Amorite lands which were his ancestral heritage. 262 But Jephtha replied that he should not blame his ancestors about the Amorites' land but rather be grateful that they had left them Ammanitis, since Moses could have taken it too, and that he would not leave the land God had given them, where they had now lived for three hundred years, but would fight them for it.


10.

[263] Καὶ τοὺς μὲν πρέσβεις ταῦτ' εἰπὼν ἀπέλυσεν: αὐτὸς δ' εὐξάμενος νίκην καὶ θυσιάσειν ὑποσχόμενος, ἂν σῶος εἰς τὰ οἰκεῖα ὑποστρέψῃ, καὶ πᾶν ὅ τι καὶ πρῶτον αὐτῷ συντύχοι ἱερουργήσειν, συμβαλών τε νικᾷ παρὰ πολὺ καὶ φονεύων ἐδίωκε μέχρι πόλεως Μανιάθης, καὶ διαβὰς εἰς τὴν Ἀμμανῖτιν πόλεις τε ἠφάνισε πολλὰς καὶ λείαν ἤλασε καὶ τοὺς οἰκείους δουλείας ἀπήλλαξεν ἐν ἔτεσιν ὀκτωκαίδεκα ταύτην ὑπομείναντας. [264] ἀναστρέφων δὲ συμφορᾷ περιπίπτει κατ' οὐδὲν ὁμοίᾳ τοῖς κατωρθωμένοις αὐτῷ: ὑπήντησε γὰρ ἡ θυγάτηρ αὐτῷ, μονογενὴς δ' ἦν, ἔτι παρθένος. ὁ δὲ ἀνοιμώξας ἐπὶ τῷ μεγέθει τοῦ πάθους κατεμέμφετο τῆς περὶ τὴν ὑπάντησιν σπουδῆς τὴν θυγατέρα: καθιερῶσαι γὰρ αὐτὴν τῷ θεῷ. [265] τῇ δὲ τὸ συμβησόμενον οὐκ ἀηδῶς προσέπεσεν ἐπὶ νίκῃ τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ ἐλευθερίᾳ τῶν πολιτῶν τεθνηξομένῃ, παρεκάλεσε δὲ δύο μῆνας αὐτῇ παρασχόντα πρὸς τὸ μετὰ τῶν πολιτῶν ἀποθρηνῆσαι τὴν νεότητα τότε ποιεῖν τὰ κατὰ τὴν εὐχήν. [266] συγχωρήσας δὲ τὰ κατὰ τὸν προειρημένον χρόνον μετὰ τοῦτον διελθόντα θύσας τὴν παῖδα ὡλοκαύτωσεν οὔτε νόμιμον οὔτε θεῷ κεχαρισμένην θυσίαν ἐπιτελῶν, μὴ διαβασανίσας τῷ λογισμῷ τὸ γενησόμενον οἷόν τε πραχθὲν δόξει τοῖς ἀκούσασι.

263 He sent off the envoys with this answer and prayed for victory and vowed to perform sacred rites if he got safely home, and to offer in sacrifice whatever living thing would meet him first. So he fought and gained a great victory, and pursued and killed the enemy all the way as far as the city of Minnith. He then crossed to the land of the Ammanites and destroyed many of their cities and took their booty and freed his own people from the slavery they had suffered in the past eighteen years. 264 But as he returned, he met with a calamity that clashed with his great achievements, for it was his own daughter who came to meet him and she was his only child and still a virgin. He groaned in anguish at his loss and blamed his daughter for coming out meet him, since he had dedicated her to God. 265 But she met her impending fate without dismay, since she would fall for the sake of her father's victory and the freedom of the citizens, and asked her father to allow her two months to bewail her youth with the citizens, and was prepared at the agreed time for him to do with her according to his vow. 266 When that aforesaid time elapsed, he sacrificed the child as a holocaust, a sacrifice that was neither lawful or acceptable to God, regardless of what opinion the hearers may have of such a practice.


11.

[267] Τῆς δ' Ἐφράνου φυλῆς ἐπ' αὐτὸν στρατευσάσης, ὅτι μὴ κοινώσαιτο τὴν ἐπ' Ἀμμανίτας ἔλασιν αὐτοῖς, ἀλλὰ μόνος καὶ τὴν λείαν ἔχοι καὶ τὴν ἐπὶ τοῖς πεπραγμένοις δόξαν, πρῶτον μὲν ἔλεγεν, ὡς οὔτε λάθοιεν αὐτοὺς οἱ συγγενεῖς πολεμούμενοι καλούμενοί τε πρὸς συμμαχίαν οὐ παρεγένοντο δέον καὶ πρὸ δεήσεως ἐγνωκότας ἐπειχθῆναι, [268] ἔπειθ' ὡς ἄδικα πράττειν ἐπιχειροῦσι τοῖς πολεμίοις οὐ τολμήσαντες εἰς χεῖρας ἐλθεῖν, ἐπὶ δὲ τοὺς συγγενεῖς ὡρμηκότες: ἠπείλει τε σὺν τῷ θεῷ λήψεσθαι δίκην παρ' αὐτῶν, ἂν μὴ σωφρονῶσιν. [269] ὡς δ' οὐκ ἔπειθεν, ἀλλὰ συνέβαλεν αὐτοῖς ἐλθοῦσι μετὰ στρατιᾶς, ἣ μετάπεμπτος ἐκ τῆς Γαλαδηνῆς ἐληλύθει, φόνον τε πολὺν αὐτῶν εἰργάσατο καὶ διώκων τραπέντας προλαβὼν μέρει τινὶ προαπεσταλμένῳ τοῦ Ἰορδάνου τὰς διαβάσεις κτείνει περὶ δισχιλίους καὶ τετρακισμυρίους γεγονότας.

267 The tribe of Ephraim opposed him, as he had not made them part of his campaign against the Ammanites, and had kept the booty and the glory for himself alone. About this he said, first, that they knew of his relatives' opposition to him and that they did not come to his help when they were asked, whereas even without being asked they should have come. 268 Further, that they were going to act unjustly, for while they dared not fight their enemies they were quick to oppose their own relatives. He threatened that if they did not grow wiser he would punish them with God's help. 269 When this did not persuade them, he fought them with the forces he had recalled from Gilead and made a great slaughter among them, and after their defeat pursued them and, with a part of his army he had sent ahead, captured the fords of the Jordan and killed about forty-two thousand of them.


12.

[270] Αὐτὸς δὲ ἄρξας ἓξ ἔτη τελευτᾷ καὶ θάπτεται ἐν τῇ αὐτοῦ πατρίδι Σεβέῃ: τῆς Γαλαδηνῆς δ' ἐστὶν αὕτη.

270 After ruling for six years, he himself died and was buried in his native district of Sebee, in the Galadene.


13.

[271] Τελευτήσαντος δὲ Ἰαφθᾶ τὴν ἀρχὴν Ἀψάνης παραλαμβάνει φυλῆς ὢν Ἰουδαικῆς Βηθλέμων δὲ πόλεως. τούτῳ δὲ παῖδες ἦσαν ἑξήκοντα, τριάκοντα μὲν ἄρρενες αἱ λοιπαὶ δὲ θυγατέρες, οὓς καὶ πάντας ζῶντας κατέλιπε τὰς μὲν ἀνδράσιν ἐκδοὺς τοῖς δὲ γυναῖκας ἠγμένος. πράξας δ' οὐδὲν ἐν τῷ ἑπταετεῖ γενομένῳ χρόνῳ λόγου καὶ μνήμης ἄξιον γηραιὸς ὢν ἀπέθανε καὶ ταφῆς ἐν τῇ πατρίδι τυγχάνει.

271 After Jephtha's death, the leadership passed to Ibzan, of the tribe of Judas and the city of Bethlehem. He had sixty children, thirty of them sons and the rest daughters, all of whom lived on after him when he had given the daughters to men in marriage and having taken wives for his sons. In the seven years of his rule he did nothing worth recording or recalling, but he died an old man and was buried in his own region.


14.

[272] Ἀψανοῦς δ' οὕτως ἀποθανόντος οὐδ' ὁ μετ' αὐτὸν παραλαβὼν τὴν ἡγεμονίαν Ἤλων ἐπ' ἔτη δέκα κατασχὼν αὐτὴν φυλῆς ὢν τῆς Ζαβούλης ἔπραξέ τι σπουδῆς ἄξιον.

272 After Ibzan died, Helon, of the tribe of Zebulon, succeeded him in the leadership and held it for ten years, and likewise did nothing of significance.


15.

[273] Ἀβδὼν δὲ Ἤλωνος παῖς φυλῆς μὲν τῆς Ἐφραμίτιδος πόλεως δὲ τῆς Φαραθωνιτῶν γεγονώς, αὐτοκράτωρ ἡγεμὼν ἀποδειχθεὶς μετ' Ἤλωνα μόνης ἂν τῆς εὐπαιδίας μνημονευθείη, [μηδὲν ἔργον] διὰ τὴν εἰρήνην καὶ τὴν ἄδειαν τῶν πραγμάτων λαμπρὸν μηδ' αὐτὸς εἰργασμένος. [274] υἱοὶ δὲ ἦσαν αὐτῷ τεσσαράκοντα καὶ τούτων τὴν γενεὰν καταλιπόντες τριάκοντα, ἤλαυνέ τε σὺν αὐτοῖς οὖσιν ἑβδομήκοντα πᾶσιν ἱππάζειν ἀρίστοις γεγενημένοις, καὶ πάντας ὑπὲρ γῆς ἀπολιπὼν θνήσκει γηραιὸς καὶ ταφῆς ἐν Φαραθῷ λαμπρᾶς τυγχάνει.

273 After Helon, Abdon, the son of Hillel, of the tribe of Ephraim and born at the city of Pyrathon, was appointed their commander. He is only recorded to have been happy in his children, for public affairs were then so calm and secure that he did not perform any brilliant action either. 274 He had forty sons and by them left thirty grandchildren, and he rode in state with these seventy, who were all very skilled riders, and he left them all alive after him. He died an old man and had a magnificent burial in Pharathon.

Chapter 8. [275-317]
Samson tames the Philistines. He is deceived by Delilah and blinded. Dying in Gaza, he has his revenge

1.

[275] Μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον Παλαιστῖνοι τελευτήσαντα κρατοῦσι τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν καὶ φόρους παρ' αὐτῶν ἐλάμβανον ἐπ' ἔτη τεσσαράκοντα. ταύτης δ' ἐλευθεροῦνται τῆς ἀνάγκης τούτῳ τῷ τρόπῳ:

275 After his death, the Philistines overcame the Israelites and took tax from them for forty years; but from this distress they were saved as follows.


2.

[276] Μανώχης τις Δανιτῶν ἐν ὀλίγοις ἄριστος καὶ τῆς πατρίδος ὁμολογούμενος πρῶτος εἶχε γύναιον ἐπ' εὐμορφίᾳ περίβλεπτον καὶ τῶν κατ' αὐτὸ διαφέρον. παίδων δ' οὐ γινομένων αὐτῷ δυσφορῶν ἐπὶ τῇ ἀπαιδίᾳ θεὸν ἱκέτευεν ἐπὶ τὸ προάστειον συνεχῶς φοιτῶν μετὰ τῆς γυναικὸς δοῦναι διαδοχὴν αὐτοῖς γνησίαν: μέγα δέ ἐστι τοῦτο πεδίον. [277] ἦν δὲ καὶ μανιώδης ὑπ' ἔρωτος ἐπὶ τῇ γυναικὶ καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ζηλότυπος ἀκρατῶς. μονωθείσῃ δὲ τῇ γυναικὶ φάντασμα ἐπιφαίνεται τοῦ θεοῦ νεανίᾳ καλῷ παραπλήσιον μεγάλῳ καὶ εὐαγγελιζόμενον αὐτῇ παιδὸς γονὴν κατὰ θεοῦ πρόνοιαν καλοῦ τε καὶ ῥώμην ἐπιφανοῦς, ὑφ' ᾧ πονήσειν Παλαιστίνους ἀνδρουμένῳ. [278] παρῄνει τε τὰς κόμας αὐτῷ μὴ ἀποκείρειν: ἔσται δ' αὐτῷ πρὸς ἄλλο μὲν ποτὸν ἀποστροφὴ τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦτο προστάσσοντος, πρὸς ὕδωρ δὲ μόνον οἰκειότης”. καὶ ὁ μὲν ταῦτ' εἰπὼν ᾤχετο κατὰ βούλησιν ἐλθὼν τοῦ θεοῦ.

276 Manoah, a man of rare virtue and first among the influential people of his region, had a most beautiful wife who excelled among her friends. Having no children, and unhappy at being childless, he came constantly with his wife into the suburbs, in the Great Plain, and begged God for legitimate offspring to succeed them. 277 He was madly fond of his wife, and his jealousy of her knew no bounds. Once when his wife was alone, she saw an apparition, an angel of God, like a beautiful, tall young man, who brought her the good news that she would have a son, born by God's providence. He would be handsome and strong, and as a man would afflict the Philistines. 278 He warned her not to cut his hair and that, at God's command, avoiding all other kinds of drink, he should stick to water only. Having said this, by the will of God the angel went away as he had come.


3.

[279] Ἡ δὲ τἀνδρὶ παραγενομένῳ τὰ παρὰ τοῦ ἀγγέλου ἐκδιηγήσατο ἐκθαυμάζουσα τοῦ νεανίσκου τὸ κάλλος καὶ τὸ μέγεθος, ὡς ἐκεῖνον ἐκ τῶν ἐπαίνων εἰς ἔκπληξιν κατὰ ζηλοτυπίαν περιστῆναι καὶ ὑπόνοιαν τὴν ἐκ τοιούτου πάθους κινουμένην. [280] ἡ δὲ βουλομένη τὴν ἄλογον τἀνδρὸς λύπην σταλῆναι τὸν θεὸν ἱκέτευε πάλιν πέμψαι τὸν ἄγγελον, ὡς ἂν καὶ τῷ ἀνδρὶ αὐτῆς ὁραθείη. καὶ παραγίνεται πάλιν κατὰ χάριν τοῦ θεοῦ ὁ ἄγγελος ὄντων ἐν τῷ προαστείῳ καὶ τῇ γυναικὶ φαίνεται τοῦ ἀνδρὸς μεμονωμένῃ. ἡ δ' ἐπιμεῖναι δεηθεῖσα ὡς ἂν ἀγάγοι τὸν ἄνδρα συγχωρήσαντος μέτεισι τὸν Μάνωχον. [281] ὁ δὲ θεασάμενος οὐδ' οὕτως ἐπαύετο τῆς ὑπονοίας ἠξίωσέ τι καὶ αὐτῷ δηλοῦν ὅσα καὶ τῇ γυναικὶ μηνύσειεν. ἀρκέσειν δὲ φράσαντος ταύτην μόνην εἰδέναι, τίς εἴη λέγειν ἐκέλευεν, ἵνα τοῦ παιδὸς γενομένου χάριν αὐτῷ καὶ δωρεὰν παράσχωσι. [282] τοῦ δὲ μηδέ τινων αὐτῷ δεῖσθαι φήσαντος, οὐδὲ γὰρ κατὰ χρείαν ταῦτα εὐαγγελίσασθαι περὶ τῆς τοῦ παιδὸς γονῆς, τοῦ δὲ μεῖναι παρακαλοῦντος καὶ ξενίων μετασχεῖν οὐκ ἐπένευσε, πεισθεὶς δ' ὅμως λιπαροῦντος ἐπιμεῖναι ὡς ἂν ξένιον αὐτῷ τι κομίσῃ, [283] καὶ θύσαντος ἔριφον τοῦ Μανώχου καὶ τοῦτον ὀπτᾶν τῇ γυναικὶ κελεύσαντος, ἐπεὶ πάντ' ἦν εὐτρεπῆ, προσέταξεν ἐπὶ τῆς πέτρας ἀποθέσθαι τούς τε ἄρτους καὶ τὰ κρέα χωρὶς τῶν ἀγγείων. [284] καὶ ποιησάντων ἅπτεται τῇ ῥάβδῳ ᾗ εἶχε τῶν κρεῶν, τὰ δὲ λάμψαντος πυρὸς ἅμα τοῖς ἄρτοις ἐκαίετο καὶ ὁ ἄγγελος διὰ τοῦ καπνοῦ ὥσπερ ὀχήματος ἀνιὼν εἰς οὐρανὸν αὐτοῖς φανερὸς ἦν. Μανώχην δὲ φοβούμενον, μή τι σφαλερὸν αὐτοῖς ἐκ τῆς ὄψεως τοῦ θεοῦ γένοιτο, θαρσεῖν ἡ γυνὴ παρεκελεύετο: ἐπὶ γὰρ συμφέροντι τῷ αὐτῶν τὸν θεὸν αὐτοῖς ὁραθῆναι.

279 When her husband arrived she told him what the angel had said, but she so praised the beauty and tallness of the young man who had appeared to her that her husband was angry and beside himself for jealousy and the suspicions her feeling roused in him. 280 Wanting to remove her husband's groundless sorrow, she begged God to send the angel again, so as to be seen by her husband. So, while they were in the suburbs, by God's favour the angel came again and appeared to her when she was alone without her husband. She prayed the angel to stay until she could bring her husband, and when he agreed, she went to call Manoah. 281 When he saw the angel he was still not free from suspicion and asked him to tell him all he had told his wife, but when he said it was enought for her alone to know it, he asked to know who he was, so that when the child was born they could thank him and give him a gift. 282 He said he did not want any gift, because it was not from any need that he brought them the good news of the birth of a son. When Manoah implored him to stay and share his hospitality, he would not, but was persuaded, at Manoah's request, to stay until he brought him one mark of his hospitality, 283 so he killed a kid goat and got his wife to boil it. When all was ready, the angel told him to set the loaves upon the rock, away from the vessels, 284 and when they had done this, he touched the meat with the staff he had in his hand, and a flame broke out and it was consumed, along with the loaves. Then, within the smoke, as by a vehicle, the angel ascended to heaven clearly in their sight. Manoah feared that something would happen them because of this apparition of God, but his wife encouraged him, for God had appeared to them for their good.


4.

[285] Καὶ κύει τε ἐκείνη καὶ φυλακὴν εἶχε τῶν ἐντολῶν, καὶ γενόμενον τὸ παιδίον Σαμψῶνα καλοῦσιν, ἰσχυρὸν δ' ἀποσημαίνει τὸ ὄνομα. ηὔξετο δ' ὁ παῖς ῥᾳδίως καὶ δῆλος ἦν προφητεύσων ὑπὸ τῆς περὶ τὴν δίαιταν σωφροσύνης καὶ τῆς τῶν τριχῶν ἀνέσεως.

285 The woman was duly pregnant and kept her instructions, and when he was born they called the child Samson, which means one who is strong. The child quickly grew and it was clear he would be a prophet, both in the sparseness of his diet and by letting his hair grow.


5.

[286] Ἀφικόμενος δὲ μετὰ τῶν γονέων εἰς Θάμνα πόλιν τῶν Παλαιστίνων πανηγύρεως ἀγομένης ἐρᾷ παρθένου τῶν ἐπιχωρίων παρακαλεῖ τε τοὺς γονεῖς ἄγεσθαι πρὸς γάμον αὐτῷ τὴν κόρην. τῶν δὲ ἀρνουμένων διὰ τὸ μὴ ὁμόφυλον εἶναι, τοῦ θεοῦ κατὰ τὸ Ἑβραίων σύμφορον ἐπινοοῦντος τὸν γάμον ἐκνικᾷ μνηστεύσασθαι τὴν παρθένον. [287] συνεχῶς δ' ἀπερχόμενος πρὸς τοὺς γονεῖς αὐτῆς συντυγχάνει λέοντι καὶ γυμνὸς ὢν ἐκδεξάμενος αὐτὸν ἄγχει ταῖς χερσὶ καὶ εἰς τὸ χωρίον τὸ ὑλῶδες ἐνδοτέρω τῆς ὁδοῦ ῥίπτει τὸ θηρίον.

286 Once when he came with his parents to Timhath, a city of the Philistines, during a great festival, he fell in love with a girl of that region and he asked his parents to get her as his wife. They refused, because she was not of the stock of Israel, but as this marriage was willed by God, who intended it for the benefit of the Hebrews, he managed to force them to betroth the girl to him. 287 As he was visiting her parents as usual, he met a lion and though he was unarmed, he faced his charge and strangled him with his hands and threw the beast into a woody piece of ground aside from the road.


6.

[288] Πάλιν τε ἀπιὼν πρὸς τὴν κόρην ἐπιτυγχάνει σμήνει μελιττῶν ἐν τῷ στήθει τοῦ λέοντος ἐκείνου νενοσσευκότων, καὶ ἀνελόμενος τρία μέλιτος κηρία σὺν τοῖς λοιποῖς δώροις οἷς ἐκόμιζε δίδωσι τῇ παιδί. [289] τῶν δὲ Θαμνιτῶν παρὰ τὴν εὐωχίαν τὴν τῶν γάμων, εἱστία γὰρ αὐτοὺς ἅπαντας, διὰ δέος τῆς ἰσχύος τοῦ νεανίσκου τριάκοντα δόντων αὐτῷ τοὺς ἀκμαιοτάτους λόγῳ μὲν ἑταίρους ἐσομένους ἔργῳ δὲ φύλακας, μή τι παρακινεῖν ἐθελήσειεν, τοῦ πότου προβάντος καὶ παιδιᾶς οὔσης, οἷα φιλεῖ παρὰ τοὺς τοιούτους καιρούς, [290] ὁ Σαμψὼν εἶπεν, “ἀλλὰ προβάλλοντος ἐμοῦ λόγον εἰ λύσετε τοῦτον ἐφ' ἡμέρας ἑπτὰ ποιούμενοι τὴν ζήτησιν, ὀθόνας τε καὶ στολὰς γέρας τῆς συνέσεως κατ' ἄνδρα ἕκαστον φέρεσθε παρ' ἐμοῦ”. φιλοτιμουμένων δὲ ὁμοῦ τε συνετοὺς δόξαι καὶ κέρδος εὕρασθαι καὶ λέγειν ἀξιούντων φησίν, ὅτι τὸ πάμβορον γεγεννήκοι βορὰν ἡδεῖαν ἐξ αὐτοῦ καὶ πάνυ ἀηδοῦς ὄντος. [291] τῶν δ' ἐπὶ τρεῖς ἡμέρας οὐ δυναμένων ἐξευρεῖν τὸ νοούμενον παρακαλούντων δὲ τὴν κόρην μαθοῦσαν παρὰ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς αὐτοῖς μηνῦσαι, καὶ γὰρ ἠπείλουν ἐμπρήσειν αὐτὴν τοῦτο μὴ παρασχοῦσαν, ὁ Σαμψὼν δεομένης τῆς κόρης εἰπεῖν αὐτῇ τὸ μὲν πρῶτον ἀντέχειν ἐπειρᾶτο, [292] ἐγκειμένης δ' αὐτῆς καὶ εἰς δάκρυα προπιπτούσης καὶ τεκμήριον τιθεμένης τῆς πρὸς αὐτὴν δυσνοίας τὸ μὴ λέγειν αὐτῇ, μηνύει τὰ περὶ τὴν ἀναίρεσιν αὐτῇ τοῦ λέοντος καὶ ὡς τὰ τρία βαστάσας ἐξ αὐτοῦ κηρία μέλιτος γεγονότα κομίσειεν αὐτῇ. [293] καὶ ὁ μὲν οὐδὲν ὑφορώμενος δολερὸν σημαίνει τὸ πᾶν, ἡ δ' ἐκφέρει τὸν λόγον τοῖς δεηθεῖσι. κατὰ οὖν τὴν ἑβδόμην ἡμέραν, καθ' ἣν ἔδει τὸν προβληθέντα λόγον αὐτῷ διασαφεῖν, πρὶν ἢ δῦναι τὸν ἥλιον συνελθόντες φασίν, “οὔτε λέοντος ἀηδέστερόν τι τοῖς ἐντυγχάνουσιν οὔτε ἥδιον μέλιτος χρωμένοις”. [294] καὶ ὁ Σαμψὼν εἶπεν οὐδὲ γυναικὸς εἶναί τι δολερώτερον, ἥτις ὑμῖν ἐκφέρει τὸν ἡμέτερον λόγον”. κἀκείνοις μὲν δίδωσιν ἃ ὑπέσχετο λείαν ποιησάμενος Ἀσκαλωνιτῶν τοὺς κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν αὐτῷ συντυχόντας, Παλαιστῖνοι δ' εἰσὶ καὶ οὗτοι, τὸν δὲ γάμον ἐκεῖνον παραιτεῖται καὶ ἡ παῖς ἐκφαυλίσασα τῆς ὀργῆς αὐτὸν συνῆν αὐτοῦ φίλῳ νυμφοστόλῳ γεγονότι.

288 As he was going to the girl another time, he came upon a swarm of bees making their combs in the lion's breast, and taking three honey-combs, he gave them to the child, with the rest of his gifts. 289 During the time of the wedding, when he treated them all to a feast, the people of Timnath, fearful of the young man's strength, assigned him thirty of the strongest young men, pretending to be his companions, but in reality to keep guard on him, to prevent him giving them any trouble. As they were drinking merrily and having fun, Samson said, as was usual at such occasions, 290 "Let me propose you a riddle and if you can expound it within seven days, I will give each man fine linen and a shirt as the reward for your wisdom." Keen to win a reputation for wisdom, along with the reward, they asked him to propose his riddle. He said, "The eater produced sweet food from itself, though it was totally distasteful." 291 When in three days they could not find the meaning of the riddle, they asked the girl to find out from her husband and tell it to them, threatening to burn her if she did not do so. As the girl begged Samson to tell it to her, he tried to refuse at first, 292 but when she pressed him hard and resorted to tears and called his refusal to tell her a lack of affection, he told her how he had killed the lion and how he took away three honey-combs and brought them to her. 293 Suspecting nothing, he told her all and she told it to her petitioners. On the seventh day, when they were to expound the riddle proposed to them, they met him before sunset and said, "Nothing is more disagreeable than a lion to those who meet it and nothing is sweeter than honey to those who use it." 294 Samson replied: "Nothing is more deceitful than a woman, for she brought my words to you." But he gave them the gifts as promised, taking them from Askalonites who met him on the road, who were also Philistines. Then he divorced his wife, but the girl cared nothing for his anger and married his friend, who had made the match between them.


7.

[295] Πρὸς δὲ τὴν ὕβριν ταύτην Σαμψὼν παροξυνθεὶς ἅπαντας ἔγνω σὺν αὐτῇ Παλαιστίνους μετέρχεσθαι. θέρους δ' ὄντος καὶ πρὸς ἄμητον ἤδη τῶν καρπῶν ἀκμαζόντων συλλαβὼν τριακοσίας ἀλώπεκας καὶ τῶν οὐρῶν ἐξάψας λαμπάδας ἡμμένας ἀφίησιν εἰς τὰς ἀρούρας τῶν Παλαιστίνων. [296] καὶ φθείρεται μὲν οὕτως αὐτοῖς ὁ καρπός, Παλαιστῖνοι δὲ γνόντες Σαμψῶνος εἶναι τὸ ἔργον καὶ τὴν αἰτίαν δι' ἣν ἔπραξε, πέμψαντες τοὺς ἄρχοντας εἰς Θαμνὰ τὴν γενομένην αὐτοῦ γυναῖκα καὶ τοὺς συγγενεῖς ζῶντας κατέπρησαν ὡς αἰτίους τῶν κακῶν γεγονότας.

295 Samson was so provoked by this insult that he decided to punish all the Philistines along with her. Since it was summer and the fruits of the land were almost ready for reaping, he caught three hundred foxes and binding lighted torches to their tails, sent them into the Philistines' fields, so that the fruit of their fields was destroyed. 296 The Philistines knew this was Samson's doing and they also knew why he did it, so they sent their officers to Timhath where his former wife and her relatives lived, and burned them for being the cause of their troubles.


8.

[297] Σαμψὼν δὲ πολλοὺς ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ τῶν Παλαιστίνων ἀποκτείνας Αἰτὰν κατῴκει, πέτρα δ' ἐστὶν ὀχυρὰ τῆς Ἰούδα φυλῆς. Παλαιστῖνοι δ' ἐστράτευον ἐπὶ τὴν φυλήν. τῶν δ' οὐ δικαίως λεγόντων τιμωρίαν αὐτοὺς εἰσπράττεσθαι περὶ τῶν Σαμψῶνος ἁμαρτημάτων φόρους αὐτοὺς τελοῦντας, εἰ βούλονται μὴ ἔχειν αἰτίαν ἔφασαν αὐτοῖς ὑποχείριον Σαμψῶνα δοῦναι. [298] οἱ δὲ ἀνεπίκλητοι βουλόμενοι τυγχάνειν παρῆσαν ἐπὶ τὴν πέτραν τρισχίλιοι ὁπλῖται καὶ καταμεμψάμενοι τῶν εἰς Παλαιστίνους αὐτῷ τετολμημένων ἄνδρας ἅπαντι τῷ γένει τῶν Ἑβραίων συμφορὰν ἐπενεγκεῖν δυναμένους, ἥκειν τε λέγοντες ὅπως αὐτὸν λαβόντες ὑποχείριον δῶσιν αὐτοῖς ἠξίουν ἑκοντὶ τοῦθ' ὑπομένειν. [299] ὁ δὲ λαβὼν ὅρκους παρ' αὐτῶν μηδὲν τούτων ποιήσειν περισσότερον ἀλλὰ τοῖς ἐχθροῖς ἐγχειριεῖν μόνον, καταβὰς ἐκ τῆς πέτρας αὑτὸν ἐν τῇ τῶν φυλετῶν τίθησιν ἐξουσίᾳ, κἀκεῖνοι δήσαντες αὐτὸν δυσὶ καλωδίοις ἦγον παραδοῦναι τοῖς Παλαιστίνοις. [300] καὶ γενομένων κατὰ χωρίον, ὃ Σιαγὼν καλεῖται νῦν διὰ τὴν Σαμψῶνος ἀνδραγαθίαν ἐπ' αὐτῷ γενομένην, πάλαι δ' ἦν ἀνώνυμον, οὐκ ἄπωθεν ἐστρατοπεδευκότων τῶν Παλαιστίνων, ἀλλ' ὑπαντώντων μετὰ χαρᾶς καὶ βοῆς ὡς ἐπὶ κατωρθωμένοις οἷς ἐβούλοντο, διαρρήξας τὰ δεσμὰ Σαμψὼν ἁρπασάμενος ὄνου σιαγόνα παρὰ ποσὶν οὖσαν εἰς τοὺς πολεμίους ὤσατο καὶ παίων αὐτοὺς τῇ σιαγόνι κτείνει εἰς χιλίους, τοὺς δὲ ἄλλους τρέπεται ταραχθέντας.

297 After killing many of the Philistines in the plains region, Samson lived in Etam, a stronghold of the tribe of Judas. At that time the Philistines made war on that tribe, and when the people of Judas said it was wrong to punish them simply for Samson's offenses, although they paid their taxes, their answer was that if they did not want to be blamed, they must hand Samson over to them. 298 Not wanting to be guilty they came to the rock with three thousand warriors and blamed Samson for the insults he had given the Philistines, who could bring disaster upon the whole Hebrew nation. They told him they had come to take him and to give him up to them and put him into their power, so they asked him to agree to this. 299 When he had received their oath of assurance to do him no harm other than to hand him over to his enemies, he came down from the rock and put himself into the power of his own people. They bound him with two cords and led him off to give him to the Philistines. 300 When they reached a certain place, now called the Jaw-bone after the great action Samson did there, though formerly it was nameless, the Philistines, who had encamped not far off, came to meet them with joy and shouting, as though having achieved some great objective, but Samson broke his chains asunder and snatching up the jaw-bone of an ass that lay at his feet, attacked his enemies and hitting them with the jaw-bone, killed a thousand and put the rest, terrified, to flight.


9.

[301] Σαμψὼν δὲ μεῖζον ἢ χρὴ ἐπὶ τούτῳ φρονῶν οὐ κατὰ θεοῦ συνεργίαν ἔλεγε τοῦτο συμβῆναι, τὴν δ' ἰδίαν ἀρετὴν ἐπέγραψε τῷ γεγονότι, τῶν πολεμίων τοὺς μὲν πεσεῖν τοὺς δ' εἰς φυγὴν τραπῆναι διὰ τοῦ παρ' αὐτοῦ δέους αὐχῶν. [302] δίψους δ' αὐτὸν ἰσχυροῦ κατασχόντος κατανοῶν ὡς οὐδέν ἐστιν ἀνθρώπειος ἀρετὴ τῷ θεῷ πάντα προσεμαρτύρει καὶ καθικέτευε μηδὲν τῶν εἰρημένων πρὸς ὀργὴν λαβόντα τοῖς πολεμίοις αὐτὸν ἐγχειρίσαι, παρασχεῖν δὲ βοήθειαν πρὸς τὸ δεινὸν καὶ ῥύσασθαι τοῦ κακοῦ. [303] καὶ πρὸς τὰς ἱκετείας ἐπικλασθεὶς ὁ θεὸς πηγὴν κατά τινος πέτρας ἀνίησιν ἡδεῖαν καὶ πολλήν, ὅθεν καὶ Σαμψὼν ἐκάλει τὸ χωρίον Σιαγόνα καὶ μέχρι τοῦ δεῦρο τοῦτο λέγεται.

301 But Samson became too proud of this, claiming it had not happened by the help of God, but that it was due to his own courage, and boasted that it was from dread of him that some of his enemies fell to the jaw-bone while the rest ran away. 302 But when a great thirst came upon him, he reckoned that human courage is nothing and testified that all should be attributed to God and implored him not to be angry at anything he had said, nor give him up into the hands of his enemies, but to give him help in his misfortune and save him from from his misfortune. 303 God was moved by his plea and raised up for him a plentiful fountain of sweet water at a certain rock, which is why Samson called the place the Jaw-bone, and so it is called to this day.

10.

[304] Μετὰ δὲ ταύτην τὴν μάχην Σαμψὼν καταφρονῶν τῶν Παλαιστίνων εἰς Γάζαν ἀφικνεῖται καὶ ἔν τινι τῶν καταγωγίων διέτριβε. μαθόντες δὲ τῶν Γαζαίων οἱ ἄρχοντες τὴν αὐτόθι παρουσίαν αὐτοῦ τὰ πρὸ τῶν πυλῶν ἐνέδραις καταλαμβάνουσιν, ὅπως ἐξιὼν μὴ λάθῃ. [305] Σαμψὼν δέ, οὐ γὰρ λανθάνουσιν αὐτὸν ταῦτα μηχανησάμενοι, περὶ μεσοῦσαν ἤδη τὴν νύκτα ἀναστὰς ἐνράσσει ταῖς πύλαις, αὐταῖς τε φλιαῖς καὶ μοχλοῖς ὅση τε ἄλλη περὶ αὐταῖς ἦν ξύλωσις ἀράμενος κατωμαδὸν εἰς τὸ ὑπὲρ Ἑβρῶνος ὄρος φέρων κατατίθησιν.

304 After this fight, Samson despised the Philistines and came to Gaza and took up lodgings in a certain hotel. When the officers of Gaza were told of his coming there, they guarded the gates and placed men in ambush around them, so that he could not escape without being noticed. 305 Knowing their scheme, Samson rose about midnight and ran violently against the gates, their posts and beams and the rest of their wooden furniture, and carried them away on his shoulders to the mountain that is over Hebron and there laid them down.

11.

[306] Παρέβαινε δ' ἤδη τὰ πάτρια καὶ τὴν οἰκείαν δίαιταν παρεχάρασσεν ξενικῶν μιμήσει ἐθισμῶν καὶ τοῦτ' αὐτῷ ἀρχὴ κακοῦ γίνεται: γυναικὸς γὰρ ἑταιριζομένης παρὰ τοῖς Παλαιστίνοις ἐρασθεὶς Δαλάλης τοὔνομα συνῆν αὐτῇ. [307] καὶ τῶν Παλαιστίνων οἱ τοῦ κοινοῦ προεστῶτες ἐλθόντες πρὸς αὐτὴν πείθουσιν ἐπαγγελίαις μαθεῖν παρὰ τοῦ Σαμψῶνος τὴν αἰτίαν τῆς ἰσχύος, ὑφ' ἧς ἄληπτός ἐστι τοῖς ἐχθροῖς. ἡ δὲ παρὰ πότον καὶ τοιαύτην συνουσίαν θαυμάζουσα τὰς πράξεις αὐτοῦ ἐτεχνίτευε μαθεῖν, τίνι τρόπῳ τοσοῦτον προύχει κατ' ἀρετήν. [308] ὁ δὲ Σαμψών, ἔτι γὰρ φρονεῖν ἰσχυρὸς ἦν, ἀντηπάτα τὴν Δαλάλην φάμενος, εἰ κλήμασιν ἑπτὰ δεθείη ἀμπέλου ἔτι καὶ περιειλεῖσθαι δυναμένοις, ἀσθενέστερος ἂν πάντων ἔσοιτο. [309] ἡ δὲ τότε μὲν ἡσύχασεν, ἀποσημήνασα δὲ τοῖς ἄρχουσι τῶν Παλαιστίνων ἐνίδρυσε τῶν στρατιωτῶν ἔνδον τινὰς καὶ μεθύοντα κατέδει τοῖς κλήμασι κατὰ τὸ ἰσχυρότατον, ἔπειτ' ἀνεγείρασα ἐδήλου παρεῖναί τινας ἐπ' αὐτόν. [310] ὁ δὲ ῥήξας τὰ κλήματα βοηθεῖν ὡς ἐπερχομένων αὐτῷ τινων ἐπειρᾶτο. καὶ ἡ γυνὴ συνεχῶς ὁμιλοῦντος αὐτῇ τοῦ Σαμψῶνος δεινῶς ἔχειν ἔλεγεν, εἰ κατ' ἀπιστίαν εὐνοίας τῆς πρὸς αὐτὸν μὴ λέγει ταῦθ' ἅπερ δεῖται, ὡς οὐ σιγησομένης ὅσα μὴ γινώσκεσθαι συμφέρειν οἶδεν αὐτῷ. [311] τοῦ δὲ πάλιν ἀπατῶντος αὐτὴν καὶ φήσαντος ἑπτὰ κάλοις δεθέντα τὴν ἰσχὺν ἀπολέσειν, ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο ποιήσασα οὐδὲν ἤνυσεν, τρίτον συνυφῆναι τὰς κόμας αὐτοῦ ἐμήνυσεν. [312] ὡς δ' οὐδὲ τούτου γενομένου ἀληθὲς ηὑρίσκετο, δεομένης τελευταῖον ὁ Σαμψών, ἔδει γὰρ αὐτὸν συμφορᾷ περιπεσεῖν, χαρίζεσθαι βουλόμενος τῇ Δαλάλῃ, “ἐμοῦ, φησίν, ὁ θεὸς κήδεται καὶ κατὰ τὴν ἐκείνου πρόνοιαν γεννηθεὶς κόμην ταύτην τρέφω παρεγγυήσαντος μὴ ἀποκείρειν τοῦ θεοῦ: τὴν γὰρ ἰσχὺν εἶναί μοι κατὰ τὴν ταύτης αὔξησιν καὶ παραμονήν”. [313] ταῦτα μαθοῦσα καὶ στερήσασα τῆς κόμης αὐτὸν παραδιδοῖ τοῖς πολεμίοις οὐκέτ' ὄντα ἰσχυρὸν ἀμύνασθαι τὴν ἔφοδον αὐτῶν. οἱ δ' ἐκκόψαντες αὐτοῦ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς δεδεμένον ἄγειν παρέδοσαν.

306 But in the end he broke the ancestral laws and changed his lifestyle to imitate the customs of foreigners, which proved the beginning of his downfall. He fell in love with a Philistine prostitute named Delilah and lived with her. 307 The presiders of the Philistines came to her and induced her with promises to find out from Samson the cause of his strength, which made him invincible to his enemies. So when they were drinking and such-like intercourse, she pretended to admire his exploits and managed to get from him the reason why he so much exceeded others in strength. 308 To mislead Delilah, for he had not yet lost his senses, Samson replied that if he were bound with seven green cords of a vine that could be used for a wreath, he would be weaker than all others. 309 She said no more at the time, but told the Philistine officers and hid some soldiers in ambush within the house, and when he was drunk, she bound him tightly with the cords, and then awakening him, told him some were right upon him; 310 but he broke the cords and set to defend himself, as though under attack. Now in her regular intercourse with Samson she pretended to take it very badly that he had such little confidence in her feelings for him, not to tell her what she needed, as though she would not keep secret whatever she knew it was in his interest to conceal. 311 But he again tricked her and told her that if they bound him with seven cords, he would lose his strength. When she gained nothing from this, he told her, the third time, that his hair should be woven into a web, 312 but when she did this, the truth was still not revealed. Finally, at Delilah's petition, for he was doomed to fall into some misfortune, Samson wishing to please her told her that God took care of him; that he was born by divine providence and that "that is why I let my hair grow, for God charged me never to cut my hair, and therefore my strength depends on its increase and continuance." 313 When she had learned this and had removed his hair, she gave him up to his enemies as he no longer had the strength to defend himself from their attack, so they put out his eyes and bound him and had him led about among them.

12.

[314] Προιόντος δὲ τοῦ χρόνου ηὔξετο ἡ κόμη τῷ Σαμψῶνι, καὶ ἑορτῆς οὔσης τοῖς Παλαιστίνοις δημοτελοῦς καὶ τῶν ἀρχόντων καὶ γνωριμωτάτων ἐν ταὐτῷ εὐωχουμένων, οἶκος δ' ἦν δύο κιόνων στεγόντων αὐτοῦ τὸν ὄροφον, ἄγεται μεταπεμψαμένων ὁ Σαμψὼν εἰς τὸ συμπόσιον, ὅπως ἐνυβρίσωσιν αὐτῷ παρὰ τὸν πότον. [315] ὁ δὲ δεινότερον τῶν κακῶν ὑπολαμβάνων τὸ μὴ δύνασθαι ὑβριζόμενος ἀμύνασθαι, τὸν χειραγωγοῦντα παῖδα πείθει, προσαναπαύσασθαι χρῄζειν εἰπὼν ὑπὸ κόπου, τοῖς κίοσιν αὐτὸν ἐγγὺς ἀγαγεῖν. [316] ὡς δὲ ἧκεν, ἐνσεισθεὶς αὐτοῖς ἐπικαταβάλλει τὸν οἶκον ἀνατραπέντων τῶν κιόνων τρισχιλίοις ἀνδράσιν, οἳ πάντες ἀπέθανον, ἐν αὐτοῖς δὲ καὶ Σαμψών. καὶ τὸν μὲν τοιοῦτον κατέσχε τέλος ἄρξαντα τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν εἴκοσιν ἔτη. [317] θαυμάζειν δὲ ἄξιον τῆς ἀρετῆς καὶ τῆς ἰσχύος καὶ τοῦ περὶ τὴν τελευτὴν μεγαλόφρονος τὸν ἄνδρα καὶ τῆς ὀργῆς τῆς μέχρι τοῦ τελευτᾶν πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους. καὶ τὸ μὲν ὑπὸ γυναικὸς ἁλῶναι δεῖ τῇ φύσει τῶν ἀνθρώπων προσάπτειν ἥττονι ἁμαρτημάτων οὔσῃ, μαρτυρεῖν δὲ ἐκείνῳ τὴν εἰς τὰ ἄλλα πάντα τῆς ἀρετῆς περιουσίαν. οἱ δὲ συγγενεῖς ἀράμενοι τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ θάπτουσιν ἐν Σαρασᾶ τῇ πατρίδι μετὰ τῶν συγγενῶν.

314 But in the course of time Samson's hair grew again... Now there was a festival among the Philistines, when the officers and their most distinguished men were at a feast in a room whose roof was supported by two pillars, and they sent for Samson and he was brought to their feast, that they might insult him during their drinking. 315 But thinking it the worst of his woes if he could not revenge himself for the insults, he told the boy leading him by the hand that he was tired and wanted to rest, and got him to bring him near the pillars. 316 On reaching them, he shook them and brought down the house on the three thousand men in it, and all were killed, including Samson himself. Such was the end of this man, when he had ruled over the Israelites twenty years. 317 The man deserves to be admired for his courage and strength and his magnanimity in death, for his anger went so far as to die along with his enemies. As for being ensnared by a woman, that was due to human nature, too weak to resist the temptations to sin, though we should confess that in all other respects he was of extraordinary virtue. His relatives took away his body and buried it in his own region of Sarasat, with the rest of his family.

Chapter 9. [318-337]
Ruth and Naomi settle in Bethlehem. She marries Boaz, ancestor of king David

1.

[318] Μετὰ δὲ τὴν Σαμψῶνος τελευτὴν προέστη τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν Ἠλὶς ὁ ἀρχιερεύς. ἐπὶ τούτου λιμῷ τῆς χώρας κακοπαθούσης αὐτῶν Ἀβιμέλεχος ἐκ Βηθλέμων, ἔστι δὲ ἡ πόλις αὕτη τῆς Ἰούδα φυλῆς, ἀντέχειν τῷ δεινῷ μὴ δυνάμενος τήν τε γυναῖκα Νααμεὶν καὶ τοὺς παῖδας τοὺς ἐξ αὐτῆς αὐτῷ γεγενημένους Χελλιῶνα καὶ Μαλαῶνα ἐπαγόμενος εἰς τὴν Μωαβῖτιν μετοικίζεται. [319] καὶ προχωρούντων αὐτῷ κατὰ νοῦν τῶν πραγμάτων ἄγεται τοῖς υἱοῖς γυναῖκας Μωαβίτιδας Χελλιῶνι μὲν Ὀρφᾶν Ῥούθην δὲ Μαλαῶνι. διελθόντων δὲ δέκα ἐτῶν ὅ τε Ἀβιμέλεχος καὶ μετ' αὐτὸν οἱ παῖδες δι' ὀλίγου τελευτῶσι, [320] καὶ ἡ Ναάμις πικρῶς ἐπὶ τοῖς συμβεβηκόσι φέρουσα καὶ τὴν ὑπ' ὄψιν τῶν φιλτάτων ἐρημίαν οὐχ ὑπομένουσα, δι' ἣν καὶ τῆς πατρίδος ἐξεληλύθει, πάλιν εἰς αὐτὴν ἀπηλλάττετο: [321] καὶ γὰρ ἤδη καλῶς τὰ κατ' αὐτὴν ἐπυνθάνετο χωρεῖν. οὐκ ἐκαρτέρουν δὲ διαζευγνύμεναι αὐτῆς αἱ νύμφαι, οὐδὲ παραιτουμένη βουλομένας συνεξορμᾶν πείθειν ἐδύνατο, ἀλλ' ἐγκειμένων εὐξαμένη γάμον εὐτυχέστερον αὐταῖς οὗ διημαρτήκεσαν παισὶ τοῖς αὐτῆς γαμηθεῖσαι καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἀγαθῶν κτῆσιν, ὅτε τὰ πρὸς αὐτὴν οὕτως ἐστί, [322] μένειν αὐτόθι παρεκάλει καὶ μὴ συμμεταλαμβάνειν αὐτῇ βούλεσθαι πραγμάτων ἀδήλων τὴν πάτριον γῆν καταλιπούσας. ἡ μὲν οὖν Ὀρφᾶ μένει, τὴν δὲ Ῥούθην μὴ πεισθεῖσαν ἀπήγαγε κοινωνὸν παντὸς τοῦ προστυχόντος γενησομένην.

318 After the death of Samson, Eli the high priest ruled the Israelites. Under him, when the region was racked with famine, Elimelech of Bethlehem, a city of the tribe of Judas, was unable to support his family in that severe crisis, so he took his wife Naomi and the children she had borne him, Chillon and Mahlon, and went to live in the land of Moab. 319 When his affairs prospered there to his satisfaction, he got Moabite wives for his sons, Orpah for Chillon and Ruth for Mahlon. But Elimelech died within ten years, and not long afterwards the sons too. 320 Embittered by these losses and finding her loneliness unbearable after the death of those dearest to her, for whom she had left her own region, Naomi returned to her homeland, for she had heard it was now doing well. 321 The two brides could not bear to part from her, and when they planned to leave with her she did not argue with them. But when they persisted, she prayed for them more fortunate marriages than they had with her sons and that they might prosper in every respect. 322 However, given her own situation, she urged them to stay where they were and not to think of leaving their native land to share in her uncertain future. So Orpah stayed, but unable to persuade Ruth to stay she took her along, for she wished to share her fate, whatever it be.


2.

[323] Ἐλθοῦσαν δὲ Ῥούθην μετὰ τῆς πενθερᾶς εἰς τὴν Βηθλεέμων Βοώζης Ἀβιμελέχου συγγενὴς ὢν δέχεται ξενίᾳ. καὶ ἡ Ναάμις, προσαγορευόντων αὐτὴν ὀνομαστί, δικαιότερον εἶπε Μαρὰν καλεῖτέ με: σημαίνει δὲ καθ' Ἑβραίων γλῶτταν ναάμις μὲν εὐτυχίαν, μαρὰ δὲ ὀδύνην. [324] ἀμήτου δὲ γενομένου ἐξῄει καλαμησομένη κατὰ συγχώρησιν τῆς πενθερᾶς ἡ Ῥούθη, ὅπως τροφῆς εὐποροῖεν, καὶ εἰς τὸ Βοώζου τυχαίως ἀφικνεῖται χωρίον. παραγενόμενος δὲ Βόαζος μετ' ὀλίγον καὶ θεασάμενος τὴν κόρην ἀνέκρινε τὸν ἀγροκόμον περὶ τῆς παιδός. ὁ δὲ μικρὸν ἔμπροσθεν παρ' αὐτῆς ἅπαντα προπεπυσμένος ἐδήλου τῷ δεσπότῃ. [325] ὁ δὲ τῆς περὶ τὴν πενθερὰν εὐνοίας ἅμα καὶ μνήμης τοῦ παιδὸς αὐτῆς ᾧ συνῴκησεν ἀσπασάμενος καὶ εὐξάμενος αὐτῇ πεῖραν ἀγαθῶν καλαμᾶσθαι μὲν αὐτὴν οὐκ ἠξίωσεν, θερίζειν δὲ πᾶν ὅ τι καὶ δύναιτο καὶ λαμβάνειν ἐπιτρέπει προστάξας τῷ ἀγροκόμῳ μηδὲν αὐτὴν διακωλύειν λαμβάνειν, ἄριστόν τε παρέχειν αὐτῇ καὶ ποτόν, ὁπότε σιτίζοι τοὺς θερίζοντας. [326] Ῥούθη δὲ ἄλφιτα λαβοῦσα παρ' αὐτοῦ ἐφύλαξε τῇ ἑκυρᾷ καὶ παρῆν ὀψὲ κομίζουσα μετὰ τῶν σταχύων: ἐτετηρήκει δ' αὐτῇ καὶ ἡ Ναάμις ἀπομοίρας βρωμάτων τινῶν, οἷς αὐτὴν ἐπολυώρουν οἱ γειτονεύοντες: διηγεῖται δὲ αὐτῇ καὶ τὰ παρὰ τοῦ Βοάζου πρὸς αὐτὴν εἰρημένα. [327] δηλωσάσης δ' ἐκείνης ὡς συγγενής ἐστι καὶ τάχα ἂν δι' εὐσέβειαν προνοήσειεν αὐτῶν, ἐξῄει πάλιν ταῖς ἐχομέναις ἡμέραις ἐπὶ καλάμης συλλογὴν σὺν ταῖς Βοάζου θεραπαινίσιν.

323 When Ruth arrived in Bethlehem with her mother-in-law, Boaz, who was near of kin to Elimelech, received them as guests, and people when called Naomi by her proper name, she said, "You can more truly call me Mara," for in the Hebrew tongue Naomi means prosperity and Mara means sorrow. 324 It was now reaping time, and Ruth, with her mother-in-law's permission, went out to glean, to get a supply of corn to feed them. Into Boaz's field she went, and after some time Boaz arrived and when he saw the girl, he asked his steward about the child. The steward had a little earlier learned about her circumstances and told them to his master. 325 He greeted her kindly and wished her well, on account of her affection for her mother-in-law and the memory of the son to whom she had been married. He told her not to glean, but to reap whatever she could, and let her take it home. He also instructed the servant in charge of the reapers not to stop her taking it away and told him to let her eat and drink along with the reapers. 326 Whatever corn Ruth received from him she kept for her mother-in-law and in the evening came to her bringing the ears of corn, and Naomi had kept for her part of the plentiful food her neighbours had given her; and she reported what Boaz had said to her. 327 In turn, Naomi told her that he was next of kin to them and was so dutiful a man that he might make some provision for them, she went out again on the following days, to gather the gleanings with Boaz's servant girls.


3.

[328] Ἐλθών τε μετ' οὐ πολλὰς ἡμέρας καὶ Βόαζος ἤδη τῆς κριθῆς λελικμημένης ἐπὶ τῆς ἅλωος ἐκάθευδε. τοῦτο πυθομένη ἡ Ναάμις τεχνᾶται παρακατακλῖναι τὴν Ῥούθην αὐτῷ: καὶ γὰρ ἔσεσθαι χρηστὸν αὐταῖς ὁμιλήσαντα τῇ παιδί: καὶ πέμπει τὴν κόρην ὑπνωσομένην αὐτοῦ παρὰ τοῖς ποσίν. [329] ἡ δέ, πρὸς οὐδὲν γὰρ ἀντιλέγειν τῶν ὑπὸ τῆς ἑκυρᾶς κελευομένων ὅσιον ἡγεῖτο, παραγίνεται καὶ παραυτίκα μὲν λανθάνει τὸν Βόαζον βαθέως καθυπνωκότα, περιεγερθεὶς δὲ περὶ μέσην νύκτα καὶ αἰσθόμενος τῆς ἀνθρώπου παρακατακειμένης ἀνέκρινε τίς εἴη. [330] τῆς δ' εἰπούσης τοὔνομα καὶ φαμένης ὡς αὐτῆς δεσπότην συγχωρεῖν, τότε μὲν ἡσυχίαν ἄγει, ὄρθριος δὲ πρὶν ἢ τοὺς οἰκέτας ἄρξασθαι κινεῖσθαι πρὸς τὸ ἔργον περιεγείρας αὐτὴν κελεύει τῶν κριθῶν λαβοῦσαν ὅ τι καὶ δύναιτο πορεύεσθαι πρὸς τὴν ἑκυρὰν πρὶν ὀφθῆναί τισιν αὐτόθι κεκοιμημένην, φυλάττεσθαι σῶφρον τὴν ἐπὶ τοιούτοις διαβολὴν καὶ μάλιστ' ἐπὶ μὴ γεγονόσι. [331] περὶ μέντοι τοῦ παντὸς οὕτω, φησίν, ἔσται, [ἐρωτᾶν] τὸν ἔγγιστά μου τῷ γένει τυγχάνοντα, εἰ σοῦ χρεία γαμετῆς ἐστιν αὐτῷ, καὶ λέγοντι μὲν ἀκολουθήσεις ἐκείνῳ, παραιτουμένου δὲ νόμῳ σε συνοικήσουσαν ἄξομαι.”

328 Not many days later, when the barley was winnowed, Boaz slept in his threshing-floor. When Naomi was told of this, she arranged for Ruth to lie down near him, for she thought it might be for their advantage for him to converse with the girl, so she sent her to sleep near his feet. 329 She went as bidden, not thinking it right to oppose what her mother-in-law told her. At first her presence was unknown to Boaz, for he was fast asleep, but when he woke up about midnight and noticed a woman lying near him, he asked who she was. 330 When she told him her name and asked his pardon, as her master, he said no more at the time, but the morning, before the servants began their work, he woke her and told her to take as much barley as she could carry and go to her mother-in-law before anyone there noticed that she had lain down next to him, to prudently avoid any blame arising from it, especially since nothing had happened. 331 But he dealt with the whole matter as follows: "Whoever is nearer of kin than I am, shall be asked if he wants to take you as his wife. If he says yes, let you go with him, but if he refuses, I will marry you, according to the law."


4.

[332] Ταῦτα τῇ ἑκυρᾷ δηλωσάσης εὐθυμία κατεῖχεν αὐτὰς ἐν ἐλπίδι τοῦ πρόνοιαν ἕξειν αὐτῶν Βόαζον γενομένας. κἀκεῖνος ἤδη μεσούσης τῆς ἡμέρας κατελθὼν εἰς τὴν πόλιν τήν τε γερουσίαν συνῆγε καὶ μεταπεμψάμενος Ῥούθην ἐκάλει καὶ τὸν συγγενῆ, καὶ παραγενομένου φησίν: [333] “Ἀβιμελέχου καὶ τῶν υἱῶν αὐτοῦ κλήρων κρατεῖς;” ὁμολογήσαντος δὲ συγχωρούντων τῶν νόμων κατὰ ἀγχιστείαν, “οὐκοῦν, φησὶν ὁ Βόαζος, οὐκ ἐξ ἡμισείας δεῖ μεμνῆσθαι τῶν νόμων. ἀλλὰ πάντα ποιεῖν κατ' αὐτούς. Μαάλου γὰρ δεῦρ' ἥκει γύναιον, ὅπερ εἰ θέλεις τῶν ἀγρῶν κρατεῖν γαμεῖν σε δεῖ κατὰ τοὺς [334] νόμους.” ὁ δὲ Βοάζῳ καὶ τοῦ κλήρου καὶ τῆς γυναικὸς παρεχώρει συγγενεῖ μὲν ὄντι καὶ αὐτῷ τῶν τετελευτηκότων, εἶναι δὲ καὶ γυναῖκα λέγων αὐτῷ καὶ παῖδας ἤδη. [335] μαρτυράμενος οὖν ὁ Βόαζος τὴν γερουσίαν ἐκέλευε τῇ γυναικὶ ὑπολῦσαι αὐτὸν προσελθοῦσαν κατὰ τὸν νόμον καὶ πτύειν εἰς τὸ πρόσωπον. γενομένου δὲ τούτου Βόαζος γαμεῖ τὴν Ῥούθην καὶ γίνεται παιδίον αὐτοῖς μετ' ἐνιαυτὸν ἄρρεν. [336] τοῦτο ἡ Ναάμις τιτθευομένη κατὰ συμβουλίαν τῶν γυναικῶν Ὠβήδην ἐκάλεσεν ἐπὶ γηροκομίᾳ τῇ αὐτῆς τραφησόμενον: ὠβήδης γὰρ κατὰ διάλεκτον τὴν Ἑβραίων ἀποσημαίνει δουλεύων. Ὠβήδου δὲ γίνεται παῖς Ἰεσσαῖος, τούτου Δαβίδης ὁ βασιλεύσας καὶ παισὶ τοῖς αὐτοῦ καταλιπὼν τὴν ἡγεμονίαν ἐπὶ μίαν καὶ εἴκοσι γενεὰς ἀνδρῶν. [337] τὰ μὲν οὖν κατὰ Ῥούθην ἀναγκαίως διηγησάμην ἐπιδεῖξαι βουλόμενος τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ δύναμιν, ὅτι τούτῳ παράγειν ἐφικτόν ἐστιν εἰς ἀξίωμα λαμπρὸν καὶ τοὺς ἐπιτυχόντας, εἰς οἷον ἀνήγαγε καὶ Δαβίδην ἐκ τοιούτων γενόμενον.

332 When she told this to her mother-in-law, they were glad in the hope that Boaz would provide for them. About noon Boaz went down to the city and gathered the elders together and after sending for Ruth, he called for her kinsman too. 333 When he arrived, he said, "Don't you hold the inheritance of Elimelech and his sons?" He admitted that he did, but said he was acting within the law, as he was their next of kin. Then Boaz said, "You must not recall just half of the laws but do everything according to them, for Mahlon's wife has arrived here, and according to the law you must marry her, if you want to keep their fields." 334 As he already had a wife and children, the man yielded both the field and the wife to Boaz, who was himself related to the deceased. 335 So Boaz called the elders to witness and bade the woman to loose the man's shoe and spit in his face, according to the law. When this was done, Boaz married Ruth, and within a year they had a male child. 336 Naomi herself nursed this infant, and at the women's advice called him Obed, intending to rear him so as to help her in her old age, for Obed in the Hebrew dialect means servant. The son of Obed was Jesse and David was his son, who became king, and who left his dominions to his sons for twenty one generations. 337 I had to tell this story of Ruth, to prove the power of God, who can easily raise to dignity and splendor people of ordinary parentage, as he advanced David, though born of such people.

Chapter 10. [338-351]
Samuel's childhood. Disaster befalls Eli's sons

1.

[338] Ἑβραῖοι δὲ τῶν πραγμάτων αὐτοῖς ὑπενεχθέντων πάλιν πόλεμον ἐκφέρουσι Παλαιστίνοις διὰ τοιαύτην αἰτίαν: Ἠλὶ τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ δύο παῖδες ἦσαν Ὁφνίης τε καὶ Φινεέσης. [339] οὗτοι καὶ πρὸς ἀνθρώπους ὑβρισταὶ γενόμενοι καὶ πρὸς τὸ θεῖον ἀσεβεῖς οὐδενὸς ἀπείχοντο παρανομήματος, καὶ τὰ μὲν ἐφέροντο τῶν γερῶν κατὰ τιμήν, ἃ δ' ἐλάμβανον αὐτοῖς ἁρπαγῆς τρόπῳ, γυναῖκάς τε τὰς ἐπὶ θρησκείᾳ παραγινομένας ὕβριζον φθοραῖς ταῖς μὲν βίαν προσφέροντες τὰς δὲ δώροις ὑπαγόμενοι: τυραννίδος δ' οὐθὲν ἀπέλειπεν ὁ βίος αὐτῶν. [340] ὅ τε οὖν πατὴρ αὐτὸς ἐπὶ τούτοις χαλεπῶς εἶχεν ὅσον οὐδέπω προσδοκῶν ἥξειν ἐκ θεοῦ τιμωρίαν αὐτοῖς ἐπὶ τοῖς πραττομένοις, τό τε πλῆθος ἐδυσφόρει, κἀπειδὴ φράζει τὴν ἐσομένην συμφορὰν ὁ θεὸς τοῖς παισὶν αὐτοῦ τῷ τε Ἠλὶ καὶ Σαμουήλῳ τῷ προφήτῃ παιδὶ τότε ὄντι, τότε φανερὸν ἐπὶ τοῖς υἱοῖς πένθος ἦγε.

338 When things were going badly for the Hebrews they again went to war on the Philistines. The occasion was this: Eli, the high priest, had two sons, Hophni and Phineas. 339 These two were arrogant towards men and impious towards God and refrained from no sort of wickedness. Some gifts they accepted as part of their honourable employment but others they seized by force, and dishonoured women who came for worship, taking some by violence and seducing others with bribes, so that their whole lifestyle was no better than tyranny. 340 Their father took their behaviour badly and was expecting God to punish them for what they had done and the people were also displeased. But when God foretold their impending disaster, which he did to Eli himself and to Samuel the prophet who was still only a child, the father openly grieved for the ruin of his sons.


2.

[341] Βούλομαι δὲ τὰ περὶ τοῦ προφήτου πρότερον διεξελθὼν ἔπειθ' οὕτως τὰ περὶ τοὺς Ἠλὶ παῖδας εἰπεῖν καὶ τὴν δυστυχίαν τὴν τῷ παντὶ λαῷ Ἑβραίων γενομένην. [342] Ἀλκάνης Λευίτης ἀνὴρ τῶν ἐν μέσῳ πολιτῶν τῆς Ἐφράμου κληρουχίας Ῥαμαθὰν πόλιν κατοικῶν ἐγάμει δύο γυναῖκας Ἄνναν τε καὶ Φενάνναν. ἐκ δὴ ταύτης καὶ παῖδες αὐτῷ γίνονται, τὴν δ' ἑτέραν ἄτεκνον οὖσαν ἀγαπῶν διετέλει. [343] ἀφικομένου δὲ μετὰ τῶν γυναικῶν τοῦ Ἀλκάνου εἰς Σιλὼ πόλιν θῦσαι, ἐνταῦθα γὰρ ἡ σκηνὴ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπεπήγει καθὼς προειρήκαμεν, καὶ πάλιν κατὰ τὴν εὐωχίαν νέμοντος μοίρας κρεῶν ταῖς τε γυναιξὶ καὶ τοῖς τέκνοις, ἡ Ἄννα θεασαμένη τοὺς τῆς ἑτέρας παῖδας τῇ μητρὶ περικαθημένους, εἰς δάκρυά τε προύπεσε καὶ τῆς ἀπαιδίας αὑτὴν ὠλοφύρετο καὶ τῆς μονώσεως. [344] καὶ τῆς τἀνδρὸς παραμυθίας τῇ λύπῃ κρατήσασα εἰς τὴν σκηνὴν ᾤχετο τὸν θεὸν ἱκετεύουσα δοῦναι γονὴν αὐτῇ καὶ ποιῆσαι μητέρα, ἐπαγγελλομένη τὸ πρῶτον αὐτῇ γενησόμενον καθιερώσειν ἐπὶ διακονίᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ δίαιταν οὐχ ὁμοίαν τοῖς ἰδιώταις ποιησόμενον. [345] διατριβούσης δ' ἐπὶ ταῖς εὐχαῖς πολὺν χρόνον Ἠλὶς ὁ ἀρχιερεύς, ἐκαθέζετο γὰρ πρὸ τῆς σκηνῆς, ὡς παροινοῦσαν ἐκέλευεν ἀπιέναι. τῆς δὲ πιεῖν ὕδωρ φαμένης, λυπουμένης δ' ἐπὶ παίδων ἀπορίᾳ τὸν θεὸν ἱκετεύειν, θαρσεῖν παρεκελεύετο παρέξειν αὐτῇ παῖδας τὸν θεὸν καταγγέλλων.

341 I will first deal with what I have to say about the prophet Samuel and will then speak about the sons of Eli and the miseries they brought on the whole Hebrew people. 342 Alkanes, a Levite of middle rank among his fellow citizens who lived in Ramathaim, a city of the tribe of Ephraim, married two wives, Hannah and Peninnah. He had children by the latter, but he loved the other more, although she was barren. 343 When Alkanes came with his wives to the city of Shiloh to sacrifice, for the Tent of God was situated there, as we have said, after he had sacrificed at the festival he distributed portions of the meat to his wives and children, and when Hannah saw the other's children sitting around their mother, she began weeping and mourned for herself in her barrenness and loneliness. 344 No consoling words from her husband could soothe her grief, so she went to the Tent to beg God to give her offspring and to make her a mother, and vowed to consecrate her first son to the service of God, so that his lifestyle should not be like that of ordinary men. 345 As she continued a long time at her prayers, the high priest, Eli, who was sitting in front of the Tent, told her to go away, thinking her under the influence of wine. She replied that she had drunk only water, but was grieving her lack of children and was imploring God for them, so he told her to be at peace, and that God would send her children.


3.

[346] Παραγενομένη δ' εὔελπις πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα τροφὴν χαίρουσα προσηνέγκατο, καὶ ἀναστρεψάντων εἰς τὴν πατρίδα κύειν ἤρξατο καὶ γίνεται παιδίον αὐτοῖς, ὃν Σαμουῆλον προσαγορεύουσι: θεαίτητον ἄν τις εἴποι. παρῆσαν οὖν ὑπὲρ τῆς τοῦ παιδὸς θύσοντες γενέσεως δεκάτας τ' ἔφερον. [347] ἀναμνησθεῖσα δ' ἡ γυνὴ τῆς εὐχῆς τῆς ἐπὶ τῷ παιδὶ γεγενημένης παρεδίδου τῷ Ἠλὶ ἀνατιθεῖσα τῷ θεῷ προφήτην γενησόμενον: κόμη τε οὖν αὐτῷ ἀνεῖτο καὶ ποτὸν ἦν ὕδωρ. καὶ Σαμουῆλος μὲν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ διῆγε τρεφόμενος, Ἀλκάνῃ δ' ἐκ τῆς Ἄννας υἱεῖς τε γίνονται καὶ τρεῖς θυγατέρες.

346 She came back to her husband full of hope, and cheerfully ate her meal; and when they returned to their own region she found herself pregnant, and a son was born to them, to whom they gave the name of Samuel, which means one asked from God. Then they came to the Tent to offer sacrifice for the birth of the child, bringing their tithes. 347 The woman remembered the vows she had made about her child and gave him over to Eli, dedicating him to God to become a prophet, so he let his hair grow long and he drank only water; and so Samuel lived and was brought up in the temple. And Alkanes had other sons by Hannah and three daughters.


4.

[348] Σαμουῆλος δὲ πεπληρωκὼς ἔτος ἤδη δωδέκατον προεφήτευε. καί ποτε κοιμώμενον ὀνομαστὶ ἐκάλεσεν ὁ θεός: ὁ δὲ νομίσας ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως πεφωνῆσθαι παραγίνεται πρὸς αὐτόν. οὐ φαμένου δὲ καλέσαι τοῦ ἀρχιερέως ὁ θεὸς εἰς τρὶς τοῦτο ποιεῖ. [349] καὶ Ἠλὶς διαυγασθείς φησι πρὸς αὐτόν, “ἀλλ' ἐγὼ [μὲν], Σαμουῆλε, σιγὴν ὡς καὶ τὸ πρὶν ἦγον, θεὸς δ' ἐστὶν ὁ καλῶν, σήμαινέ τε πρὸς αὐτόν, ὅτι παρατυγχάνω.” καὶ τοῦ θεοῦ φθεγξαμένου πάλιν ἀκούσας ἠξίου λαλεῖν ἐπὶ τοῖς χρωμένοις: οὐ γὰρ ὑστερήσειν αὐτὸν ἐφ' οἷς ἂν θελήσῃ διακονίας. [350] καὶ ὁ θεός “ἐπεί, φησί, παρατυγχάνεις, μάνθανε συμφορὰν Ἰσραηλίταις ἐσομένην λόγου μείζονα καὶ πίστεως τοῖς παρατυγχάνουσι, καὶ τοὺς Ἠλὶ δὲ παῖδας ἡμέρᾳ μιᾷ τεθνηξομένους καὶ τὴν ἱερωσύνην μετελευσομένην εἰς τὴν Ἐλεαζάρου οἰκίαν: Ἠλὶς γὰρ τῆς ἐμῆς θεραπείας μᾶλλον τοὺς υἱοὺς καὶ παρὰ [351] τὸ συμφέρον αὐτοῖς ἠγάπησε.” ταῦτα βιασάμενος ὅρκοις εἰπεῖν αὐτῷ τὸν προφήτην Ἠλίς, οὐ γὰρ ἐβούλετο λυπεῖν αὐτὸν λέγων, ἔτι μᾶλλον βεβαιοτέραν εἶχε τὴν προσδοκίαν τῆς τῶν τέκνων ἀπωλείας. Σαμουήλου δὲ ηὔξετο ἐπὶ πλέον ἡ δόξα πάντων ὧν προεφήτευσεν ἀληθινῶν βλεπομένων.

348 When Samuel was twelve years old, he began to prophesy. Once when he was asleep, God called to him by his name, and he, thinking he had been called by the high priest, came to him, but the high priest said he had not called him. And God did this three times. 349 Then Eli was inspired to say to him, "I was silent this time, Samuel, as well as before. It is God who iscalling you. Answer him and say, 'Here I am.'" When he heard God speak again, he asked him to speak whatever he pleased to him, for he would not refuse any service he wanted of him. 350 And God said, "Since you are here, learn the woes that are coming on the Israelites, which are beyond words and belief, for the sons of Eli shall die on a single day and the priesthood shall pass to the family of Eleazar. For Eli has loved his sons more than my worship and more than was good for them." 351 Eli forced the prophet under oath to tell him this message, for otherwise he did not want to grieve him by telling it; for now he expected the loss of his sons more surely than before. And Samuel's fame increased more and more, when experience proved that whatever he prophesied came true.

Chapter 11. [352-362]
Defection of Eli's sons.The Philistines capture the Ark. Eli's Death

1.

[352] Κατὰ τοῦτον δὴ τὸν καιρὸν καὶ Παλαιστῖνοι στρατεύσαντες ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἰσραηλίτας στρατοπεδεύονται κατὰ πόλιν Ἀμφεκᾶν, δεξαμένων δ' ἐξ ὀλίγου τῶν Ἰσραηλιτῶν συνῄεσαν εἰς τὴν ἐχομένην καὶ νικῶσιν οἱ Παλαιστῖνοι καὶ κτείνουσι μὲν τῶν Ἑβραίων εἰς τετρακισχιλίους, τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν πλῆθος συνδιώκουσιν εἰς τὸ στρατόπεδον.

352 About this time the Philistines made war on the Israelites and encamped at the city of Aphek. When the Israelites had waited for them a little while, they clashed the next day and the Philistines won and killed more than four thousand of the Hebrews and pursued the rest of them to their camp.


2.

[353] Δείσαντες δὲ περὶ τῶν ὅλων Ἑβραῖοι πέμπουσιν ὡς τὴν γερουσίαν καὶ τὸν ἀρχιερέα τὴν κιβωτὸν τοῦ θεοῦ κελεύοντες κομίζειν, ἵνα παρούσης αὐτῆς παρατασσόμενοι κρατῶσι τῶν πολεμίων ἀγνοοῦντες, ὅτι μείζων ἐστὶν ὁ καταψηφισάμενος αὐτῶν τὴν συμφορὰν τῆς κιβωτοῦ, δι' ὃν καὶ ταύτην συνέβαινεν εἶναι. [354] παρῆν τε οὖν ἡ κιβωτὸς καὶ οἱ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως υἱεῖς τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῖς ἐπιστείλαντος, εἰ ληφθείσης τῆς κιβωτοῦ ζῆν ἐθέλουσιν, εἰς ὄψιν αὐτῷ μὴ παραγίνεσθαι. Φινεέσης δὲ ἤδη καὶ ἱερᾶτο τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτῷ παρακεχωρηκότος διὰ τὸ γῆρας. [355] θάρσος οὖν ἐπιγίνεται πολὺ τοῖς Ἑβραίοις ὡς διὰ τὴν ἄφιξιν τῆς κιβωτοῦ περιεσομένοις τῶν πολεμίων, κατεπλήττοντο δὲ οἱ πολέμιοι δεδιότες τὴν παρουσίαν τῆς κιβωτοῦ τοῖς Ἰσραηλίταις. ταῖς μέντοι γε ἑκατέρων προσδοκίαις οὐχ ὅμοιον ἀπήντησε τὸ ἔργον, [356] ἀλλὰ συμβολῆς γενομένης ἣν μὲν ἤλπιζον νίκην Ἑβραῖοι τῶν Παλαιστίνων αὕτη γίνεται, ἣν δ' ἐφοβοῦντο ἧτταν οὗτοι ταύτην Ἑβραῖοι παθόντες ἔγνωσαν αὐτοὺς μάτην ἐπὶ τῇ κιβωτῷ τεθαρσηκότας: ἐτράπησάν τε γὰρ εὐθὺς εἰς χεῖρας ἐλθόντες τῶν πολεμίων καὶ ἀπέβαλον εἰς τρισμυρίους, ἐν οἷς ἔπεσον καὶ οἱ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως υἱεῖς, ἥ τε κιβωτὸς ἤγετο πρὸς τῶν πολεμίων.

353 Fearing to lose all, the Hebrews sent to the elders and the high priest asking them to bring the ark of God, so that lining up for battle in its presence they could defeat the enemy, not reflecting that He who had condemned them to these woes was greater than the ark, and that it was for his sake this ark came to be honoured. 354 So the ark came and with it the sons of the high priest, having been told by their father that if they tried to survive the capture of the ark, they should no longer come into his presence, for already Phineas officiated as high priest, since his father had passed on his office to him, because of his great age. 355 So the Hebrews were much encouraged, expecting to defeat their enemies because the the ark's arrival. The enemy was greatly concerned and afraid of the ark's coming to the Israelites. 356 However, the upshot did not turn out as both sides expected, for when the battle took place, the victory the Hebrews expected was gained by the Philistines and the defeat feared by the Philistines fell on the Israelites. They found that they had trusted in the ark in vain, for they were defeated as soon as they came to grips with the enemy and lost about thirty thousand men, among them the sons of the high priest, and the ark was carried away to their enemies.


3.

[357] Ἀπαγγελθείσης δὲ τῆς ἥττης εἰς τὴν Σιλὼ καὶ τῆς αἰχμαλωσίας τῆς κιβωτοῦ, Βενιαμίτης γάρ τις αὐτοῖς ἄγγελος ἀφικνεῖται νεανίας παρατετευχὼς τῷ γεγονότι, πένθους ἀνεπλήσθη πᾶσα ἡ πόλις. [358] καὶ Ἠλὶς ὁ ἀρχιερεύς, ἐκαθέζετο γὰρ καθ' ἑτέρας τῶν πυλῶν ἐφ' ὑψηλοῦ θρόνου, ἀκούσας οἰμωγῆς καὶ νομίσας νεώτερόν τι πεπρᾶχθαι περὶ τοὺς οἰκείους καὶ μεταπεμψάμενος τὸν νεανίαν, ὡς ἔγνω τὰ κατὰ τὴν μάχην, ῥᾴων ἦν ἐπὶ τὸ τοῖς παισὶ τοῖς αὐτοῦ συνενηνεγμένοις περὶ τὸ στρατόπεδον ὡς ἂν προεγνωκὼς παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ τὸ συμβησόμενον καὶ προαπηγγελκώς: συνέχει γὰρ ἀκριβῶς τὰ κατὰ προσδοκίαν συντυχόντα τῶν δεινῶν. [359] ὡς δὲ καὶ τὴν κιβωτὸν ἤκουσεν ᾐχμαλωτίσθαι πρὸς τῶν πολεμίων, ὑπὸ τοῦ παρ' ἐλπίδας αὐτῷ τοῦτο προσπεσεῖν περιαλγήσας ἀποκυλισθεὶς ἀπὸ τοῦ θρόνου τελευτᾷ, ὀκτὼ καὶ ἐνενήκοντα βιώσας ἔτη τὰ πάντα καὶ τούτων τεσσαράκοντα κατασχὼν τὴν ἀρχήν.

357 When this defeat was reported in Shiloh, with news of the taking of the ark, for a young man of Benjamin who took part in the action came there with the news, the whole city was full of grief. 358 Eli, the high priest, who sat on a high throne at one of the gates, heard their mournful cries and guessed that some odd thing had happened to his family. So he sent for the young man, and when he learned of the battle, he was patient about the fate of his sons and what what had happened to the army, having known in advance from God that those things would happen and having predicted them, for people are more affected when shocks come unexpectedly. 359 But when he heard that the ark had been captured by the enemy, he was so heartbroken and despairing that he he fell from his throne and died, having lived ninety eight years in all, and had held the leadership for forty of them.


4.

[360] Θνήσκει δὲ κατ' ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν καὶ ἡ Φινεέσου τοῦ παιδὸς γυνὴ μὴ καρτερήσασα ζῆν ἐπὶ τῇ τἀνδρὸς δυστυχίᾳ. κυούσῃ μὲν αὐτῇ προσηγγέλη τὸ περὶ τὸν ἄνδρα πάθος, τίκτει δ' ἑπταμηνιαῖον παῖδα, ὃν καὶ ζήσαντα Ἰαχώβην προσηγόρευσαν, σημαίνει δὲ ἀδοξίαν τὸ ὄνομα, διὰ τὴν προσπεσοῦσαν δύσκλειαν τότε τῷ στρατῷ.

360 On the same day his son Phineas's wife also died, unable to survive her husband's misfortune. They told her of her husband's death as she was in labour and she bore a son at seven months, who lived and to whom they gave the name of Icabod, which means disgrace, because the army suffered disgrace at this time.


5.

[361] Ἦρξε δὲ πρῶτος Ἠλὶς Ἰθαμάρου τῆς ἑτέρου τῶν Ἀαρῶνος υἱῶν οἰκίας: ἡ γὰρ Ἐλεαζάρου οἰκία τὸ πρῶτον ἱερᾶτο παῖς παρὰ πατρὸς ἐπιδεχόμενοι τὴν τιμήν, ἐκεῖνός τε Φινεέσῃ τῷ παιδὶ αὐτοῦ παραδίδωσι, [362] μεθ' ὃν Ἀβιεζέρης υἱὸς ὢν αὐτοῦ τὴν τιμὴν παραλαβὼν παιδὶ αὐτοῦ Βόκκι τοὔνομα αὐτὴν κατέλιπε, παρ' οὗ διεδέξατο Ὄζις υἱὸς ὤν, μεθ' ὃν Ἠλὶς ἔσχε τὴν ἱερωσύνην, περὶ οὗ νῦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ τὸ γένος τὸ ἀπ' ἐκείνου μέχρι τῶν κατὰ τὴν τοῦ Σολομῶνος βασιλείαν καιρῶν. τότε δὲ οἱ Ἐλεαζάρου πάλιν αὐτὴν ἀπέλαβον.

361 Eli was the first of the family of Ithamar, Aaron's other son, to hold the leadership, for the family of Eleazar had originally held the high priesthood, each son receiving from his father the honour which Eleazar bequeathed to his son Phineas, 362 whose son Abiezer held it after him and passed it on to his son, Bukki, from whom his son Ozi inherited it; after whom Eli, of whom we have been speaking, held the priesthood and so he and his descendants until the time of Solomon's reign, but then the descendants of Eleazar got it back again.